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CI 4311W - Technology & Ethics in Society

Spring 2016 * Sections 001 (online)

Facilitator

Bodong Chen, Ph.D.
Office Location: LTML, 210 Learning and Environmental Science Building, St. Paul
Office Hours: By Appointment
Office phone/Voicemail: 612-626-2050
E-mail: chenbd@umn.edu

Course Description & Outcomes

Technology is pervasive in contemporary society, affecting virtually every facet of human existence. It is commonplace in homes. It has transformed work and communities, and even impacted the meaning of the word community. It has made the world smaller through advances in communication and afforded new ways to interact with others – think of email, social media and free real-time video chat. Despite the fact that it is so central to our lives, we often take technology for granted. Technology as a broad subject is often thought of only as "computers", ignoring phones, vehicles, or design methods -- and we seldom have an opportunity to reflect upon these influences in our lives. This course is designed to encourage such reflection by inviting you into a deeper discourse on technology, its impacts, and what relationship ethics has to technology and society.

Liberal education (LE) is an essential part of your educational experience at the University of Minnesota. LE courses help you investigate the world from new perspectives, learn ways of thinking that will be useful to you in many areas of your life, and grow as an active citizen and lifelong learner. This course fulfills the LE Civic Life and Ethics Theme requirement and is premised upon the assumption that good citizenship calls for a critical understanding of technology as it impacts us in our day-to-day world. The course’s design explores, analyzes, and critically examines the uses of technology in education, global society, and the lives of individuals. Many advancing technologies, such as the Internet, present tremendous value to improve peoples’ lives across the globe. It is shortsighted to ignore potential threats that unethical use or misuse of technology bring in terms of cultural impacts, equity of distribution/access to knowledge, and on the rights of individuals (e.g. privacy and the potential for abuse of personal data). The course’s design enables a learning experience that values and challenges each individual’s prior knowledge, while encouraging critical reflection upon the relationships that learners see and discover between technological innovations, the lives of individuals, and implications for our global society.

To facilitate your understanding of relevant readings and concepts, meaningful connections to your real life are enabled through the use of actual news stories and case studies drawn from various media. Course activities provide intentionally designed opportunities for critical inquiry through multiple viewpoints and independent thinking while encouraging authentic learning and self-expression in a mutually respectful climate. You should consider yourself enabled to apply your growing knowledge through multimedia presentations, essays, and interactive group discussions. Demonstration of mutual respect inside and outside the class involves students communicating your viewpoints in a democratic, respectful manner as well as doing original work with proper attribution of the references cited.

You will be guided towards, and supported in, the development of your own informed opinions and positions on contemporary issues that:

  • Ground the ethical use and development of technology within historical contexts;
  • Examine the proposition of looking at technology through ethical lenses;
  • Examine ontological impacts of technology on human existence;
  • Examine ideas surrounding digital citizenship;
  • Examine ethical issues raised in specific cases of technology use gone awry;
  • Debate the prospect of limits on technology; and
  • Discuss considerations surrounding technological innovation in a global society.

Course Web Site

You will be responsible for becoming familiar with the course website, as this will be our means of interacting and communicating throughout the course. The website is hosted on Canvas. (Before your first access of the site, you may need to respond to an invitation sent to whatever email address you used to register with OneStop.) Please bookmark the site address in your browser.

Some of you may have used Moodle, Ning or other online course management sites before. I am moving the course into Canvas to enable ongoing conversations and social interactions between and among all of us, while also providing an easy way to access grades, use a Calendar, and enable group discussions. To become familiar with this new technology, take a Canvas student tour.

Course Structure

Textbook

There is no required textbook that you must purchase for this course.

Readings

This course requires intensive reading. All of the readings will be provided and available for you via our course website; however, a limited number of readings will be available at any one time. The readings noted below in the syllabus should all be considered as subject to change; with the rapid pace of change inherent to technology, it may work best to use brand new material unavailable at the time of this writing.

