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This is an object-orient plotting library.
A procedural interface is provided by the companion pyplot module,
which may be imported directly, e.g::
from matplotlib.pyplot import *
To include numpy functions too, use::
from pylab import *
or using ipython::
ipython -pylab
For the most part, direct use of the object-oriented library is
encouraged when programming; pyplot is primarily for working
interactively. The
exceptions are the pyplot commands :func:`~matplotlib.pyplot.figure`,
:func:``, and
:func:`~pyplot.savefig`, which can greatly simplify scripting.
Modules include:
defines the :class:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes` class. Most pylab
commands are wrappers for :class:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes`
methods. The axes module is the highest level of OO access to
the library.
defines the :class:`~matplotlib.figure.Figure` class.
defines the :class:`~matplotlib.artist.Artist` base class for
all classes that draw things.
defines the :class:`~matplotlib.lines.Line2D` class for
drawing lines and markers
defines classes for drawing polygons
defines the :class:`~matplotlib.text.Text`,
:class:`~matplotlib.text.TextWithDash`, and
:class:`~matplotlib.text.Annotate` classes
defines the :class:`~matplotlib.image.AxesImage` and
:class:`~matplotlib.image.FigureImage` classes
classes for efficient drawing of groups of lines or polygons
classes for interpreting color specifications and for making
colormaps and the :class:`~matplotlib.image.ScalarMappable`
mixin class for providing color mapping functionality to other
classes for calculating tick mark locations and for formatting
tick labels
a subpackage with modules for various gui libraries and output
The base matplotlib namespace includes:
a global dictionary of default configuration settings. It is
initialized by code which may be overridded by a matplotlibrc
a function for setting groups of rcParams values
a function for setting the matplotlib backend. If used, this
function must be called immediately after importing matplotlib
for the first time. In particular, it must be called
**before** importing pylab (if pylab is imported).
matplotlib was initially written by John D. Hunter (jdh2358 at and is now developed and maintained by a host of others.
Occasionally the internal documentation (python docstrings) will refer
to MATLAB®, a registered trademark of The MathWorks, Inc.
from __future__ import print_function
__version__ = '1.2.x'
__version__numpy__ = '1.4' # minimum required numpy version
import os, re, shutil, subprocess, sys, warnings
import distutils.sysconfig
import distutils.version
except NameError:
# Python 3
from imp import reload
# Needed for toolkit setuptools support
if 0:
except ImportError:
pass # must not have setuptools
if not hasattr(sys, 'argv'): # for modpython
sys.argv = ['modpython']
Manage user customizations through a rc file.
The default file location is given in the following order
- environment variable MATPLOTLIBRC
- HOME/.matplotlib/matplotlibrc if HOME is defined
- PATH/matplotlibrc where PATH is the return value of
import sys, os, tempfile
if sys.version_info[0] >= 3:
def ascii(s): return bytes(s, 'ascii')
def byte2str(b): return b.decode('ascii')
ascii = str
def byte2str(b): return b
from matplotlib.rcsetup import (defaultParams,
major, minor1, minor2, s, tmp = sys.version_info
_python24 = (major == 2 and minor1 >= 4) or major >= 3
# the havedate check was a legacy from old matplotlib which preceeded
# datetime support
_havedate = True
# import pkg_resources # pkg_resources is part of setuptools
#except ImportError: _have_pkg_resources = False
#else: _have_pkg_resources = True
if not _python24:
raise ImportError('matplotlib requires Python 2.4 or later')
import numpy
from distutils import version
expected_version = version.LooseVersion(__version__numpy__)
found_version = version.LooseVersion(numpy.__version__)
if not found_version >= expected_version:
