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README.textile

Scrooge

A Framework and ORM agnostic Model / record attribute tracker to ensure production
Ruby applications only fetch the database content needed to minimize wire traffic
and reduce conversion overheads to native Ruby types.

This is mostly an experiment into unobtrusive tracking, respecting development workflows
and understanding Rack internals better.

Why bother ?

  • Object conversion and moving unnecessary data is both expensive and tax existing infrastructure in high load setups
  • Manually extracting and scoping SELECT clauses is not sustainable in a clean and painless manner with iterative development, even less so in large projects.

Suggested Use

There’s 3 basic modes of operation :

  • Track : Track attribute access to dump a representative scope profile.
  • Scope : Scope the process and related resources to a previously persisted scope profile.
  • Track then scope : A multi-stage strategy that tracks attribute access for a given warmup period, aggregates the results
    across multiple processes and enforce a scoping policy representative of the tracking phase.

Resources

A resource is :

  • A controller and action endpoint ( inferred through framework specific routing )
  • A content type / format – a PDF representation may have different Model attribute requirements than a vanilla ERB view.
  • Request method – typically popular public facing GET requests
  • Public or Private as a logged in / authenticated representation likely have different attribute requirements.

All Model to attribute mappings is tracked on a per Resource basis.Multiple Models per Resource is supported.

Strategies

Tracking

In tracking mode Scrooge installs filters ( either through Rack middleware or framework specific hooks ) that track attribute access on a per Resource basis.

A Kernel#at_exit callback dumps and timestamps this profile ( or scope ) to eg. framework_configuration_directory/config/scopes/1234147851/scope.yml

This typically works well with functional or integration testing and can yield a substantial birds eye view of attribute
use.The accuracy is directly proportional to test coverage and the quality of the test suite.

Example log output :


  Processing HotelsController#index (for 0.0.0.0 at 2009-02-09 02:55:55) [GET]
    Parameters: {"action"=>"index", "controller"=>"hotels"}
    Hotel Load (0.3ms)   SELECT * FROM `hotels` LIMIT 0, 15
  Rendering template within layouts/application
  Rendering hotels/index
    Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 491) LIMIT 1
  [Scrooge] read attribute updated_at
  Rendered hotels/_hotel (2.7ms)
  Rendered shared/_header (0.1ms)
  Rendered shared/_navigation (0.3ms)
  Missing template hotels/_index_sidebar.erb in view path app/views
  Rendered shared/_sidebar (0.1ms)
  Rendered shared/_footer (0.1ms)
  Completed in 91ms (View: 90, DB: 1) | 200 OK [http://test.host/hotels]
    SQL (0.3ms)   ROLLBACK
    SQL (0.1ms)   BEGIN

An example scope / profile, saved to disk :


--- 
- hotels_show_get: 
    :action: show
    :controller: hotels
    :method: :get
    :is_public: true
    :format: "*/*"
    :models: 
    - Address: 
      - line1
      - line2
      - created_at
      - postcode
      - updated_at
      - country_id
      - county
      - location_id
      - town
      - hotel_id
    - Hotel: 
      - important_notes
      - location_id
- locations_index_get: 
    :action: index
    :controller: locations
    :method: :get
    :is_public: true
    :format: "*/*"
    :models: 
    - Location: 
      - name
      - created_at
      - code
      - updated_at
      - level
      - id
- countries_index_get: 
    :action: index
    :controller: countries
    :method: :get
    :is_public: true
    :format: "*/*"
    :models: 
    - Country: 
      - name
      - created_at
      - code
      - updated_at
      - id
      - location_id
      - continent_id
- hotels_index_get: 
    :action: index
    :controller: hotels
    :method: :get
    :is_public: true
    :format: "*/*"
    :models: 
    - Hotel: 
      - from_price
      - narrative
      - star_rating
      - latitude
      - created_at
      - hotel_name
      - updated_at
      - important_notes
      - id
      - apt
      - location_id
      - nearest_tube
      - longitude
      - telephone
      - nearest_rail
      - location_name
      - distance
    - Image: 
      - thumbnail_width
      - created_at
      - title
      - updated_at
      - url
      - thumbnail_height
      - height
      - thumbnail_url
      - has_thumbnail
      - hotel_id
      - width

Scope

A previously persisted scope / profile can be restored from disk and injected to the applicable Resources.Database content retrieved will match that of the given scope timestamp.

This is typically pushed to production where a hybrid ( track then scope strategy) mode of operation is frowned upon and adjusted for each major release or deployment.