Class Sessions

This course is scheduled to meet online only. There will be no required, in person face-to-face sessions. Please be aware that there will be multiple assignments in order to complete the requirements for this writing-intensive course. Our learning together in this online community will be fun and highly interactive, but it does require that you are very self-motivated in order to stay on top of assignments and coursework. First, you will respond to questions and interact with your classmates based on new readings that will be assigned each class (there will be 14 "class sessions") using various online tools that will be explained to you. Additionally, you will have a list of the main writing assignments, which you can continue to work on until each one is complete and submitted. There is a due date for each of these writing assignments to keep you on track.

Student Internet Access

This course will require that you have ready and reliable access to the Internet for all communications and course work. All registered University of Minnesota students are currently provided an e-mail address and you should either use it consistently or have it forwarded to the email address you regularly use. We will be communicating throughout the course both via the course website and email.

Technology

You will need to become very well versed with several technology applications for this course.

First of all, We will be using Canvas for our course website. As part of the University of Minnesota’s ongoing mission to review and evaluate emerging instructional technology, the University of Minnesota is conducting a pilot to assess Canvas as a learning management system (LMS). Our Spring 2016 class section is part of a small pilot and will use the Canvas learning management system (instead of Moodle).

Since this is a pilot, you will not be able to find Canvas through your MyU account. You may wish to add the Canvas login link to your bookmarks/favorites: https://umn.instructure.com Our weekly discussions will take place primarily through discussion forum in Canvas, so please make yourself familiar with its functionalities.

If you need help using Canvas, here are some resources:

You will also need to be able to understand and implement hypermedia software (i.e., Microsoft Word, Adobe Acrobat, Microsoft PowerPoint, and/or Google Docs).

Additionally, we will use FlipGrid, a video-based messaging system, periodically. Please ensure you have consistent access to a webcam, microphone and are comfortable with their use. It is worth noting that there is now a free iOS Flipgrid app which you are welcome to use.

Class Participation

Active engagement in interactions with your peers is essential for meaningful learning to occur in the online environment. I will be encouraging such interactions through various discussion assignments based on the readings. I, as the instructor, may post weekly questions related to the readings. But you, as the owner of your own learning, are expected to take a proactive role in initiating and sustaining conversations with the class as a community. Your meaningful participation is key in order to receive full credit.

Assignments and Grades (All assignments are subject to change!)

  • CI 4311W is established as a critique and analysis of values and ethical issues related to technology and its role in society. Since this course is writing intensive, it will require that your written work reflect sound evidence of such personal introductory exploration or critique. Please see "Class Assignment Overviews" for additional details on differences in assignment requirements.
CI 4311W Assignments Points
Weekly Class Discussions/Reactions to Course Readings (10 points x 14 sessions) 140
Initial exploration project – topic of your choice 100
Continuing project – topic of your choice 100
Literature Review 100
Total 440

Class Assignment Overview

1. Class Discussions/Reactions to Course Readings

Your consistently active, engaged participation within this class is of utmost importance. Active class participation and contribution is necessary for full credit. To be of the useful and valuable for you, informed opinions are requisite. It will be important for us to allow each member of the class to express views, even when such views are not in accord with our own. You are cautioned to use good taste and judgment with respect to what is stated or presented in class. It is very important that you participate in each discussion AFTER completing your readings with an open mind for discussing and debating the many issues within. If you keep up with the readings and engage fully in the discussions, you will have the best experience!

During class discussion, reflective, thoughtful debates of groups with alternative perspectives will be encouraged as a dynamic interchange of ideas and viewpoints occurs in a communicative, democratic environment. Thoughtful, democratic, respectful debate will be a common occurrence throughout the course.

Meanwhile, I encourage you consider our class as a learning community, in which discussion is a means for the community to become more knowledgeable as a collective. Debates are not carried out for winning, but to build more advanced knowledge together.

