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A few real world examples of using tcptraceroute to trace through
firewalls that traceroute(8) has trouble with. These are all sites
that pass TCP SYN packets on to hosts sitting on the clean side of the
firewall, and which don't filter ICMP time exceeded messages leaving
their network. All examples listed below were captured on July 1st.
-- Michael C. Toren <mct@toren.net> Sun, 1 Jul 2001 21:25:26 -0400
pages.ebay.com, a classic firewalled webserver:
[mct@quint ~]$ traceroute -w2 -q1 -f 5 pages.ebay.com
traceroute to pages.ebay.com (216.32.120.133), 30 hops max, 38 byte packets
5 core2-abov-ds3.b2.iad.netaxs.net (207.106.127.130) 10.390 ms
6 core1-mae-e-gige-1.mae-e.iad.netaxs.net (207.106.127.101) 14.310 ms
7 core1-core3-fe-1.mae-e.iad.netaxs.net (207.106.31.28) 9.935 ms
8 250.ATM3-0.BR3.DCA6.ALTER.NET (137.39.92.25) 14.727 ms
9 0.so-3-1-0.XL1.DCA6.ALTER.NET (152.63.38.118) 18.766 ms
10 0.so-7-0-0.XR1.DCA6.ALTER.NET (152.63.38.86) 22.659 ms
11 0.so-3-0-0.TR1.DCA6.ALTER.NET (152.63.11.97) 15.002 ms
12 121.at-5-0-0.TR1.SAC1.ALTER.NET (152.63.2.178) 120.593 ms
13 297.ATM7-0.XR1.SFO4.ALTER.NET (152.63.51.5) 123.571 ms
14 191.ATM7-0.GW8.SJC2.ALTER.NET (152.63.49.245) 130.606 ms
15 *
16 *
17 *
[mct@quint ~]$ tcptraceroute -f 5 pages.ebay.com
Selected device eth0, address 207.8.132.210, port 1056 for outgoing packets
Tracing the path to pages.ebay.com (216.32.120.133) on TCP port 80 (www), 30 hops max
5 core2-abov-ds3.b2.iad.netaxs.net (207.106.127.130) 10.849 ms
6 core1-mae-e-gige-1.mae-e.iad.netaxs.net (207.106.127.101) 105.601 ms
7 core1-core3-fe-1.mae-e.iad.netaxs.net (207.106.31.28) 19.929 ms
8 250.ATM3-0.BR3.DCA6.ALTER.NET (137.39.92.25) 16.123 ms
9 0.so-3-1-0.XL1.DCA6.ALTER.NET (152.63.38.118) 14.717 ms
10 0.so-7-0-0.XR1.DCA6.ALTER.NET (152.63.38.86) 22.183 ms
11 0.so-3-0-0.TR1.DCA6.ALTER.NET (152.63.11.97) 18.194 ms
12 121.at-5-0-0.TR1.SAC1.ALTER.NET (152.63.2.178) 101.491 ms
13 297.ATM7-0.XR1.SFO4.ALTER.NET (152.63.51.5) 110.817 ms
14 191.ATM7-0.GW8.SJC2.ALTER.NET (152.63.49.245) 113.841 ms
15 ebay-oc12-gw.customer.alter.net (157.130.209.10) 121.632 ms
16 10.128.1.42 (10.128.1.42) 109.132 ms
17 pages.ebay.com (216.32.120.133) [open] 115.378 ms
www.microsoft.com, another classic firewalled webserver:
[mct@quint ~]$ traceroute -w2 -q1 -f 5 www.microsoft.com
traceroute: Warning: www.microsoft.com has multiple addresses; using 207.46.197.100
traceroute to www.microsoft.akadns.net (207.46.197.100), 30 hops max, 38 byte packets
5 baltimore.balt-core.h0-0-45M.netaxs.net (207.106.2.18) 17.560 ms
6 blt-dc.dc-core.h5-0-45M.netaxs.net (207.106.2.2) 27.769 ms
7 core1-core3-fe-1.mae-e.iad.netaxs.net (207.106.31.28) 28.802 ms
8 250.ATM3-0.BR3.DCA6.ALTER.NET (137.39.92.25) 27.934 ms
9 0.so-3-1-0.XL2.DCA6.ALTER.NET (152.63.38.122) 24.210 ms
10 0.so-0-0-0.XR2.DCA6.ALTER.NET (152.63.35.117) 35.693 ms