Example log output :


  Processing HotelsController#index (for 0.0.0.0 at 2009-02-09 02:59:41) [GET]
    Parameters: {"action"=>"index", "controller"=>"hotels"}
    Hotel Load (0.4ms)   SELECT hotels.narrative, hotels.from_price, hotels.created_at, hotels.latitude, hotels.star_rating, hotels.hotel_name, hotels.updated_at, hotels.important_notes, hotels.apt, hotels.id, hotels.nearest_tube, hotels.location_id, hotels.nearest_rail, hotels.telephone, hotels.longitude, hotels.distance, hotels.location_name FROM `hotels` LIMIT 0, 15
  Rendering template within layouts/application
  Rendering hotels/index
    Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT images.created_at, images.thumbnail_width, images.title, images.updated_at, images.url, images.id, images.thumbnail_height, images.height, images.thumbnail_url, images.has_thumbnail, images.width, images.hotel_id FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 491) LIMIT 1
  Rendered hotels/_hotel (2.8ms)
  Rendered shared/_header (0.1ms)
  Rendered shared/_navigation (0.3ms)
  Missing template hotels/_index_sidebar.erb in view path app/views
  Rendered shared/_sidebar (0.1ms)
  Rendered shared/_footer (0.1ms)
  Completed in 90ms (View: 5, DB: 1) | 200 OK [http://test.host/hotels]
    SQL (0.1ms)   ROLLBACK
    SQL (0.1ms)   BEGIN

Track then scope

Multi-stage and self configuring strategy that tracks attribute access for a given warmup period, synchronize the results across n-1 processes, aggregate the results to be representative of the whole cluster ( or seamless fallback to a single process ), remove the tracking filters and install functionality that scopes database access to that of the tracking phase.

Recommended for production use.

Example log output :


Processing HotelsController#index (for 127.0.0.1 at 2009-02-16 00:00:58) [GET]
  Parameters: {"action"=>"index", "controller"=>"hotels"}
  Hotel Load (0.5ms)   SELECT * FROM `hotels` LIMIT 0, 15
  Hotel Columns (7.7ms)   SHOW FIELDS FROM `hotels`
  SQL (3.9ms)   SELECT count(*) AS count_all FROM `hotels` 
Rendering template within layouts/application
Rendering hotels/index
  Image Load (0.5ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 11381) LIMIT 1
  Image Columns (3.6ms)   SHOW FIELDS FROM `images`
Rendered hotels/_hotel (200.2ms)
  Image Load (0.4ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 11382) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (2.4ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 11697) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.8ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 12693) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.7ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 12738) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.6ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 12886) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.9ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13007) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.8ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13074) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.5ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13077) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.6ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13078) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.8ms)
  Image Load (0.3ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13079) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (2.4ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13080) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.8ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13082) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.5ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13085) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.8ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13105) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.6ms)
Rendered shared/_header (0.4ms)
Rendered shared/_navigation (0.8ms)
Missing template hotels/_index_sidebar.erb in view path app/views
Rendered shared/_sidebar (0.4ms)
Rendered shared/_footer (0.3ms)
Completed in 270ms (View: 243, DB: 20) | 200 OK [http://localhost/hotels]
[Scrooge] Execute stage :synchronize ...
[Scrooge] Uninstalling tracking middleware ... 
[Scrooge] Stop tracking ... 
[Scrooge] Synchronize results with other processes ...
Cache write: 17619400_63223_756033
Cache read: scrooge_tracker_aggregation
Cache write: scrooge_tracker_aggregation
[Scrooge] Execute stage :aggregate ...
[Scrooge] Aggregate results from other processes ...


Processing HotelsController#index (for 127.0.0.1 at 2009-02-16 00:01:37) [GET]
  Parameters: {"action"=>"index", "controller"=>"hotels"}
  Hotel Load (0.5ms)   SELECT * FROM `hotels` LIMIT 0, 15
  SQL (0.2ms)   SELECT count(*) AS count_all FROM `hotels` 
Rendering template within layouts/application
Rendering hotels/index
  Image Load (0.3ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 11381) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (2.0ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 11382) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.8ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 11697) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.7ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 12693) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.6ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 12738) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.5ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 12886) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.8ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13007) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.8ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13074) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.4ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13077) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.6ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13078) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.6ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13079) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.8ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13080) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.7ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13082) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.5ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13085) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.7ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT * FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13105) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (81.1ms)
Rendered shared/_header (0.1ms)
Rendered shared/_navigation (0.3ms)
Missing template hotels/_index_sidebar.erb in view path app/views
Rendered shared/_sidebar (0.1ms)
Rendered shared/_footer (0.1ms)
Completed in 113ms (View: 107, DB: 4) | 200 OK [http://localhost/hotels]
Cache read: scrooge_tracker_aggregation
Cache read: 17619400_63223_756033
[Scrooge] Execute stage :scope ...
[Scrooge] Scope ...