Please consider Mondays as our official course "meeting day" just like you would if this were a Face to Face course. As such, all of our class discussions/reflections will be due by 6:00PM EACH Monday unless otherwise noted.

2. Student Projects

Based on former student input and critically considering how best to facilitate deeper discussions of the readings and materials, the writing projects for this course are being significantly overhauled from times previous. In the new model, you’ll be picking a topic at the beginning of the course that you’re passionate about, and you’ll be encouraged (but not strictly required) to pursue that topic in different contexts as we move through the course together. Example topics will be provided, and you’re encouraged to come up with something on your own.

Additionally, there is a new peer review aspect to the course. This is to facilitate deeper discussions between you and another student, and provide an opportunity to practice another variation of ethical behavior in an online environment. A really nice video about being a Peer Reviewer can be found here, and I’d recommend watching it even if you’ve been a peer reviewer before. You will be assigned a peer reviewer (or reviewers if necessary to ensure no one is left out) from our course roster.

Submissions for a paper-style project should include the document (as outlined below). For a multimedia project with large files (>15MB), please include the links to the main part of the project, with script and supporting materials to be included directly.

2.1. Initial Exploration of a Topic of Your Choice

You will create a project on a technology topic that interests you and holds several ethical implications as it affects society today, and frame your initial exploration based on readings and discussions from the first five class meetings. Example topics picked by former students included hydrogen-powered cars, cyberbulling, surveillance, Ebola drugs, etc. You are welcome to draw upon your own personal experiences or information available on the Internet for background information, but please note you’ll need to reference at least one course reading too. While it is not required, I hope you’ll consider this an opportunity to get out of your "comfort zone" and challenge yourself!

  1. You can elect to author an essay with the following requirements:
  2. Length between 4-5 pages long and written in APA format, double-spaced, 12-point font, with standard 1-inch margins. For your convenience, I recommend using the Word template or the Google Doc template as your starting point.
  3. Submissions are requested as Word document (.doc or .docx) or PDF file types – and please ensure the file is saved as [yourlastname][firstinitial]_Project1_[course number]_[section number]. For example, if I were submitting a paper, it might be ChenB_Project1_CI4311_001.
  4. Inclusion of a reference/works cited page—but these do not count in your 4-5 pages. In-text citations and a formal reference list in APA format are an important part of your paper and an ethical requirement.
  5. Graphics are encouraged to better convey your understanding.
  6. Develop a multimedia project that better demonstrates your thinking about the topic at hand and/or adds to the viewer’s experience of your topic. However, this is a writing course, so keep that in mind as you consider the requirements:
  7. These projects could take the form of a staged debate between two people, a video, original artwork, original music or others.
  8. The project must be accompanied by a script, complete with citations, a reference list, and a reflection of your depth of understanding and thinking on the topic.
  9. You may complete this project individually or as a group, but with a group you’ll need to accommodate the need for everyone to demonstrate their work.
  10. You are encouraged to use graphics or mixed media – but be sure to cite the sources you draw from in appropriate APA style.

Regardless of format (paper or multimedia project), you will be required to:

  1. Show how the peer review process was engaged, and how it informed the submitted project.
  2. Be sure to draw at least two references total from our first five course readings/discussions in meaningful ways.

2.2. Continuing Project on a Topic of Your Choice

This second project is designed to provide you an opportunity to continue engaging with your topic, although in a fresh context of readings and discussions from between classes 6 through 12. While you are not strictly required to stick to the same topic as the initial project, it is highly encouraged. You are again welcomed to either write a paper or develop a multimedia project. All of the prior requirements remain, including peer review as in the initial project, but with a few changes (in bold, below):

