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// MFEM Example 16 - Parallel Version
//
// Compile with: make ex16p
//
// Sample runs: mpirun -np 4 ex16p
// mpirun -np 4 ex16p -m ../data/inline-tri.mesh
// mpirun -np 4 ex16p -m ../data/disc-nurbs.mesh -tf 2
// mpirun -np 4 ex16p -s 1 -a 0.0 -k 1.0
// mpirun -np 4 ex16p -s 2 -a 1.0 -k 0.0
// mpirun -np 8 ex16p -s 3 -a 0.5 -k 0.5 -o 4
// mpirun -np 4 ex16p -s 14 -dt 1.0e-4 -tf 4.0e-2 -vs 40
// mpirun -np 16 ex16p -m ../data/fichera-q2.mesh
// mpirun -np 16 ex16p -m ../data/escher-p2.mesh
// mpirun -np 8 ex16p -m ../data/beam-tet.mesh -tf 10 -dt 0.1
// mpirun -np 4 ex16p -m ../data/amr-quad.mesh -o 4 -rs 0 -rp 0
// mpirun -np 4 ex16p -m ../data/amr-hex.mesh -o 2 -rs 0 -rp 0
//
// Description: This example solves a time dependent nonlinear heat equation
// problem of the form du/dt = C(u), with a non-linear diffusion
// operator C(u) = \nabla \cdot (\kappa + \alpha u) \nabla u.
//
// The example demonstrates the use of nonlinear operators (the
// class ConductionOperator defining C(u)), as well as their
// implicit time integration. Note that implementing the method
// ConductionOperator::ImplicitSolve is the only requirement for
// high-order implicit (SDIRK) time integration.
//
// We recommend viewing examples 2, 9 and 10 before viewing this
// example.
#include "mfem.hpp"
#include <fstream>
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
using namespace mfem;
/** After spatial discretization, the conduction model can be written as:
*
* du/dt = M^{-1}(-Ku)
*
* where u is the vector representing the temperature, M is the mass matrix,
* and K is the diffusion operator with diffusivity depending on u:
* (\kappa + \alpha u).
*
* Class ConductionOperator represents the right-hand side of the above ODE.
*/
class ConductionOperator : public TimeDependentOperator
{
protected:
ParFiniteElementSpace &fespace;
Array<int> ess_tdof_list; // this list remains empty for pure Neumann b.c.
ParBilinearForm *M;
ParBilinearForm *K;
HypreParMatrix Mmat;
HypreParMatrix Kmat;
HypreParMatrix *T; // T = M + dt K
double current_dt;
CGSolver M_solver; // Krylov solver for inverting the mass matrix M
HypreSmoother M_prec; // Preconditioner for the mass matrix M
CGSolver T_solver; // Implicit solver for T = M + dt K
HypreSmoother T_prec; // Preconditioner for the implicit solver
double alpha, kappa;
mutable Vector z; // auxiliary vector
public:
ConductionOperator(ParFiniteElementSpace &f, double alpha, double kappa,
const Vector &u);
virtual void Mult(const Vector &u, Vector &du_dt) const;
/** Solve the Backward-Euler equation: k = f(u + dt*k, t), for the unknown k.
This is the only requirement for high-order SDIRK implicit integration.*/
virtual void ImplicitSolve(const double dt, const Vector &u, Vector &k);
/// Update the diffusion BilinearForm K using the given true-dof vector `u`.
void SetParameters(const Vector &u);
virtual ~ConductionOperator();
};
double InitialTemperature(const Vector &x);
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
// 1. Initialize MPI.
int num_procs, myid;
MPI_Init(&argc, &argv);
MPI_Comm_size(MPI_COMM_WORLD, &num_procs);
MPI_Comm_rank(MPI_COMM_WORLD, &myid);
// 2. Parse command-line options.
const char *mesh_file = "../data/star.mesh";
int ser_ref_levels = 2;
int par_ref_levels = 1;
int order = 2;
int ode_solver_type = 3;
double t_final = 0.5;
double dt = 1.0e-2;
double alpha = 1.0e-2;
double kappa = 0.5;
bool visualization = true;
bool visit = false;
int vis_steps = 5;
int precision = 8;
cout.precision(precision);
OptionsParser args(argc, argv);
args.AddOption(&mesh_file, "-m", "--mesh",
"Mesh file to use.");
args.AddOption(&ser_ref_levels, "-rs", "--refine-serial",
"Number of times to refine the mesh uniformly in serial.");
args.AddOption(&par_ref_levels, "-rp", "--refine-parallel",
"Number of times to refine the mesh uniformly in parallel.");
args.AddOption(&order, "-o", "--order",
"Order (degree) of the finite elements.");
args.AddOption(&ode_solver_type, "-s", "--ode-solver",
"ODE solver: 1 - Backward Euler, 2 - SDIRK2, 3 - SDIRK3,\n\t"
"\t 11 - Forward Euler, 12 - RK2, 13 - RK3 SSP, 14 - RK4.");
args.AddOption(&t_final, "-tf", "--t-final",
"Final time; start time is 0.");
args.AddOption(&dt, "-dt", "--time-step",
"Time step.");
args.AddOption(&alpha, "-a", "--alpha",
"Alpha coefficient.");
args.AddOption(&kappa, "-k", "--kappa",
"Kappa coefficient offset.");
args.AddOption(&visualization, "-vis", "--visualization", "-no-vis",
"--no-visualization",
"Enable or disable GLVis visualization.");
args.AddOption(&visit, "-visit", "--visit-datafiles", "-no-visit",
"--no-visit-datafiles",
"Save data files for VisIt (visit.llnl.gov) visualization.");
args.AddOption(&vis_steps, "-vs", "--visualization-steps",
"Visualize every n-th timestep.");
args.Parse();
if (!args.Good())
{
args.PrintUsage(cout);
MPI_Finalize();
return 1;
}
if (myid == 0)
{
args.PrintOptions(cout);
}
// 3. Read the serial mesh from the given mesh file on all processors. We can
// handle triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral and hexahedral meshes
// with the same code.