11 0.so-4-0-0.TR2.DCA6.ALTER.NET (152.63.11.93) 22.170 ms
12 121.at-1-1-0.TR2.SEA1.ALTER.NET (146.188.140.78) 94.099 ms
13 0.so-1-0-0.XL2.SEA1.ALTER.NET (152.63.106.237) 101.325 ms
14 POS7-0.GW4.SEA1.ALTER.NET (146.188.201.53) 91.887 ms
15 microsoftoc48-gw.customer.alter.net (157.130.184.26) 89.536 ms
16 *
17 *
18 *
[mct@quint ~]$ tcptraceroute -f 5 207.46.197.100
Selected device eth0, address 207.8.132.210, port 1058 for outgoing packets
Tracing the path to 207.46.197.100 on TCP port 80 (www), 30 hops max
5 baltimore.balt-core.h0-0-45M.netaxs.net (207.106.2.18) 9.430 ms
6 blt-dc.dc-core.h5-0-45M.netaxs.net (207.106.2.2) 17.514 ms
7 core1-core3-fe-1.mae-e.iad.netaxs.net (207.106.31.28) 23.256 ms
8 250.ATM3-0.BR3.DCA6.ALTER.NET (137.39.92.25) 30.819 ms
9 0.so-3-1-0.XL2.DCA6.ALTER.NET (152.63.38.122) 26.605 ms
10 0.so-0-0-0.XR2.DCA6.ALTER.NET (152.63.35.117) 38.700 ms
11 0.so-4-0-0.TR2.DCA6.ALTER.NET (152.63.11.93) 31.402 ms
12 121.at-1-1-0.TR2.SEA1.ALTER.NET (146.188.140.78) 93.992 ms
13 0.so-1-0-0.XL2.SEA1.ALTER.NET (152.63.106.237) 105.176 ms
14 POS7-0.GW4.SEA1.ALTER.NET (146.188.201.53) 86.524 ms
15 microsoftoc48-gw.customer.alter.net (157.130.184.26) 85.916 ms
16 207.46.129.51 (207.46.129.51) 84.920 ms
17 microsoft.com (207.46.197.100) [open] 85.344 ms
odc-t.ankara.af.mil, a firewalled mail server:
[mct@quint ~]$ traceroute -w2 -q1 -f 5 odc-t.ankara.af.mil
traceroute to odc-t.ankara.af.mil (207.133.163.7), 30 hops max, 38 byte packets
5 nyc-l3.nyc-core.h3-0-45M.netaxs.net (207.106.127.18) 7.277 ms
6 nyc-pos-l.netaxs.net (207.106.3.133) 11.803 ms
7 mae-east.dc-core.netaxs.net (207.106.31.29) 18.922 ms
8 netaxs-core3.iad.above.net (209.249.119.233) 19.200 ms
9 core1-core3-oc48.iad1.above.net (209.249.203.34) 11.942 ms
10 sjc2-iad1-oc48.sjc2.above.net (216.200.127.26) 80.741 ms
11 core5-sjc2-oc48-2.sjc1.above.net (208.184.102.205) 80.829 ms
12 core2-sjc1-oc3.sjc6.above.net (207.126.96.106) 81.621 ms
13 fix-west-pilot-fddi2.disa.mil (198.32.136.88) 93.961 ms
14 137.209.200.207 (137.209.200.207) 99.437 ms
15 206.38.100.2 (206.38.100.2) 258.541 ms
16 140.35.16.18 (140.35.16.18) 373.297 ms
17 198.26.165.18 (198.26.165.18) 373.686 ms
18 *
19 *
20 *
21 *
[mct@quint ~]$ tcptraceroute -f 5 odc-t.ankara.af.mil smtp
Selected device eth0, address 207.8.132.210, port 1150 for outgoing packets
Tracing the path to odc-t.ankara.af.mil (207.133.163.7) on TCP port 25 (smtp), 30 hops max
5 nyc-l3.nyc-core.h3-0-45M.netaxs.net (207.106.127.18) 9.456 ms
6 nyc-pos-l.netaxs.net (207.106.3.133) 11.762 ms
7 mae-east.dc-core.netaxs.net (207.106.31.29) 11.958 ms
8 netaxs-core3.iad.above.net (209.249.119.233) 11.791 ms
9 core1-core3-oc48.iad1.above.net (209.249.203.34) 12.510 ms
10 sjc2-iad1-oc48.sjc2.above.net (216.200.127.26) 80.335 ms
11 core5-sjc2-oc48-2.sjc1.above.net (208.184.102.205) 81.364 ms
12 core2-sjc1-oc3.sjc6.above.net (207.126.96.106) 83.107 ms
