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# Paperclip allows file attachments that are stored in the filesystem. All graphical
# transformations are done using the Graphics/ImageMagick command line utilities and
# are stored in Tempfiles until the record is saved. Paperclip does not require a
# separate model for storing the attachment's information, instead adding a few simple
# columns to your table.
# Author:: Jon Yurek
# Copyright:: Copyright (c) 2008-2009 thoughtbot, inc.
# License:: MIT License (
# Paperclip defines an attachment as any file, though it makes special considerations
# for image files. You can declare that a model has an attached file with the
# +has_attached_file+ method:
# class User < ActiveRecord::Base
# has_attached_file :avatar, :styles => { :thumb => "100x100" }
# end
# user =
# user.avatar = params[:user][:avatar]
# user.avatar.url
# # => "/users/avatars/4/original_me.jpg"
# user.avatar.url(:thumb)
# # => "/users/avatars/4/thumb_me.jpg"
# See the +has_attached_file+ documentation for more details.
require 'erb'
require 'tempfile'
require 'paperclip/upfile'
require 'paperclip/iostream'
require 'paperclip/geometry'
require 'paperclip/processor'
require 'paperclip/thumbnail'
require 'paperclip/storage'
require 'paperclip/interpolations'
require 'paperclip/style'
require 'paperclip/attachment'
require 'paperclip/callback_compatability'
if defined?(Rails.root) && Rails.root
Dir.glob(File.join(File.expand_path(Rails.root), "lib", "paperclip_processors", "*.rb")).each do |processor|
require processor
# The base module that gets included in ActiveRecord::Base. See the
# documentation for Paperclip::ClassMethods for more useful information.
module Paperclip
VERSION = "2.3.2"
class << self
# Provides configurability to Paperclip. There are a number of options available, such as:
# * whiny: Will raise an error if Paperclip cannot process thumbnails of
# an uploaded image. Defaults to true.
# * log: Logs progress to the Rails log. Uses ActiveRecord's logger, so honors
# log levels, etc. Defaults to true.
# * command_path: Defines the path at which to find the command line
# programs if they are not visible to Rails the system's search path. Defaults to
# nil, which uses the first executable found in the user's search path.
# * image_magick_path: Deprecated alias of command_path.
def options
@options ||= {
:whiny => true,
:image_magick_path => nil,
:command_path => nil,
:log => true,
:log_command => false,
:swallow_stderr => true
def path_for_command command #:nodoc:
if options[:image_magick_path]
warn("[DEPRECATION] :image_magick_path is deprecated and will be removed. Use :command_path instead")
path = [options[:command_path] || options[:image_magick_path], command].compact
def interpolates key, &block
Paperclip::Interpolations[key] = block
# The run method takes a command to execute and a string of parameters
# that get passed to it. The command is prefixed with the :command_path
# option from Paperclip.options. If you have many commands to run and
# they are in different paths, the suggested course of action is to
# symlink them so they are all in the same directory.
# If the command returns with a result code that is not one of the
# expected_outcodes, a PaperclipCommandLineError will be raised. Generally
# a code of 0 is expected, but a list of codes may be passed if necessary.
# This method can log the command being run when
# Paperclip.options[:log_command] is set to true (defaults to false). This
# will only log if logging in general is set to true as well.
def run cmd, params = "", expected_outcodes = 0
command = %Q[#{path_for_command(cmd)} #{params}].gsub(/\s+/, " ")
command = "#{command} 2>#{bit_bucket}" if Paperclip.options[:swallow_stderr]
Paperclip.log(command) if Paperclip.options[:log_command]
output = `#{command}`
unless [expected_outcodes].flatten.include?($?.exitstatus)
raise PaperclipCommandLineError, "Error while running #{cmd}"
def bit_bucket #:nodoc:
File.exists?("/dev/null") ? "/dev/null" : "NUL"
def included base #:nodoc:
base.extend ClassMethods
if base.respond_to?("set_callback")
base.send :include, Paperclip::CallbackCompatability::Rails3
elsif !base.respond_to?("define_callbacks")
base.send :include, Paperclip::CallbackCompatability::Rails20
base.send :include, Paperclip::CallbackCompatability::Rails21
def processor name #:nodoc:
name = name.to_s.camelize
processor = Paperclip.const_get(name)
unless processor.ancestors.include?(Paperclip::Processor)
raise"Processor #{name} was not found")
# Log a paperclip-specific line. Uses ActiveRecord::Base.logger
# by default. Set Paperclip.options[:log] to false to turn off.
def log message"[paperclip] #{message}") if logging?