raise ImportError(
'numpy %s or later is required; you have %s' % (
__version__numpy__, numpy.__version__))
del version
def is_string_like(obj):
if hasattr(obj, 'shape'): return 0
try: obj + ''
except (TypeError, ValueError): return 0
return 1
def _is_writable_dir(p):
p is a string pointing to a putative writable dir -- return True p
is such a string, else False
try: p + '' # test is string like
except TypeError: return False
t = tempfile.TemporaryFile(dir=p)
except OSError: return False
else: return True
class Verbose:
A class to handle reporting. Set the fileo attribute to any file
instance to handle the output. Default is sys.stdout
levels = ('silent', 'helpful', 'debug', 'debug-annoying')
vald = dict( [(level, i) for i,level in enumerate(levels)])
# parse the verbosity from the command line; flags look like
# --verbose-silent or --verbose-helpful
_commandLineVerbose = None
for arg in sys.argv[1:]:
if not arg.startswith('--verbose-'): continue
_commandLineVerbose = arg[10:]
def __init__(self):
self.fileo = sys.stdout
def set_level(self, level):
'set the verbosity to one of the Verbose.levels strings'
if self._commandLineVerbose is not None:
level = self._commandLineVerbose
if level not in self.levels:
raise ValueError('Illegal verbose string "%s". Legal values are %s'%(level, self.levels))
self.level = level
def set_fileo(self, fname):
std = {
'sys.stdout': sys.stdout,
'sys.stderr': sys.stderr,
if fname in std:
self.fileo = std[fname]
fileo = open(fname, 'w')
except IOError:
raise ValueError('Verbose object could not open log file "%s" for writing.\nCheck your matplotlibrc verbose.fileo setting'%fname)
self.fileo = fileo
def report(self, s, level='helpful'):
print message s to self.fileo if self.level>=level. Return
value indicates whether a message was issued
print(s, file=self.fileo)
return True
return False
def wrap(self, fmt, func, level='helpful', always=True):
return a callable function that wraps func and reports it
output through the verbose handler if current verbosity level
is higher than level
if always is True, the report will occur on every function
call; otherwise only on the first time the function is called
assert callable(func)
def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
ret = func(*args, **kwargs)
if (always or not wrapper._spoke):
spoke =, level)
if not wrapper._spoke: wrapper._spoke = spoke
return ret
wrapper._spoke = False
wrapper.__doc__ = func.__doc__
return wrapper
def ge(self, level):
'return true if self.level is >= level'
return self.vald[self.level]>=self.vald[level]
def checkdep_dvipng():
s = subprocess.Popen(['dvipng','-version'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
line = s.stdout.readlines()[1]
v = byte2str(line.split()[-1])
return v
except (IndexError, ValueError, OSError):
return None
def checkdep_ghostscript():
if sys.platform == 'win32':
command_args = ['gswin32c', '--version']
command_args = ['gs', '--version']
s = subprocess.Popen(command_args, stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
v = byte2str([:-1])
return v
except (IndexError, ValueError, OSError):
return None
def checkdep_tex():
s = subprocess.Popen(['tex','-version'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
line = byte2str(s.stdout.readlines()[0])
pattern = '3\.1\d+'
match =, line)
v =
return v
except (IndexError, ValueError, AttributeError, OSError):
return None
def checkdep_pdftops():
s = subprocess.Popen(['pdftops','-v'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
for line in s.stderr:
if b'version' in line:
v = byte2str(line.split()[-1])
return v
except (IndexError, ValueError, UnboundLocalError, OSError):
return None
def checkdep_inkscape():
s = subprocess.Popen(['inkscape','-V'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
for line in s.stdout:
if b'Inkscape' in line:
v = byte2str(line.split()[1])
return v
except (IndexError, ValueError, UnboundLocalError, OSError):
return None
def checkdep_xmllint():
