Tools for generating and decoding error-correcting DNA barcodes
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Readme.md

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This python module generates, checks, and corrects quaternary Hamming barcodes. The theory for generating quaternary (DNA) Hamming barcodes comes from the publication Bystrykh, L. V. (2012). Generalized DNA Barcode Design Based on Hamming Codes. PLoS ONE. Currently, the hamstring module only works with Hamming7,4 encoding, but may be generalized to other sizes of data and parity bits.

Figure1 Bystrykh et al.

Usage

Generate Hamming DNA barcodes

generateBarcodes.py [-h] out

arguments:
  out         output barcode file name
  -h, --help  show this help message and exit
  -p PARITY, --parity PARITY
                    length of the parity bit e.g. 4 for Hamming8,4.
                    default=3

example output:

index base4 nucleotide gc
0 0000000 AAAAAAA 0.0
1 3303001 TTATAAC 0.14
2 2202002 GGAGAAG 0.57
3 1101003 CCACAAT 0.43
4 0303010 ATATACA 0.14

Checksum a list of Hamming DNA barcodes

checkBarcodes.py [-h] list

arguments:
  list        list of barcodes to check, one per line
  -h, --help  show this help message and exit
  -p PARITY, --parity PARITY
                    length of the parity bit e.g. 4 for Hamming8,4.
                    default=3

example output:

in	fixed	checksum
CATAACT	CAAAACT	A > T at pos 3
AGAGAGA	AGAGAGA	ok
TCACAGC	TCACAGC	ok
GAACAGG	GAAAAGG	A > C at pos 4
CTATAGT	CTATAGT	ok
TTTAAAN	NNNNNNN	bad
NNNNNNN	NNNNNNN	bad

Tag fastq reads with a barcode (for generating a simulated dataset)

tagReads.py [-h] -e nb fastq out

arguments:
  nb          number of barcodes to generate
  fastq       fastq file to process
  out         name for new fastq file
  -e, --erate error rate for single barcode base errors. default=0.05
  -p PARITY, --parity PARITY
                    length of the parity bit e.g. 4 for Hamming8,4.
                    default=3
  -h, --help  show this help message and exit

example input:

@HWI-EAS179_0001:5:1:7:119#0/1
CAGGGCGCGAATGNTTTGAGAGGGANATTGGAAANNNNNGATAGANNGGNCTATNNTGNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
+
HIHHHGHHHFDHH#EHHH?HHHDH>#DGGG@7@?##########################################

example output:

@HWI-EAS179_0001:5:1:7:119#0/1
CCATGGCCAGGGCGCGAATGNTTTGAGAGGGANATTGGAAANNNNNGATAGANNGGNCTATNNTGNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
+
HHHHHHHHIHHHGHHHFDHH#EHHH?HHHDH>#DGGG@7@?##########################################

Check and fix barcodes in fastq file

fixFastq.py [-h] [-s] list fastq out

arguments:
  list        list of barcodes used in experiment, one per line
  fastq       fastq file to process
  out         name for new fastq file
  -s, --strict  change all barcodes not in list to 'N'
  -h, --help  show this help message and exit

example input:

@HWI-EAS179_0001:5:1:7:119#0/1
GCATGGCCAGGGCGCGAATGNTTTGAGAGGGANATTGGAAANNNNNGATAGANNGGNCTATNNTGNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
+
HHHHHHHHIHHHGHHHFDHH#EHHH?HHHDH>#DGGG@7@?##########################################

example output:

@HWI-EAS179_0001:5:1:7:119#0/1
CCATGGCCAGGGCGCGAATGNTTTGAGAGGGANATTGGAAANNNNNGATAGANNGGNCTATNNTGNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
+
HHHHHHHHIHHHGHHHFDHH#EHHH?HHHDH>#DGGG@7@?##########################################

Requirements

  • Python 2.7 or Python 3.2+

Hamstring Module

The core hamstring module has no external module dependencies and should run under any OS.

base4Encode(n,d) is used to convert decimal notation n to quaternary notation with d leading digits. example:

hamstring.base4Encode(22, 4)
[0, 1, 1, 2]

generateHamming(data,parity) is used to generate DNA quaternary Hamming codes from list of quaternary digits data with parity number of parity bits. example:

>>> generateHamming([0,1,1,2], 3)
Barcode(base4='1100112', nucleotide='CCAACCG', gc=0.71)

>>> generateHamming([0,1,1,2], 4)
Barcode(base4='11001122', nucleotide='CCAACCGG', gc=0.75)

decodeHamming(barcode,parity) is used to decode barcode nucleotide Hamming string with parity number of parity bits, and perform error correction if needed. example:

>>> decodeHamming('CCAACCG', 3)
CheckedBarcode(nucleotide='CCAACCG', chksum='ok')

>>> decodeHamming('CCAACCGG', 4)
CheckedBarcode(nucleotide='CCAACCGG', chksum='ok')

>>> decodeHamming('CCATCCG', 3)
CheckedBarcode(nucleotide='CCAACCG', chksum='A > T at pos 4')

>>> decodeHamming('CCATCCGG', 4)
CheckedBarcode(nucleotide='CCAACCGG', chksum='A > T at pos 4')

>>> decodeHamming('TCATCCGG', 4)
CheckedBarcode(nucleotide='NNNNNNNN', chksum='bad')

Author

Matt Shirley - mdshw5'at'gmail'.'com - http://mattshirley.com