Processing HotelsController#index (for 127.0.0.1 at 2009-02-16 00:01:53) [GET]
  Parameters: {"action"=>"index", "controller"=>"hotels"}
  Hotel Load (0.7ms)   SELECT hotels.narrative, hotels.from_price, hotels.created_at, hotels.latitude, hotels.star_rating, hotels.hotel_name, hotels.updated_at, hotels.important_notes, hotels.apt, hotels.id, hotels.nearest_tube, hotels.location_id, hotels.nearest_rail, hotels.telephone, hotels.longitude, hotels.distance, hotels.location_name FROM `hotels` LIMIT 0, 15
  SQL (0.2ms)   SELECT count(*) AS count_all FROM `hotels` 
Rendering template within layouts/application
Rendering hotels/index
  Image Load (0.3ms)   SELECT images.created_at, images.thumbnail_width, images.title, images.updated_at, images.url, images.id, images.thumbnail_height, images.height, images.thumbnail_url, images.has_thumbnail, images.width, images.hotel_id FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 11381) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (2.0ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT images.created_at, images.thumbnail_width, images.title, images.updated_at, images.url, images.id, images.thumbnail_height, images.height, images.thumbnail_url, images.has_thumbnail, images.width, images.hotel_id FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 11382) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.7ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT images.created_at, images.thumbnail_width, images.title, images.updated_at, images.url, images.id, images.thumbnail_height, images.height, images.thumbnail_url, images.has_thumbnail, images.width, images.hotel_id FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 11697) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.7ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT images.created_at, images.thumbnail_width, images.title, images.updated_at, images.url, images.id, images.thumbnail_height, images.height, images.thumbnail_url, images.has_thumbnail, images.width, images.hotel_id FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 12693) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.7ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT images.created_at, images.thumbnail_width, images.title, images.updated_at, images.url, images.id, images.thumbnail_height, images.height, images.thumbnail_url, images.has_thumbnail, images.width, images.hotel_id FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 12738) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.5ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT images.created_at, images.thumbnail_width, images.title, images.updated_at, images.url, images.id, images.thumbnail_height, images.height, images.thumbnail_url, images.has_thumbnail, images.width, images.hotel_id FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 12886) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.7ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT images.created_at, images.thumbnail_width, images.title, images.updated_at, images.url, images.id, images.thumbnail_height, images.height, images.thumbnail_url, images.has_thumbnail, images.width, images.hotel_id FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13007) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.8ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT images.created_at, images.thumbnail_width, images.title, images.updated_at, images.url, images.id, images.thumbnail_height, images.height, images.thumbnail_url, images.has_thumbnail, images.width, images.hotel_id FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13074) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.4ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT images.created_at, images.thumbnail_width, images.title, images.updated_at, images.url, images.id, images.thumbnail_height, images.height, images.thumbnail_url, images.has_thumbnail, images.width, images.hotel_id FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13077) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.5ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT images.created_at, images.thumbnail_width, images.title, images.updated_at, images.url, images.id, images.thumbnail_height, images.height, images.thumbnail_url, images.has_thumbnail, images.width, images.hotel_id FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13078) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.8ms)
  Image Load (0.3ms)   SELECT images.created_at, images.thumbnail_width, images.title, images.updated_at, images.url, images.id, images.thumbnail_height, images.height, images.thumbnail_url, images.has_thumbnail, images.width, images.hotel_id FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13079) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.9ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT images.created_at, images.thumbnail_width, images.title, images.updated_at, images.url, images.id, images.thumbnail_height, images.height, images.thumbnail_url, images.has_thumbnail, images.width, images.hotel_id FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13080) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.7ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT images.created_at, images.thumbnail_width, images.title, images.updated_at, images.url, images.id, images.thumbnail_height, images.height, images.thumbnail_url, images.has_thumbnail, images.width, images.hotel_id FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13082) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.5ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT images.created_at, images.thumbnail_width, images.title, images.updated_at, images.url, images.id, images.thumbnail_height, images.height, images.thumbnail_url, images.has_thumbnail, images.width, images.hotel_id FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13085) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.7ms)
  Image Load (0.2ms)   SELECT images.created_at, images.thumbnail_width, images.title, images.updated_at, images.url, images.id, images.thumbnail_height, images.height, images.thumbnail_url, images.has_thumbnail, images.width, images.hotel_id FROM `images` WHERE (`images`.hotel_id = 13105) LIMIT 1
Rendered hotels/_hotel (1.7ms)
Rendered shared/_header (0.1ms)
Rendered shared/_navigation (0.2ms)
Missing template hotels/_index_sidebar.erb in view path app/views
Rendered shared/_sidebar (0.0ms)
Rendered shared/_footer (0.0ms)
Completed in 34ms (View: 27, DB: 4) | 200 OK [http://localhost/hotels]