s = subprocess.Popen(['xmllint','--version'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
for line in s.stderr:
if b'version' in line:
v = byte2str(line.split()[-1])
return v
except (IndexError, ValueError, UnboundLocalError, OSError):
return None
def compare_versions(a, b):
"return True if a is greater than or equal to b"
if a:
a = distutils.version.LooseVersion(a)
b = distutils.version.LooseVersion(b)
if a>=b: return True
else: return False
else: return False
def checkdep_ps_distiller(s):
if not s:
return False
flag = True
gs_req = '7.07'
gs_sugg = '7.07'
gs_v = checkdep_ghostscript()
if compare_versions(gs_v, gs_sugg): pass
elif compare_versions(gs_v, gs_req):'ghostscript-%s found. ghostscript-%s or later '
'is recommended to use the ps.usedistiller option.') % (gs_v, gs_sugg))
flag = False
warnings.warn(('matplotlibrc ps.usedistiller option can not be used '
'unless ghostscript-%s or later is installed on your system') % gs_req)
if s == 'xpdf':
pdftops_req = '3.0'
pdftops_req_alt = '0.9' # poppler version numbers, ugh
pdftops_v = checkdep_pdftops()
if compare_versions(pdftops_v, pdftops_req):
elif compare_versions(pdftops_v, pdftops_req_alt) and not \
compare_versions(pdftops_v, '1.0'):
flag = False
warnings.warn(('matplotlibrc ps.usedistiller can not be set to '
'xpdf unless xpdf-%s or later is installed on your system') % pdftops_req)
if flag:
return s
return False
def checkdep_usetex(s):
if not s:
return False
tex_req = '3.1415'
gs_req = '7.07'
gs_sugg = '7.07'
dvipng_req = '1.5'
flag = True
tex_v = checkdep_tex()
if compare_versions(tex_v, tex_req): pass
flag = False
warnings.warn(('matplotlibrc text.usetex option can not be used '
'unless TeX-%s or later is '
'installed on your system') % tex_req)
dvipng_v = checkdep_dvipng()
if compare_versions(dvipng_v, dvipng_req): pass
flag = False
warnings.warn( 'matplotlibrc text.usetex can not be used with *Agg '
'backend unless dvipng-1.5 or later is '
'installed on your system')
gs_v = checkdep_ghostscript()
if compare_versions(gs_v, gs_sugg): pass
elif compare_versions(gs_v, gs_req):'ghostscript-%s found. ghostscript-%s or later is '
'recommended for use with the text.usetex '
'option.') % (gs_v, gs_sugg))
flag = False
warnings.warn(('matplotlibrc text.usetex can not be used '
'unless ghostscript-%s or later is '
'installed on your system') % gs_req)
return flag
def _get_home():
"""Find user's home directory if possible.
Otherwise raise error.
if not os.path.isdir(path):
for evar in ('HOME', 'USERPROFILE', 'TMP'):
path = os.environ[evar]
if os.path.isdir(path):
except: pass
if path:
return path
raise RuntimeError('please define environment variable $HOME')
get_home = verbose.wrap('$HOME=%s', _get_home, always=False)
def _get_configdir():
Return the string representing the configuration dir.
default is HOME/.matplotlib. you can override this with the
MPLCONFIGDIR environment variable
configdir = os.environ.get('MPLCONFIGDIR')
if configdir is not None:
if not os.path.exists(configdir):
if not _is_writable_dir(configdir):
raise RuntimeError('Could not write to MPLCONFIGDIR="%s"'%configdir)
return configdir
h = get_home()
p = os.path.join(get_home(), '.matplotlib')
if os.path.exists(p):
if not _is_writable_dir(p):
raise RuntimeError("'%s' is not a writable dir; you must set %s/.matplotlib to be a writable dir. You can also set environment variable MPLCONFIGDIR to any writable directory where you want matplotlib data stored "% (h, h))
if not _is_writable_dir(h):
raise RuntimeError("Failed to create %s/.matplotlib; consider setting MPLCONFIGDIR to a writable directory for matplotlib configuration data"%h)
from matplotlib.cbook import mkdirs
return p
get_configdir = verbose.wrap('CONFIGDIR=%s', _get_configdir, always=False)
def _get_data_path():
'get the path to matplotlib data'
if 'MATPLOTLIBDATA' in os.environ:
path = os.environ['MATPLOTLIBDATA']
if not os.path.isdir(path):
raise RuntimeError('Path in environment MATPLOTLIBDATA not a directory')
return path