def logger #:nodoc:
def logging? #:nodoc:
class PaperclipError < StandardError #:nodoc:
class PaperclipCommandLineError < StandardError #:nodoc:
class NotIdentifiedByImageMagickError < PaperclipError #:nodoc:
class InfiniteInterpolationError < PaperclipError #:nodoc:
module ClassMethods
# +has_attached_file+ gives the class it is called on an attribute that maps to a file. This
# is typically a file stored somewhere on the filesystem and has been uploaded by a user.
# The attribute returns a Paperclip::Attachment object which handles the management of
# that file. The intent is to make the attachment as much like a normal attribute. The
# thumbnails will be created when the new file is assigned, but they will *not* be saved
# until +save+ is called on the record. Likewise, if the attribute is set to +nil+ is
# called on it, the attachment will *not* be deleted until +save+ is called. See the
# Paperclip::Attachment documentation for more specifics. There are a number of options
# you can set to change the behavior of a Paperclip attachment:
# * +url+: The full URL of where the attachment is publically accessible. This can just
# as easily point to a directory served directly through Apache as it can to an action
# that can control permissions. You can specify the full domain and path, but usually
# just an absolute path is sufficient. The leading slash *must* be included manually for
# absolute paths. The default value is
# "/system/:attachment/:id/:style/:filename". See
# Paperclip::Attachment#interpolate for more information on variable interpolaton.
# :url => "/:class/:attachment/:id/:style_:filename"
# :url => ""
# * +default_url+: The URL that will be returned if there is no attachment assigned.
# This field is interpolated just as the url is. The default value is
# "/:attachment/:style/missing.png"
# has_attached_file :avatar, :default_url => "/images/default_:style_avatar.png"
# # => "/images/default_small_avatar.png"
# * +styles+: A hash of thumbnail styles and their geometries. You can find more about
# geometry strings at the ImageMagick website
# ( Paperclip
# also adds the "#" option (e.g. "50x50#"), which will resize the image to fit maximally
# inside the dimensions and then crop the rest off (weighted at the center). The
# default value is to generate no thumbnails.
# * +default_style+: The thumbnail style that will be used by default URLs.
# Defaults to +original+.
# has_attached_file :avatar, :styles => { :normal => "100x100#" },
# :default_style => :normal
# user.avatar.url # => "/avatars/23/normal_me.png"
# * +whiny+: Will raise an error if Paperclip cannot post_process an uploaded file due
# to a command line error. This will override the global setting for this attachment.
# Defaults to true. This option used to be called :whiny_thumbanils, but this is
# deprecated.
# * +convert_options+: When creating thumbnails, use this free-form options
# field to pass in various convert command options. Typical options are "-strip" to
# remove all Exif data from the image (save space for thumbnails and avatars) or
# "-depth 8" to specify the bit depth of the resulting conversion. See ImageMagick
# convert documentation for more options: (
# Note that this option takes a hash of options, each of which correspond to the style
# of thumbnail being generated. You can also specify :all as a key, which will apply
# to all of the thumbnails being generated. If you specify options for the :original,
# it would be best if you did not specify destructive options, as the intent of keeping
# the original around is to regenerate all the thumbnails when requirements change.
# has_attached_file :avatar, :styles => { :large => "300x300", :negative => "100x100" }
# :convert_options => {
# :all => "-strip",
# :negative => "-negate"
# }
# NOTE: While not deprecated yet, it is not recommended to specify options this way.
# It is recommended that :convert_options option be included in the hash passed to each
# :styles for compatability with future versions.
# * +storage+: Chooses the storage backend where the files will be stored. The current
# choices are :filesystem and :s3. The default is :filesystem. Make sure you read the
# documentation for Paperclip::Storage::Filesystem and Paperclip::Storage::S3
# for backend-specific options.
def has_attached_file name, options = {}
include InstanceMethods
write_inheritable_attribute(:attachment_definitions, {}) if attachment_definitions.nil?
