This is a tutorial covering the use of the VimL Forms library.
The Forms library is built upon the VimL Self library, a object prototype system. To understand the Self library see the Self Tutorial.
The Glyph is the base Object for all Forms components.
Glyphs can be abstract or concrete.
Glyphs can be of kind: Leaf - no children, Mono - single child, Poly - list of children or Grid - list of lists of children.
A Glyph can be be interactive (have focus) or non-interactive. An interactive Glyph response to keyboard and/or mouse events while a non-interactive Glyph does not. Well, thats mostly true. All Glyph's respond to a right mouse click, <RightMouse>, and displays context sensitive information in a popup.
For more detail see Glyph Overview
The code that generates a Form, generally, has the same structure. The code is in a function which may or may not take arguments which are used to tailor the Form. The code creates the components that will make up the Form, This is followed by the Form creation and call for the Form to run. When a Form stops running it will generate a return value. The default return value is 0 meaning that the Form wants nothing to be done. Alternatively, a Form can return a Dictionary of results; as keys Glyph tags and the associated values is determined by each Glyph. Lastly, the code in the function can do something based upon the Form's returned results.
For more detail see Code Structure
A Label is a Leaf Glyph which takes a "text" attribute. Its size is one character in height with a width equal to the number of its charaters. It is a non-interactive Glyph.
For more detail see Label
Layout Labels Horizontally
A HPoly is a kind of Poly and is used to layout its child Glyphs horizontally. In this case, all of the child Glyphs will be Labels. Thus the height of the HPoly will be the maximum height of its child Glyphs and, since, all Labels have a height of 1, the height of the HPoly is 1 character. The width of the HPoly is the sum of the widths of its children.
For more detail see Layout Labels Horizontally
When a parent Glyph is to draw one of its child Glyph in a region and the child Glyph is smaller than the region, either smaller in width or height or both, then the parent Glyph must use an alignment to position the child Glyph. A horizontal alignment attribute can have discrete values: 'L', 'C' or 'R' or a Float value between 0.0 and 1.0. Similarly, a vertical alignment attribute has discrete values: 'T', 'C' or 'B' or Float 0.0 to 1.0.
For more detail see Alignment
Layout Labels Vertically with Alignment
A VPoly is a Poly that lays out its children vertically. A VPoly that contains multiple Label Glyphs as children will have to align some of the Labels if they have different sizes. By default, a VPoly aligns to the Left but the default can be overridden for all children and/or on a case-by-case basis.
For more detail see Layout Labels Vertically
Grid, Polys and Boxes
Forms lets Glyphs be surrounded by box drawing characters. This is useful for organizing the presentation. Forms supports the "standard" ASCII box drawing characters: '+', '-' and '|'; as well as, UTF-8 characters specifically designed for drawing boxes (they are actually called box drawing character!).
For more detail see Boxes
Associated with many interactive Glyphs are Actions. When you click a button, its Action executes. When you enter <CR> on a line editor, its Action executes. When a slider is moved, its Action executes. All interactive Glyphs with Actions execute the Action provided by the developer or executes its default Action, the NoOp-Action that does nothing.
For more detail see Action
Some interactive Glyphs can take a command String or an Action. When such a Glyph is selected, an Event of type "Command" with additional attribute with key "command" and value the command String is created and pre-pended to the input queue. When the Viewer reads the next item from the input queue, if its an inner Viewer, the Command Event is put back onto the front of the input queue and the Viewer control "pops" up to its the parent Viewer - which repeats the process - until it is the top-level Viewer that removes the Command Event from the input queue. This Viewer (it run() method) simply returns the Command Event to the calling Form run() method and it is this Form that then takes the command String from the Event and, as the last thing it does before exiting its run() method, executes the command.
For more detail see Command
A Button is an interactive Glyph. A Button can have an Action Object associated with it or a command String. When it is selected (<CR>, <Space> or <RightMouse>), if the Button has an Action, that Action executes. If the Button has a command, the Button creates an Event of type "Command" with an additional entry of key "command" and value the Button's command String and places the Command Event at the front of the input queue.
For more detail see Button
More Code Structure (return values)
When the Form run() method returns, it returns either 0, meaning no return value or it returns a Dictionary of Glyph tags as the keys and the Glyph result values. It is up to the code that originally launched
For more detail see More Code Structure
When a Button's Action creates an Event of type "Submit", Sub-Viewers that read the Submit Event simply place it back on the input queue and pop up to their parent Viewer. The top-level viewer, returns the Submit Event to the Form that called the Viewer code. This Form then walks the Glyph tree with a Dictionary requesting each Glyph add to the Dictionary its tag as a key and its result value as the value associated with the key. Not all Glyphs have to add a tag/result pair. Mostly, Editors, Radiobuttons, ToggleButtons, Sliders, and other interactive Glyphs that maintain user entered state are the ones that add such tag/result pairs.
For more detail see Submit Button
Events (Submit Cancel)
Traditional forms can be:
- Information which present some information to the user and have a Close Button,
- Binary, Yes and No Buttons, presenting the user with an option,
- Requesting information from the user with Cancel and Accept/Submit Buttons, et.
In each of these cases, the Buttons either generate a Submit Event or a Cancel Event and place the Event at the front of the input queue.
For more detail see Events
Sometimes two or more interactive Glyphs maybe linked, changing the value of one of them is reflected in the other(s).
Editor and Slider
Common example is a Line Editor with a fixed width and a Slider that has resolution and size sufficient to display the values.
For more detail see Linking Editor and Slider
SelectList and Deck
Another useful linking is that of a SelectList and a Deck. A SelectList allows on to choose a value from a list of values. A Deck is a Poly that is like a deck of cards; only the selected, "top", Card is displayed. Each value in the SelectList is associated with one card in the Deck. When a SelectList value is selected, the associated Card is moved to the top of the Deck.
For more detail see Linking SelectList and Deck
The Viewer is a Mono Glyph that handles keyboard and mouse events in its 'run()' method. Some such events it handles itself while other is passes down to the descendent that currently has focus (if it exists).
For more detail see Viewer
The Form Glyph is a Viewer Glyph that is concerned with assuring that it, the Form, can, in fact, be displayed (enough room in the window), save the current window state, runs its underlying Viewer, performs cleanup and restores the previously saved window state. It overrides the Viewer's 'run()' method to do these things, but in the middle it does call the Viewer's version of the 'run()' method.
For more detail see Form
Modifying an Existing Glyph
Sometimes an existing Glyph has most of what a developer wants and, with some minor adjustments, it would be just right. So, does one create a whole new Glyph Prototype or does one simply create a clone of the existing Prototype and then modify that Object. Of course, its a trade off.
For more detail see Modifying Glyph
Creating a new Glyph
When creating a new Glyph kind for general usage, there are a number of things that must be considered. Is it a container Glyph which is to say, is it a Mono, Poly or Grid Glyph or is it a Leaf Glyph. Will it be an interactive Glyph of non-interactive. Will it handle Events. Will it work only if UTF-8 characters are available. Does it create any highlighting. Can its size change during usage.
For more detail see Creating Glyph