Installation

As a Rails plugin ( Recommended )

./script/plugin install git://github.com/methodmissing/scrooge.git

From Git

git pull git://github.com/methodmissing/scrooge.git

As a Gem

sudo gem install methodmissing-scrooge -s http://gems.github.com

Configuration

Scrooge installs ( see recommended installation above ) a configuration file with the following format within *framework_configuration_directory/scrooge.yml ( RAILS_ROOT/config/scrooge.yml for a Rails setup ) :


  production:
    orm: :active_record
    storage: :memory
    strategy: :track_then_scope
    warmup: 600 # warmup / track for 10 minutes
    scope:
    on_missing_attribute: :reload # or :raise
    logged_in_session: :user_id # session key that represents the logged in user 
    enabled: true     
 development:
    orm: :active_record
    storage: :memory
    strategy: :track
    warmup: 600 # warmup / track for 10 minutes
    scope: 
    on_missing_attribute: :reload # or :raise
    logged_in_session: :user_id # session key that represents the logged in user 
    enabled: true    
  test:
    orm: :active_record
    storage: :memory  
    strategy: :track
    warmup: 600 # warmup / track for 10 minutes
    scope:
    on_missing_attribute: :reload # or :raise
    logged_in_session: :user_id # session key that represents the logged in user 
    enabled: true

ORM

Scrooge is ORM agnostic and ships with an ActiveRecord layer.


  orm: :active_record

Storage backend

Tracking results can be persisted to a given backend or storage option.Ships with a memory store, but can be extended to file system, memcached etc. as all Tracker components is designed to be Marshal friendly.A stub for future functionality.


  storage: :memory

Verbose

Log all tracking interactions to the framework logger when enabled.Disabled for production.


  verbose: false

Strategy

One of :track, :scope or :track_then_scope .Only the :track_then_scope strategy respects the :warmup configuration option.

Warmup

The designated warmup period for the :track_then_scope strategy, given in seconds.Typically 600 to 3600.


  warmup: 600	

Scope

A scope is a reference to a timestamped Scrooge run where access to Model attributes is tracked on a per Resource basis.


  scope: 1234567891

If not scope is given in the configuration, ENV[‘scope’] would also be considered to facilitate configuration through Capistrano etc.

Handling Missing Attributes

When the contents for a given Model attribute has not been retrieved from the database, most ORM frameworks raise an error by default.This is configurable to reloading the model with all it’s columns or raise instead.


  on_missing_attribute: :reload # or :raise

Private and Public Resources

An authenticated or logged in resource likely has different model requirements than it’s public counterpart.


  logged_in_session: :user_id # session key that represents the logged in user 

Status

Scrooge can be disabled with :


  enabled: false 

Rails specific rake tasks.

Ships with tasks to assist in inspecting results.


methodmissing:superbreak_app lourens$ rake scrooge:list
(in /Users/lourens/projects/superbreak_app)
- 1234735663
- 1234735722
- 1234735744
- 1234735790
- 1234738880
methodmissing:superbreak_app lourens$ rake scope=1234735790 scrooge:inspect
(in /Users/lourens/projects/superbreak_app)
#<GET :hotels/show (*/*)
 - #<Hotel :important_notes, :location_id>
 - #<Address :line1, :created_at, :line2, :postcode, :updated_at, :country_id, :county, :location_id, :town, :hotel_id>

#<GET :countries/index (*/*)
 - #<Country :name, :created_at, :code, :updated_at, :id, :location_id, :continent_id>

#<GET :locations/index (*/*)
 - #<Location :name, :created_at, :code, :updated_at, :level, :id>

#<GET :hotels/index (*/*)
 - #<Image :created_at, :thumbnail_width, :title, :updated_at, :url, :thumbnail_height, :height, :thumbnail_url, :has_thumbnail, :width, :hotel_id>
 - #<Hotel :narrative, :from_price, :created_at, :latitude, :star_rating, :hotel_name, :updated_at, :important_notes, :apt, :id, :nearest_tube, :location_id, :nearest_rail, :telephone, :longitude, :distance, :location_name>
	

Notes

This is an initial release, has not yet been battle tested in production and is pending Ruby 1.9.1 compatibility.

Developed on and for Rails 2.3, known to work with Rails 2.2.2

Known pending issues

  • Do not track columns that isn’t explicitly defined ( AR counter caching checks etc. ) :
    <pre> ActiveRecord::StatementInvalid (Mysql::Error: Unknown column 'orders.brochures_count' in 'field list': SELECT orders.brochures_count, orders.id FROM `orders` WHERE (`orders`.`id` = 1688139) LIMIT 1)
  • alias_attribute compatibility
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