  1. You can elect to author an essay with the following requirements:
  2. Length between 4-5 pages long and written in APA format, double-spaced, 12-point font, with standard 1-inch margins.
  3. Submissions are requested as Word document (.doc or .docx) or PDF file types – and please ensure the file is saved as [yourlastname][firstinitial]_Project2_[course number]_[section number]. For example, if I were submitting a paper, it might be ChenB_Project2_CI4311_001.
  4. Inclusion of a reference/works cited page—but these do not count in your 4-5 pages. In-text citations and a formal reference list in APA format are an important part of your paper and an ethical requirement.
  5. Graphics are encouraged to better convey your understanding.
  6. Develop a multimedia project that better demonstrates your thinking about the topic at hand and/or adds to the viewer’s experience of your topic. However, this is a writing course, so keep that in mind as you consider the requirements:
  7. These projects could take the form of a staged debate between two people, a video, original artwork, original music or others.
  8. The project must be accompanied by a script, complete with citations, a reference list, and a reflection of your depth of understanding and thinking on the topic.
  9. You may complete this project individually or as a group, but with a group you’ll need to accommodate the need for everyone to demonstrate their understanding and knowledge.
  10. You are encouraged to use graphics or mixed media – but be sure to cite the sources you draw from in appropriate APA style.

Regardless of format, you will be required to:

  1. Show how the peer review process was engaged, and how it informed the submitted project
  2. Be sure to draw at least two references total from our course readings/discussions in sessions 6 through 11, and still do so in meaningful ways. Note that this excludes the readings and discussions from the first 5 weeks.

2.3. Literature Review

You will be required to write a summative literature review that draws in at least two course readings plus three additional outside readings that encompass one of the major issues we discuss in class regarding the ethical basis of concerns associated with the rapidly expanding roles technology continues to play in our lives. Additional articles can be accessed on our course site under the "Further Readings" forum, or you can do a relevant literature search on your own. This analysis and critique should encompass a substantive literature review conveying critical reflection on the issue(s) presented. I am willing to consider a deeper, more thorough examination of a topic covered in either the pop culture review or the research report.

Potential issues include: pervasiveness of technology, technological dependence, privacy, autonomy, security of data, democracy online, freedom of expression online, technological euphoria, digital citizenship, technology integration in education, cultural relativity, communicative freedom, digital plagiarism, intellectual property rights, globalization, etc. Your paper should be 5-6 pages long (no longer) and written in APA format, double-spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font, with standard 1-inch margins). Please include a title and reference/works cited page—but these do not count in your 5-6 pages. In-text citations and a formal reference list in APA format are an important part of your papers. Alternate projects (i.e., videos) are not a possible medium here. However, embedded graphics used to clarify an issue, or to reduce complexity in difficult-to-understand topics, are acceptable and encouraged.


Performance Task Descriptions & Tentative Schedule

Class details will be posted on our website as the course progresses.The following schedule is a general overview, but please note that individual readings, or the order of the selected readings, may change as new information becomes available or our class goes in different direction.

The due time for each class is Monday at 6:00PM Central US time. For example, all activities and assignments for Class #1 is due by Monday, January 25, 6PM Central Time.

Class #1 – Due by Monday, January 25 - Introductions

Reading:

  • The syllabus!

Assignments:

  • Snoop around Canvas! You’re encouraged to add a personal profile photo to our site too.
  • Now is also the time to get any initial questions you have answered! Post any questions to have about the syllabus, the website, or the course in general to the "Questions" forum.
  • In the discussion forum, share "What do you understand ethics to be now?"
  • Post a video on FlipGrid to introduce yourself.