attachment_definitions[name] = {:validations => []}.merge(options)
after_save :save_attached_files
before_destroy :destroy_attached_files
define_paperclip_callbacks :post_process, :"#{name}_post_process"
define_method name do |*args|
a = attachment_for(name)
(args.length > 0) ? a.to_s(args.first) : a
define_method "#{name}=" do |file|
define_method "#{name}?" do
validates_each(name) do |record, attr, value|
attachment = record.attachment_for(name)
# Places ActiveRecord-style validations on the size of the file assigned. The
# possible options are:
# * +in+: a Range of bytes (i.e. +1..1.megabyte+),
# * +less_than+: equivalent to :in => 0..options[:less_than]
# * +greater_than+: equivalent to :in => options[:greater_than]..Infinity
# * +message+: error message to display, use :min and :max as replacements
# * +if+: A lambda or name of a method on the instance. Validation will only
# be run is this lambda or method returns true.
# * +unless+: Same as +if+ but validates if lambda or method returns false.
def validates_attachment_size name, options = {}
min = options[:greater_than] || (options[:in] && options[:in].first) || 0
max = options[:less_than] || (options[:in] && options[:in].last) || (1.0/0)
range = (min..max)
message = options[:message] || "file size must be between :min and :max bytes."
message = message.gsub(/:min/, min.to_s).gsub(/:max/, max.to_s)
validates_inclusion_of :"#{name}_file_size",
:in => range,
:message => message,
:if => options[:if],
:unless => options[:unless]
# Adds errors if thumbnail creation fails. The same as specifying :whiny_thumbnails => true.
def validates_attachment_thumbnails name, options = {}
warn('[DEPRECATION] validates_attachment_thumbnail is deprecated. ' +
'This validation is on by default and will be removed from future versions. ' +
'If you wish to turn it off, supply :whiny => false in your definition.')
attachment_definitions[name][:whiny_thumbnails] = true
# Places ActiveRecord-style validations on the presence of a file.
# Options:
# * +if+: A lambda or name of a method on the instance. Validation will only
# be run is this lambda or method returns true.
# * +unless+: Same as +if+ but validates if lambda or method returns false.
def validates_attachment_presence name, options = {}
message = options[:message] || "must be set."
validates_presence_of :"#{name}_file_name",
:message => message,
:if => options[:if],
:unless => options[:unless]
# Places ActiveRecord-style validations on the content type of the file
# assigned. The possible options are:
# * +content_type+: Allowed content types. Can be a single content type
# or an array. Each type can be a String or a Regexp. It should be
# noted that Internet Explorer upload files with content_types that you
# may not expect. For example, JPEG images are given image/pjpeg and
# PNGs are image/x-png, so keep that in mind when determining how you
# match. Allows all by default.
# * +message+: The message to display when the uploaded file has an invalid
# content type.
# * +if+: A lambda or name of a method on the instance. Validation will only
# be run is this lambda or method returns true.
# * +unless+: Same as +if+ but validates if lambda or method returns false.
# NOTE: If you do not specify an [attachment]_content_type field on your
# model, content_type validation will work _ONLY upon assignment_ and
# re-validation after the instance has been reloaded will always succeed.
def validates_attachment_content_type name, options = {}
types = [options.delete(:content_type)].flatten
validates_each(:"#{name}_content_type", options) do |record, attr, value|
unless types.any?{|t| t === value }
if record.errors.method(:add).arity == -2
message = options[:message] || "is not one of #{types.join(", ")}"
record.errors.add(:"#{name}_content_type", message)
record.errors.add(:"#{name}_content_type", :inclusion, :default => options[:message], :value => value)
# Returns the attachment definitions defined by each call to
# has_attached_file.
def attachment_definitions
module InstanceMethods #:nodoc:
def attachment_for name
@_paperclip_attachments ||= {}
@_paperclip_attachments[name] ||=, self, self.class.attachment_definitions[name])
def each_attachment
self.class.attachment_definitions.each do |name, definition|
yield(name, attachment_for(name))
def save_attached_files"[paperclip] Saving attachments.")
each_attachment do |name, attachment|
def destroy_attached_files"[paperclip] Deleting attachments.")
each_attachment do |name, attachment|
# Set it all up.
if Object.const_defined?("ActiveRecord")
ActiveRecord::Base.send(:include, Paperclip)
File.send(:include, Paperclip::Upfile)
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