Mesh *mesh = new Mesh(mesh_file, 1, 1);
int dim = mesh->Dimension();
// 4. Define the ODE solver used for time integration. Several implicit
// singly diagonal implicit Runge-Kutta (SDIRK) methods, as well as
// explicit Runge-Kutta methods are available.
ODESolver *ode_solver;
switch (ode_solver_type)
{
// Implicit L-stable methods
case 1: ode_solver = new BackwardEulerSolver; break;
case 2: ode_solver = new SDIRK23Solver(2); break;
case 3: ode_solver = new SDIRK33Solver; break;
// Explicit methods
case 11: ode_solver = new ForwardEulerSolver; break;
case 12: ode_solver = new RK2Solver(0.5); break; // midpoint method
case 13: ode_solver = new RK3SSPSolver; break;
case 14: ode_solver = new RK4Solver; break;
case 15: ode_solver = new GeneralizedAlphaSolver(0.5); break;
// Implicit A-stable methods (not L-stable)
case 22: ode_solver = new ImplicitMidpointSolver; break;
case 23: ode_solver = new SDIRK23Solver; break;
case 24: ode_solver = new SDIRK34Solver; break;
default:
cout << "Unknown ODE solver type: " << ode_solver_type << '\n';
delete mesh;
return 3;
}
// 5. Refine the mesh in serial to increase the resolution. In this example
// we do 'ser_ref_levels' of uniform refinement, where 'ser_ref_levels' is
// a command-line parameter.
for (int lev = 0; lev < ser_ref_levels; lev++)
{
mesh->UniformRefinement();
}
// 6. Define a parallel mesh by a partitioning of the serial mesh. Refine
// this mesh further in parallel to increase the resolution. Once the
// parallel mesh is defined, the serial mesh can be deleted.
ParMesh *pmesh = new ParMesh(MPI_COMM_WORLD, *mesh);
delete mesh;
for (int lev = 0; lev < par_ref_levels; lev++)
{
pmesh->UniformRefinement();
}
// 7. Define the vector finite element space representing the current and the
// initial temperature, u_ref.
H1_FECollection fe_coll(order, dim);
ParFiniteElementSpace fespace(pmesh, &fe_coll);
int fe_size = fespace.GlobalTrueVSize();
if (myid == 0)
{
cout << "Number of temperature unknowns: " << fe_size << endl;
}
ParGridFunction u_gf(&fespace);
// 8. Set the initial conditions for u. All boundaries are considered
// natural.
FunctionCoefficient u_0(InitialTemperature);
u_gf.ProjectCoefficient(u_0);
Vector u;
u_gf.GetTrueDofs(u);
// 9. Initialize the conduction operator and the VisIt visualization.
ConductionOperator oper(fespace, alpha, kappa, u);
u_gf.SetFromTrueDofs(u);
{
ostringstream mesh_name, sol_name;
mesh_name << "ex16-mesh." << setfill('0') << setw(6) << myid;
sol_name << "ex16-init." << setfill('0') << setw(6) << myid;
ofstream omesh(mesh_name.str().c_str());
omesh.precision(precision);
pmesh->Print(omesh);
ofstream osol(sol_name.str().c_str());
osol.precision(precision);
u_gf.Save(osol);
}
VisItDataCollection visit_dc("Example16-Parallel", pmesh);
visit_dc.RegisterField("temperature", &u_gf);
if (visit)
{
visit_dc.SetCycle(0);
visit_dc.SetTime(0.0);
visit_dc.Save();
}
socketstream sout;
if (visualization)
{
char vishost[] = "localhost";
int visport = 19916;
sout.open(vishost, visport);
sout << "parallel " << num_procs << " " << myid << endl;
int good = sout.good(), all_good;
MPI_Allreduce(&good, &all_good, 1, MPI_INT, MPI_MIN, pmesh->GetComm());
if (!all_good)
{
sout.close();
visualization = false;
if (myid == 0)
{
cout << "Unable to connect to GLVis server at "
<< vishost << ':' << visport << endl;
cout << "GLVis visualization disabled.\n";
}
}
else
{
sout.precision(precision);
sout << "solution\n" << *pmesh << u_gf;
sout << "pause\n";
sout << flush;
if (myid == 0)
{
cout << "GLVis visualization paused."