Class #2 – Due by Monday, February 1 - Ethical implications of technology’s pervasive role in society

How are we influenced by technology?
How does ethics relate to technology?
Opening the dialogue of ethics as a "slippery subject"

Readings:

  • Excerpt: "Introduction" by Kaplan from "Readings in the Philosophy of Technology" (2004)

Assignments:

  • Reading reflection

Class #3 – Due by Monday, February 8 - Basic theoretical foundations of technology ethics

Readings:

  • "Ethical principles, reasoning, and decision making" (Budinger & Budinger, 2006)

Assignments:

  • Put together a few ideas for your "Initial Exploration Project". These should interest you with regard to ethical dilemmas posed by technology (human stem cell research, for example). We will be creating a collective list as a class to help steer our direction of study this semester according to YOUR interests!
  • Reading reflection

Class #4 – Due by Monday, February 15 - Information Ethics

Readings:

  • "Norbert Wiener & the rise of information ethics" (Bynum, 2008)

Assignments:

  • Reading reflection

Class #5 – Due by Monday, February 22 - Digital Citizenship

Readings:

  • "Developing ethical direction" (Ribble & Bailey, 2005)
  • "Digital citizenship: Text unto others as you would have them text unto you" (Villano, 2008)

Assignments:

  • Reading reflection
  • Draft of Initial Exploration project for peer review due

Class #6 – Due by Monday, February 29 - Ethics of online technologies

Basics
Plagiarism
Copyright/Intellectual Property Rights

Readings:

  • "Cyber ethics: The new frontier" (Baum, 2005)
  • "Ethics and information technology: Some principles to guide students" (Bodi, 1998)
  • "Lost in cyberspace: Ethical decision making in the online environment" (McMahon & Cohen, 2009)
  • "Patently absurd: The ethical implications of software patents" (Stark, 2005)

Assignments:

  • Reading reflection
  • Initial Exploration project peer reviews due

Class #7 – Due by Monday, March 7 - The Difference between "Data" and "Actionable Information"

Readings:

  • "Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom" (Bellinger, Castro and Mills, 2004)

Assignments:

  • Reading reflection
  • Initial project due by Monday, March 7 by 6:00PM CST

SPRING BREAK: MARCH 14-18

Class #8 – Due by Monday, March 21 - Democracy and the Internet

Readings:

  • "Democracy and the Internet" (Sunstein, 2008)
  • "Technological euphoria and contemporary citizenship" (Winner, 2005)
  • "The Internet: Foe of Democracy?" (Shaw, 2009)

Assignments:

  • Reading reflection

Class #9 – Due by Monday, March 28 - Ethics & Power

Readings:

  • Article: "Access denied: Internet filtering software in K-12 classrooms" (Meeder, 2005)
  • Article: "Ethics: A discourse of power" (Muffoletto, 2003)

Assignments:

  • Reading reflection

Class #10 – Due by Monday, April 4 - The Great Media Debate

Technology Integration in Education: Ethical Implications

Readings:

  • "Sharing the sacred fire: Integrating educational technology without annihilating nature" (Burniske, 2005)
  • "Will media influence learning: Reframing the debate" (Kozma, 1994)
  • "Technology and classroom practices: An international study" (Kozma, 2003b)

Assignments:

  • Reading reflection
  • Draft of Continuing Exploration due for peer reviews

Class #11 – Due by Monday, April 11 - Cultural Relativity of Ethics & Technology

Readings:

  • "Is information ethics culture-relative?" (Brey, 2007)
  • "Culture and global networks: Hope for a global ethics?" (Ess, 2008) or
  • "Becoming Interculturally Competent" (Bennet, 2004)

Assignments:

  • Reading reflection
  • Continuing Exploration projects peer reviews due

Class #12 – Due by Monday, April 18 - Digital Equity

Globalization
Technology to support educational reform and economic/social development

Readings:

  • "Links in the chain of doing: The ethics of introducing educational technology in developing countries" (Burniske, 2003)
  • "Global perspectives: Innovative technology integration practices from around the world" (Kozma, 2003a)
  • "Reaching the most disadvantaged with ICT: What works?" (Kozma & Wagner, 2006)

Assignments:

  • Reading reflection
  • Continuing Project due date: Monday, April 18 by 6:00PM CST

Class #13 – Due by Monday, April 25 - Ethics of Biotechnologies

Technology-Mediated Human Enhancement
Genetic Manipulations
Human Cloning
Stem Cells

Readings:

  • Research one article that you find on the universal debate relating to the ethics of biotechnology (such as technology-mediated human enhancement, genetic manipulations, human cloning, harvest and use of stem cells, etc.). Share with us what you find.