13 fix-west-pilot-fddi2.disa.mil (198.32.136.88) 76.092 ms
14 137.209.200.207 (137.209.200.207) 99.776 ms
15 206.38.100.2 (206.38.100.2) 252.840 ms
16 140.35.16.18 (140.35.16.18) 370.720 ms
17 198.26.165.18 (198.26.165.18) 485.771 ms
18 odctfw.ankara.af.mil (207.133.163.161) 443.782 ms
19 odc-t.ankara.af.mil (207.133.163.7) [open] 745.611 ms
tcptraceroute-1.3beta1 added support for controlling the SYN and ACK
flags used in outgoing probe packets through the -S and -A command line
arguments. By utilizing probe packets with the ACK bit set, it is
possible to traceroute to hosts located behind stateless firewalls that
block all inbound TCP connections, but permit those hosts to establish
outbound connections. Below are two examples of such behavior,
recorded on August 15th, 2001.
-- Michael C. Toren <mct@toren.net> Sun, 29 Jun 2003 17:18:41 -0400
Tracing to a host protected by a Linux 2.2 ipchains firewall:
[mct@quint ~]$ tcptraceroute -f7 -q1 argo.starforce.com
Selected device eth0, address 207.8.132.210, port 3738 for outgoing packets
Tracing the path to argo.starforce.com (216.158.56.82) on TCP port 80 (www), 30 hops max
7 voicenet-gw.core-1-hssi-6-0-0-50.oldcity.dca.net (207.103.28.30) 69.252 ms
8 node-150-eth3-0-local.oldcity.dca.net (207.245.82.150) 16.216 ms
9 *
10 *
11 *
[mct@quint ~]$ tcptraceroute -f7 -q1 -A argo.starforce.com
Selected device eth0, address 207.8.132.210, port 3747 for outgoing packets
Tracing the path to argo.starforce.com (216.158.56.82) on TCP port 80 (www), 30 hops max
7 voicenet-gw.core-1-hssi-6-0-0-50.oldcity.dca.net (207.103.28.30) 11.030 ms
8 node-150-eth3-0-local.oldcity.dca.net (207.245.82.150) 24.488 ms
9 argo.starforce.com (216.158.56.82) [closed] 1514.142 ms
Tracing to falkland, a host behind jumpgate, a Cisco router with the
following access-list:
access-list 100 permit tcp any any established
access-list 100 deny ip any any
[mct@quint ~]$ tcptraceroute -q1 falkland
Selected device eth0, address 207.8.132.210, port 3771 for outgoing packets
Tracing the path to falkland (207.106.130.86) on TCP port 80 (www), 30 hops max
1 jumpgate.netisland.net (207.106.130.81) 2.111 ms
2 *
3 *
4 *
[mct@quint ~]$ tcptraceroute -q1 -A falkland
Selected device eth0, address 207.8.132.210, port 3773 for outgoing packets
Tracing the path to falkland (207.106.130.86) on TCP port 80 (www), 30 hops max
1 jumpgate.netisland.net (207.106.130.81) 2.044 ms
2 falkland.netisland.net (207.106.130.86) [closed] 4.635 ms
Another example of tracing to a host protected by a stateless firewall, which
permits hosts behind it to make outbound TCP connections:
[mct@ellesmere ~]$ tcptraceroute -q1 -f9 uunet1.fe.weather.com
Selected device eth0, address 209.163.107.174, port 35833 for outgoing packets
Tracing the path to uunet1.fe.weather.com (63.111.66.2) on TCP port 80 (www), 30 hops max