path = os.sep.join([os.path.dirname(__file__), 'mpl-data'])
if os.path.isdir(path):
return path
# setuptools' namespace_packages may highjack this init file
# so need to try something known to be in matplotlib, not basemap
import matplotlib.afm
path = os.sep.join([os.path.dirname(matplotlib.afm.__file__), 'mpl-data'])
if os.path.isdir(path):
return path
# py2exe zips pure python, so still need special check
if getattr(sys,'frozen',None):
exe_path = os.path.dirname(sys.executable)
path = os.path.join(exe_path, 'mpl-data')
if os.path.isdir(path):
return path
# Try again assuming we need to step up one more directory
path = os.path.join(os.path.split(exe_path)[0], 'mpl-data')
if os.path.isdir(path):
return path
# Try again assuming sys.path[0] is a dir not a exe
path = os.path.join(sys.path[0], 'mpl-data')
if os.path.isdir(path):
return path
raise RuntimeError('Could not find the matplotlib data files')
def _get_data_path_cached():
if defaultParams['datapath'][0] is None:
defaultParams['datapath'][0] = _get_data_path()
return defaultParams['datapath'][0]
get_data_path = verbose.wrap('matplotlib data path %s', _get_data_path_cached,
def get_example_data(fname):
get_example_data is deprecated -- use matplotlib.cbook.get_sample_data instead
raise NotImplementedError('get_example_data is deprecated -- use matplotlib.cbook.get_sample_data instead')
def get_py2exe_datafiles():
datapath = get_data_path()
head, tail = os.path.split(datapath)
d = {}
for root, dirs, files in os.walk(datapath):
# Need to explicitly remove cocoa_agg files or py2exe complains
# NOTE I dont know why, but do as previous version
if 'Matplotlib.nib' in files:
files = [os.path.join(root, filename) for filename in files]
root = root.replace(tail, 'mpl-data')
root = root[root.index('mpl-data'):]
d[root] = files
return list(d.items())
def matplotlib_fname():
Return the path to the rc file
Search order:
* current working dir
* environ var MATPLOTLIBRC
* HOME/.matplotlib/matplotlibrc
* MATPLOTLIBDATA/matplotlibrc
oldname = os.path.join( os.getcwd(), '.matplotlibrc')
if os.path.exists(oldname):
WARNING: Old rc filename ".matplotlibrc" found in working dir
and and renamed to new default rc file name "matplotlibrc"
(no leading"dot"). """, file=sys.stderr)
shutil.move('.matplotlibrc', 'matplotlibrc')
home = get_home()
oldname = os.path.join( home, '.matplotlibrc')
if os.path.exists(oldname):
configdir = get_configdir()
newname = os.path.join(configdir, 'matplotlibrc')
WARNING: Old rc filename "%s" found and renamed to
new default rc file name "%s"."""%(oldname, newname), file=sys.stderr)
shutil.move(oldname, newname)
fname = os.path.join( os.getcwd(), 'matplotlibrc')
if os.path.exists(fname): return fname
if 'MATPLOTLIBRC' in os.environ:
path = os.environ['MATPLOTLIBRC']
if os.path.exists(path):
fname = os.path.join(path, 'matplotlibrc')
if os.path.exists(fname):
return fname
fname = os.path.join(get_configdir(), 'matplotlibrc')
if os.path.exists(fname): return fname
path = get_data_path() # guaranteed to exist or raise
fname = os.path.join(path, 'matplotlibrc')
if not os.path.exists(fname):
warnings.warn('Could not find matplotlibrc; using defaults')
return fname
_deprecated_map = {
'text.fontstyle': '',
'text.fontangle': '',
'text.fontvariant': 'font.variant',
'text.fontweight': 'font.weight',
'text.fontsize': 'font.size',
'tick.size' : 'tick.major.size',
'svg.embed_char_paths' : 'svg.fonttype',
'savefig.extension' : 'savefig.format'
_deprecated_ignore_map = {
'legend.pad' : 'legend.borderpad',
'legend.labelsep' : 'legend.labelspacing',
'legend.handlelen' : 'legend.handlelength',
'legend.handletextsep' : 'legend.handletextpad',
'legend.axespad' : 'legend.borderaxespad',
class RcParams(dict):
A dictionary object including validation
validating functions are defined and associated with rc parameters in
validate = dict([ (key, converter) for key, (default, converter) in \
defaultParams.iteritems() ])
msg_depr = "%s is deprecated and replaced with %s; please use the latter."