Assignments:

  • Reading summary

Class #14 – Due by Monday, May 2 - Conclusions, reflections

Course evaluations

Assignments:

  • Final reflection on learning and growth
  • Literature Review paper due by Monday, May 9 by 6:00PM Central US time

Relevant University Policies

Grading System

Definition of Grades

  • A - achievement that is outstanding relative to the level necessary to meet course requirements. YOU ARE CAPABLE OF THIS LEVEL OF WORK. Period.
  • B - achievement that is significantly above the level necessary to meet course requirements.
  • C - achievement that meets the course requirements in every respect.
  • D - achievement that is worthy of credit even though it fails to meet fully the course requirements.
  • S - achievement that is satisfactory, which is equivalent to a C- or better (achievement required for an S is at the discretion of the instructor but may be no lower than equivalent to a C-.)
  • F(or N) - Represents failure (or no credit) and signifies that the work was either (1) completed but at a level of achievement that is not worthy of credit or (2) was not completed and there was no agreement between the instructor and the student that the student would be awarded an I (see also I).

The grading for this course is as follows:

A 94 – 100% C+ 77 – 79% D+ 67 – 69% F Below 60%
A- 90 – 93% C 74 – 76% D 64 – 66%
B+ 87 – 89% C- 70 – 73% D- 60 – 63%
B 84 – 86%
B- 80 – 83%

It is worth noting here that the structure of this course is more about your learning than it is about a grade. You are each capable of "A" work, and it is my assumption everyone starts with an "A". It is ultimately up to you to prove me wrong.

You will be provided feedback to help guide you to more resources, areas where you can improve, and aspects you are doing well in. This feedback will typically be in the form of text- or audio-formats. I will only communicate what your grade is upon request.

Academic Dishonesty

Academic dishonesty in any portion of the academic work for a course shall be grounds for awarding a grade of F or N for the entire course.

Incomplete Grades:

The grade of "I" is not a regular University grade and cannot be given without special arrangements under unusual circumstances. It cannot be given merely to extend the time allowed to complete course requirements. If family or personal emergency requires that your attention be diverted from the course and that more time than usual is needed to complete course work, arrangements should be made with the instructor of the course before the quarter ends and consent obtained for receiving an "Incomplete" or "I" grade. These arrangements should be made as soon as the need for an "I" can be anticipated. A written agreement should be prepared indicating when the course assignment will be completed. Normally an "Incomplete" grade for a course should be removed within one quarter of its receipt.

Receipt of Final Grade:

University policies do not permit the posting of final course grades nor the reporting of these grades over the telephone. If you would like a record of your course grade before it is available via the University web site, provide a self-addressed stamped envelope to the instructor at some point prior to the last class session.

Feedback on projects:

During the course, feedback will be returned to students as soon as possible via our course website or email. I reserve the right to return your project with an expectation of your re-doing it to better reflect your best work.

Disabilities

The University of Minnesota is committed to providing equitable access to learning opportunities for all students. The Disability Resource Center (DRC) is the campus office that collaborates with students who have disabilities to provide and/or arrange reasonable accommodations.

  • If you have, or think you may have, a disability (e.g., mental health, attentional, learning, chronic health, sensory, or physical), please contact the DRC at 612-626-1333 to arrange a confidential discussion regarding equitable access and reasonable accommodations.
  • If you are registered with the DRC and have a current letter requesting reasonable accommodations, we encourage you to contact your instructor early in the semester to review how the accommodations will be applied in the course.