9 0.so-3-1-0.XL2.ATL5.ALTER.NET (152.63.0.238) 32.925 ms
10 0.so-7-0-0.XR2.ATL5.ALTER.NET (152.63.85.194) 32.765 ms
11 110.at-5-1-0.WR1.ATL5.ALTER.NET (152.63.3.58) 32.941 ms
12 pos6-0.ur1.atl7.web.wcom.net (157.130.216.50) 32.781 ms
13 198.5.128.134 32.802 ms
14 *
15 *
16 *
[mct@ellesmere ~]$ tcptraceroute -q1 -f9 -A uunet1.fe.weather.com
Selected device eth0, address 209.163.107.174, port 35834 for outgoing packets
Tracing the path to uunet1.fe.weather.com (63.111.66.2) on TCP port 80 (www), 30 hops max
9 0.so-3-1-0.XL2.ATL5.ALTER.NET (152.63.0.238) 32.704 ms
10 0.so-7-0-0.XR2.ATL5.ALTER.NET (152.63.85.194) 32.665 ms
11 110.at-5-1-0.WR1.ATL5.ALTER.NET (152.63.3.58) 32.996 ms
12 pos6-0.ur1.atl7.web.wcom.net (157.130.216.50) 32.779 ms
13 198.5.128.134 33.122 ms
14 uunet1.fe.weather.com (63.111.66.2) [closed] 33.399 ms
tcptraceroute-1.5beta6 added the --dnat detection support, to detect
DNAT devices which do not correctly rewrite the IP address of the IP
packets quoted in ICMP time-exceeded messages tcptraceroute solicits,
revealing the destination IP address an outbound probe packet was NATed
to. Below are examples of using --dnat to determine the IP address our
probe packets are being NATed to, recorded on March 28th, 2006.
-- Michael C. Toren <mct@toren.net> Tue, 28 Mar 2006 23:40:54 -0500
[mct@ellesmere ~]$ tcptraceroute -q1 -f5 --track-port --dnat pages.ebay.com
Selected device eth0, address 209.163.107.174 for outgoing packets
Tracing the path to pages.ebay.com (66.135.192.87) on TCP port 80 (www), 30 hops max
5 equinix-chaz.coretel.net (209.163.107.121) 5.288 ms
6 gsr12012.ash.he.net (206.223.137.132) 5.610 ms
7 pos3-3.gsr12416.pao.he.net (216.218.254.205) 88.611 ms
8 pao1-br01.net.ebay.com (198.32.176.56) 88.637 ms
9 10.6.1.133 90.605 ms
10 ge2-7-snv1-xr01.net.ebay.com (66.135.207.54) 91.667 ms
11 10.6.1.74 92.471 ms
Detected DNAT to 10.6.35.86
12 10.6.105.8 91.187 ms
13 pages.ebay.com (66.135.192.87) [open] 91.908 ms
[mct@ellesmere ~]$ tcptraceroute -q1 -f8 --dnat magicpipe.no-ip.com 22
Selected device eth0, address 209.163.107.174, port 40857 for outgoing packets
Tracing the path to magicpipe.no-ip.com (69.142.94.59) on TCP port 22 (ssh), 30 hops max
8 tbr2-cl15.n54ny.ip.att.net (12.122.10.53) 12.965 ms
9 gar7-p390.n54ny.ip.att.net (12.123.3.85) 79.347 ms
10 12.118.102.22 12.430 ms
11 te-8-1-ar01.plainfield.nj.panjde.comcast.net (68.86.211.1) 12.425 ms
12 po80-ar01.audubon.nj.panjde.comcast.net (68.86.208.2) 14.968 ms
13 po10-ar01.wallingford.pa.panjde.comcast.net (68.86.208.26) 16.521 ms
14 po90-ur02.wallingford.pa.panjde.comcast.net (68.86.208.189) 16.356 ms
15 *
Detected DNAT to 192.168.1.100
16 c-69-142-94-59.hsd1.pa.comcast.net (69.142.94.59) 24.674 ms
17 c-69-142-94-59.hsd1.pa.comcast.net (69.142.94.59) [open] 25.230 ms
(The timeout on the 15th hop is normal behavior on Comcast's
network, and is unrelated to tcptraceroute.)