msg_depr_ignore = "%s is deprecated and ignored. Use %s"
def __setitem__(self, key, val):
if key in _deprecated_map:
alt = _deprecated_map[key]
warnings.warn(self.msg_depr % (key, alt))
key = alt
elif key in _deprecated_ignore_map:
alt = _deprecated_ignore_map[key]
warnings.warn(self.msg_depr_ignore % (key, alt))
cval = self.validate[key](val)
dict.__setitem__(self, key, cval)
except KeyError:
raise KeyError('%s is not a valid rc parameter.\
See rcParams.keys() for a list of valid parameters.' % (key,))
def __getitem__(self, key):
if key in _deprecated_map:
alt = _deprecated_map[key]
warnings.warn(self.msg_depr % (key, alt))
key = alt
elif key in _deprecated_ignore_map:
alt = _deprecated_ignore_map[key]
warnings.warn(self.msg_depr_ignore % (key, alt))
key = alt
return dict.__getitem__(self, key)
def keys(self):
Return sorted list of keys.
k = dict.keys(self)
return k
def values(self):
Return values in order of sorted keys.
return [self[k] for k in self.iterkeys()]
def rc_params(fail_on_error=False):
'Return the default params updated from the values in the rc file'
fname = matplotlib_fname()
if not os.path.exists(fname):
# this should never happen, default in mpl-data should always be found
message = 'could not find rc file; returning defaults'
ret = RcParams([ (key, default) for key, (default, converter) in \
defaultParams.iteritems() ])
return ret
return rc_params_from_file(fname, fail_on_error)
def rc_params_from_file(fname, fail_on_error=False):
"""Load and return params from fname."""
cnt = 0
rc_temp = {}
with open(fname) as fd:
for line in fd:
cnt += 1
strippedline = line.split('#',1)[0].strip()
if not strippedline: continue
tup = strippedline.split(':',1)
if len(tup) !=2:
warnings.warn('Illegal line #%d\n\t%s\n\tin file "%s"'%\
(cnt, line, fname))
key, val = tup
key = key.strip()
val = val.strip()
if key in rc_temp:
warnings.warn('Duplicate key in file "%s", line #%d'%(fname,cnt))
rc_temp[key] = (val, line, cnt)
ret = RcParams([ (key, default) for key, (default, converter) in \
defaultParams.iteritems() ])
for key in ('verbose.level', 'verbose.fileo'):
if key in rc_temp:
val, line, cnt = rc_temp.pop(key)
if fail_on_error:
ret[key] = val # try to convert to proper type or raise
try: ret[key] = val # try to convert to proper type or skip
except Exception as msg:
warnings.warn('Bad val "%s" on line #%d\n\t"%s"\n\tin file \
"%s"\n\t%s' % (val, cnt, line, fname, msg))
for key, (val, line, cnt) in rc_temp.iteritems():
if key in defaultParams:
if fail_on_error:
ret[key] = val # try to convert to proper type or raise
try: ret[key] = val # try to convert to proper type or skip
except Exception as msg:
warnings.warn('Bad val "%s" on line #%d\n\t"%s"\n\tin file \
"%s"\n\t%s' % (val, cnt, line, fname, msg))
elif key in _deprecated_ignore_map:
warnings.warn('%s is deprecated. Update your matplotlibrc to use %s instead.'% (key, _deprecated_ignore_map[key]))
Bad key "%s" on line %d in
You probably need to get an updated matplotlibrc file from or from the matplotlib source
distribution""" % (key, cnt, fname), file=sys.stderr)
if ret['datapath'] is None:
ret['datapath'] = get_data_path()
if not ret['text.latex.preamble'] == ['']:"""
You have the following UNSUPPORTED LaTeX preamble customizations:
Please do not ask for support with these customizations active.