<< " Press space (in the GLVis window) to resume it.\n";
}
}
}
// 10. Perform time-integration (looping over the time iterations, ti, with a
// time-step dt).
ode_solver->Init(oper);
double t = 0.0;
bool last_step = false;
for (int ti = 1; !last_step; ti++)
{
if (t + dt >= t_final - dt/2)
{
last_step = true;
}
ode_solver->Step(u, t, dt);
if (last_step || (ti % vis_steps) == 0)
{
if (myid == 0)
{
cout << "step " << ti << ", t = " << t << endl;
}
u_gf.SetFromTrueDofs(u);
if (visualization)
{
sout << "parallel " << num_procs << " " << myid << "\n";
sout << "solution\n" << *pmesh << u_gf << flush;
}
if (visit)
{
visit_dc.SetCycle(ti);
visit_dc.SetTime(t);
visit_dc.Save();
}
}
oper.SetParameters(u);
}
// 11. Save the final solution in parallel. This output can be viewed later
// using GLVis: "glvis -np <np> -m ex16-mesh -g ex16-final".
{
ostringstream sol_name;
sol_name << "ex16-final." << setfill('0') << setw(6) << myid;
ofstream osol(sol_name.str().c_str());
osol.precision(precision);
u_gf.Save(osol);
}
// 12. Free the used memory.
delete ode_solver;
delete pmesh;
MPI_Finalize();
return 0;
}
ConductionOperator::ConductionOperator(ParFiniteElementSpace &f, double al,
double kap, const Vector &u)
: TimeDependentOperator(f.GetTrueVSize(), 0.0), fespace(f), M(NULL), K(NULL),
T(NULL), current_dt(0.0),
M_solver(f.GetComm()), T_solver(f.GetComm()), z(height)
{
const double rel_tol = 1e-8;
M = new ParBilinearForm(&fespace);
M->AddDomainIntegrator(new MassIntegrator());
M->Assemble(0); // keep sparsity pattern of M and K the same
M->FormSystemMatrix(ess_tdof_list, Mmat);
M_solver.iterative_mode = false;
M_solver.SetRelTol(rel_tol);
M_solver.SetAbsTol(0.0);
M_solver.SetMaxIter(100);
M_solver.SetPrintLevel(0);
M_prec.SetType(HypreSmoother::Jacobi);
M_solver.SetPreconditioner(M_prec);
M_solver.SetOperator(Mmat);
alpha = al;
kappa = kap;
T_solver.iterative_mode = false;
T_solver.SetRelTol(rel_tol);
T_solver.SetAbsTol(0.0);
T_solver.SetMaxIter(100);
T_solver.SetPrintLevel(0);
T_solver.SetPreconditioner(T_prec);
SetParameters(u);
}
void ConductionOperator::Mult(const Vector &u, Vector &du_dt) const
{
// Compute:
// du_dt = M^{-1}*-K(u)
// for du_dt
Kmat.Mult(u, z);
z.Neg(); // z = -z
M_solver.Mult(z, du_dt);
}
void ConductionOperator::ImplicitSolve(const double dt,
const Vector &u, Vector &du_dt)
{
// Solve the equation:
// du_dt = M^{-1}*[-K(u + dt*du_dt)]
// for du_dt
if (!T)
{
T = Add(1.0, Mmat, dt, Kmat);
current_dt = dt;
T_solver.SetOperator(*T);
}
MFEM_VERIFY(dt == current_dt, ""); // SDIRK methods use the same dt
Kmat.Mult(u, z);
z.Neg();
T_solver.Mult(z, du_dt);
}
void ConductionOperator::SetParameters(const Vector &u)
{
ParGridFunction u_alpha_gf(&fespace);
u_alpha_gf.SetFromTrueDofs(u);
for (int i = 0; i < u_alpha_gf.Size(); i++)
{
u_alpha_gf(i) = kappa + alpha*u_alpha_gf(i);
}
delete K;
K = new ParBilinearForm(&fespace);
GridFunctionCoefficient u_coeff(&u_alpha_gf);
K->AddDomainIntegrator(new DiffusionIntegrator(u_coeff));
K->Assemble(0); // keep sparsity pattern of M and K the same
K->FormSystemMatrix(ess_tdof_list, Kmat);
delete T;
T = NULL; // re-compute T on the next ImplicitSolve
}
ConductionOperator::~ConductionOperator()
{
delete T;
delete M;
delete K;
}
double InitialTemperature(const Vector &x)
{
if (x.Norml2() < 0.5)
{
return 2.0;
}
else
{
return 1.0;
}
}