Additional information is available on the DRC website: https://diversity.umn.edu/disability/

Mental Health

As a student you may experience a range of issues that can cause barriers to learning, such as strained relationships, increased anxiety, alcohol/drug problems, feeling down, difficulty concentrating and/or lack of motivation. These mental health concerns or stressful events may lead to diminished academic performance or reduce your ability to participate in daily activities. University of Minnesota services are available to assist you with addressing these and other concerns you may be experiencing. You can learn more about the broad range of confidential mental health services available on campus via http://www.mentalhealth.umn.edu


Bibliography

  • Baum, J.J. (2005). Cyber ethics: The new frontier. Tech Trends, 49(6), 54-55,78.
  • Bellinger, G., Castro, D., Mills, A. (2004). Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom. Retrieved from http://www.systems-thinking.org/dikw/dikw.htm.
  • Bodi, S. (1998). Ethics and information technology: Some principles to guide students. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 24(6), 459-463.
  • Brey, P. (2007). Is information ethics culture-relative? International Journal of Tech and Human Interaction, 3(3), 12-24.
  • Budinger, T.F., & Budinger, M.D. (2006). Ethics of emerging technologies: Scientific facts and moral challenges. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.
  • Burniske, R.W. (2003). Links in the chain of doing: The ethics of introducing educational technology in developing countries. Tech Trends, 47(6), 55-61.
  • Burniske, R.W. (2005). Sharing the sacred fire: Integrating educational technology without annihilating nature. Tech Trends, 49(6), 50-52.
  • Bynum, T.W. (2008). Norbert Wiener & the rise of information ethics. In J. Van den Hoven, & J. Weckert, (Eds.), Information technology and moral philosophy (8-25). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
  • Cocking, D. (2008). Plural selves and relational identity: Intimacy and privacy online. In J. Van den Hoven, & J. Weckert, (Eds.), Information technology and moral philosophy (123-141). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ess, C. (2008). Culture and global networks: Hope for a global ethics? In J. Van den Hoven, & J. Weckert, (Eds.), Information technology and moral philosophy (195-225). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kaplan, D.M. (2004). Introduction. In D.M. Kaplan (Ed.), Readings in the philosophy of technology (xiii-xv). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  • Kozma, R. (1994). Will media influence learning: Reframing the debate. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42(2), 7-19.
  • Kozma, R. (2003a). Global perspectives: Innovative technology integration practices from around the world. Learning and Leading with Technology, 31(2), 6-54.
  • Kozma, R. (2003b). Technology and classroom practices: An international study. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 36(1), 1-14.
  • Kozma, R. & Wagner, D.A. (2006). Reaching the most disadvantaged with ICT: What works? In R. Sweet & D. Wagner (Eds.), ICT in non-formal and adult education: Supporting out-of-school youth and adults (pp. 97-120). Paris: OECD.
  • McMahon, J. M., & Cohen, R. (2009). Lost in cyberspace: Ethical decision making in the online environment. Ethics and Information Technology, 11, 1-17.
  • Meeder, R. (2005). Access denied: Internet filtering software in K-12 classrooms. Tech Trends, 49(6), 56-58,78.
  • Michelfelder, D.P. (2004). Technological ethics in a different voice. In D.M. Kaplan (Ed.), Readings in the philosophy of technology (273-288). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  • Muffoletto, R. (2003). Ethics: A discourse of power. Tech Trends, 47(6), 62-66.
  • Ribble, MS., & Bailey, G.D. (2005). Developing ethical direction. Learning & Leading with Technology, 32(7), 36-39.
  • Stark, C.D. (2005). Patently absurd: The ethical implications of software patents. Tech Trends, 49(6), 58-61,78.
  • Sunstein, C.R. (2008). Democracy and the internet. In J. Van den Hoven, & J. Weckert, (Eds.), Information technology and moral philosophy (93-110). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
  • Villano, M. (2008). Digital citizenship: Text unto others as you would have them text unto you. T.H.E. Journal, 35(9), 47-51.