"""% '\n'.join(ret['text.latex.preamble']), 'helpful')'loaded rc file %s'%fname)
return ret
# this is the instance used by the matplotlib classes
rcParams = rc_params()
if rcParams['']:
# paths that are intended to be relative to matplotlib_fname()
# are allowed for the parameter.
# However, we will need to fully qualify the path because
# Sphinx requires absolute paths.
if not os.path.isabs(rcParams['']):
_basedir, _fname = os.path.split(matplotlib_fname())
# Sometimes matplotlib_fname() can return relative paths,
# Also, using realpath() guarentees that Sphinx will use
# the same path that matplotlib sees (in case of weird symlinks).
_basedir = os.path.realpath(_basedir)
_fullpath = os.path.join(_basedir, rcParams[''])
rcParams[''] = _fullpath
rcParamsOrig = rcParams.copy()
rcParamsDefault = RcParams([ (key, default) for key, (default, converter) in \
defaultParams.iteritems() ])
rcParams['ps.usedistiller'] = checkdep_ps_distiller(rcParams['ps.usedistiller'])
rcParams['text.usetex'] = checkdep_usetex(rcParams['text.usetex'])
if rcParams['axes.formatter.use_locale']:
import locale
locale.setlocale(locale.LC_ALL, '')
def rc(group, **kwargs):
Set the current rc params. Group is the grouping for the rc, eg.
for ``lines.linewidth`` the group is ``lines``, for
``axes.facecolor``, the group is ``axes``, and so on. Group may
also be a list or tuple of group names, eg. (*xtick*, *ytick*).
*kwargs* is a dictionary attribute name/value pairs, eg::
rc('lines', linewidth=2, color='r')
sets the current rc params and is equivalent to::
rcParams['lines.linewidth'] = 2
rcParams['lines.color'] = 'r'
The following aliases are available to save typing for interactive
===== =================
Alias Property
===== =================
'lw' 'linewidth'
'ls' 'linestyle'
'c' 'color'
'fc' 'facecolor'
'ec' 'edgecolor'
'mew' 'markeredgewidth'
'aa' 'antialiased'
===== =================
Thus you could abbreviate the above rc command as::
rc('lines', lw=2, c='r')
Note you can use python's kwargs dictionary facility to store
dictionaries of default parameters. Eg, you can customize the
font rc as follows::
font = {'family' : 'monospace',
'weight' : 'bold',
'size' : 'larger'}
rc('font', **font) # pass in the font dict as kwargs
This enables you to easily switch between several configurations.
Use :func:`~matplotlib.pyplot.rcdefaults` to restore the default
rc params after changes.
aliases = {
'lw' : 'linewidth',
'ls' : 'linestyle',
'c' : 'color',
'fc' : 'facecolor',
'ec' : 'edgecolor',
'mew' : 'markeredgewidth',
'aa' : 'antialiased',
if is_string_like(group):
group = (group,)
for g in group:
for k,v in kwargs.iteritems():
name = aliases.get(k) or k
key = '%s.%s' % (g, name)
rcParams[key] = v
except KeyError:
raise KeyError('Unrecognized key "%s" for group "%s" and name "%s"' %
(key, g, name))
def rcdefaults():
Restore the default rc params - these are not the params loaded by
the rc file, but mpl's internal params. See rc_file_defaults for
reloading the default params from the rc file
def rc_file(fname):
Update rc params from file.
class rc_context(object):
Return a context manager for managing rc settings.
This allows one to do::
>>> with mpl.rc_context(fname='screen.rc'):
>>> plt.plot(x, a)
>>> with mpl.rc_context(fname='print.rc'):
>>> plt.plot(x, b)
>>> plt.plot(x, c)
The 'a' vs 'x' and 'c' vs 'x' plots would have settings from
'screen.rc', while the 'b' vs 'x' plot would have settings from
A dictionary can also be passed to the context manager::
>>> with mpl.rc_context(rc={'text.usetex': True}, fname='screen.rc'):
>>> plt.plot(x, a)
The 'rc' dictionary takes precedence over the settings loaded from
'fname'. Passing a dictionary only is also valid.
def __init__(self, rc=None, fname=None):
self.rcdict = rc
self.fname = fname
def __enter__(self):
self._rcparams = rcParams.copy()
if self.fname:
if self.rcdict:
def __exit__(self, type, value, tb):
def rc_file_defaults():
Restore the default rc params from the original matplotlib rc that
was loaded
_use_error_msg = """ This call to matplotlib.use() has no effect
because the the backend has already been chosen;
matplotlib.use() must be called *before* pylab, matplotlib.pyplot,
or matplotlib.backends is imported for the first time.
def use(arg, warn=True, force=False):
Set the matplotlib backend to one of the known backends.
The argument is case-insensitive. *warn* specifies whether a
warning should be issued if a backend has already been set up.
*force* is an **experimental** flag that tells matplotlib to
attempt to initialize a new backend by reloading the backend
.. note::
This function must be called *before* importing pyplot for
the first time; or, if you are not using pyplot, it must be called
before importing matplotlib.backends. If warn is True, a warning
is issued if you try and call this after pylab or pyplot have been
loaded. In certain black magic use cases, e.g.
:func:`pyplot.switch_backend`, we are doing the reloading necessary to
make the backend switch work (in some cases, e.g. pure image
backends) so one can set warn=False to suppress the warnings.
To find out which backend is currently set, see
# Check if we've already set up a backend
if 'matplotlib.backends' in sys.modules:
if warn:
# Unless we've been told to force it, just return
if not force:
need_reload = True
need_reload = False
# Set-up the proper backend name
if arg.startswith('module://'):
name = arg
# Lowercase only non-module backend names (modules are case-sensitive)
arg = arg.lower()
name = validate_backend(arg)
rcParams['backend'] = name
# If needed we reload here because a lot of setup code is triggered on
# module import. See backends/ for more detail.
if need_reload:
def get_backend():
"Returns the current backend."
return rcParams['backend']
def interactive(b):
Set interactive mode to boolean b.
If b is True, then draw after every plotting command, eg, after xlabel
rcParams['interactive'] = b
def is_interactive():
'Return true if plot mode is interactive'
b = rcParams['interactive']
return b
def tk_window_focus():
"""Return true if focus maintenance under TkAgg on win32 is on.
This currently works only for python.exe and IPython.exe.
Both IDLE and Pythonwin.exe fail badly when tk_window_focus is on."""
if rcParams['backend'] != 'TkAgg':
return False
return rcParams['tk.window_focus']
# Now allow command line to override
# Allow command line access to the backend with -d (MATLAB compatible
# flag)
for s in sys.argv[1:]:
if s.startswith('-d') and len(s) > 2: # look for a -d flag
except (KeyError, ValueError):
# we don't want to assume all -d flags are backends, eg -debug
default_test_modules = [
def test(verbosity=1):
"""run the matplotlib test suite"""
old_backend = rcParams['backend']
import nose
import nose.plugins.builtin
from .testing.noseclasses import KnownFailure
from nose.plugins.manager import PluginManager
# store the old values before overriding
plugins = []
plugins.append( KnownFailure() )
plugins.extend( [plugin() for plugin in nose.plugins.builtin.plugins] )
manager = PluginManager(plugins=plugins)
config = nose.config.Config(verbosity=verbosity, plugins=manager)
success = defaultTest=default_test_modules,
if old_backend.lower() != 'agg':
return success
test.__test__ = False # nose: this function is not a test'matplotlib version %s'%__version__)'verbose.level %s'%verbose.level)'interactive is %s'%rcParams['interactive'])'platform is %s'%sys.platform)'loaded modules: %s'%sys.modules.iterkeys(), 'debug')
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