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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
Bottle is a fast and simple micro-framework for small web applications. It
offers request dispatching (Routes) with url parameter support, templates,
a built-in HTTP Server and adapters for many third party WSGI/HTTP-server and
template engines - all in a single file and with no dependencies other than the
Python Standard Library.
Homepage and documentation:
Licence (MIT)
Copyright (c) 2009, Marcel Hellkamp.
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
This is an example::
from bottle import route, run, request, response, static_file, abort
def hello_world():
return 'Hello World!'
def hello_name(name):
return 'Hello %s!' % name
@route('/hello', method='POST')
def hello_post():
name = request.POST['name']
return 'Hello %s!' % name
def static(filename):
return static_file(filename, root='/path/to/static/files/')
run(host='localhost', port=8080)
from __future__ import with_statement
__author__ = 'Marcel Hellkamp'
__version__ = '0.8.5'
__license__ = 'MIT'
import base64
import cgi
import email.utils
import functools
import hmac
import inspect
import itertools
import mimetypes
import os
import re
import subprocess
import sys
import thread
import threading
import time
import tokenize
import tempfile
from Cookie import SimpleCookie
from tempfile import TemporaryFile
from traceback import format_exc
from urllib import quote as urlquote
from urlparse import urlunsplit, urljoin
from collections import MutableMapping as DictMixin
except ImportError: # pragma: no cover
from UserDict import DictMixin
from urlparse import parse_qs
except ImportError: # pragma: no cover
from cgi import parse_qs
import cPickle as pickle
except ImportError: # pragma: no cover
import pickle
from json import dumps as json_dumps
except ImportError: # pragma: no cover
from simplejson import dumps as json_dumps
except ImportError: # pragma: no cover
json_dumps = None
if sys.version_info >= (3,0,0): # pragma: no cover
# See Request.POST
from io import BytesIO
from io import TextIOWrapper
class NCTextIOWrapper(TextIOWrapper):
''' Garbage collecting an io.TextIOWrapper(buffer) instance closes the
wrapped buffer. This subclass keeps it open. '''
def close(self): pass
StringType = bytes
def touni(x, enc='utf8'): # Convert anything to unicode (py3)
return str(x, encoding=enc) if isinstance(x, bytes) else str(x)
from StringIO import StringIO as BytesIO
from types import StringType
NCTextIOWrapper = None
def touni(x, enc='utf8'): # Convert anything to unicode (py2)
return x if isinstance(x, unicode) else unicode(str(x), encoding=enc)
def tob(data, enc='utf8'): # Convert strings to bytes (py2 and py3)
return data.encode(enc) if isinstance(data, unicode) else data
# Background compatibility
import warnings
def depr(message, critical=False):
if critical: raise DeprecationWarning(message)
warnings.warn(message, DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=3)
# Exceptions and Events
class BottleException(Exception):
""" A base class for exceptions used by bottle. """
class HTTPResponse(BottleException):
""" Used to break execution and immediately finish the response """
def __init__(self, output='', status=200, header=None):
super(BottleException, self).__init__("HTTP Response %d" % status)
self.status = int(status)
self.output = output
self.headers = HeaderDict(header) if header else None
def apply(self, response):
if self.headers:
for key, value in self.headers.iterallitems():
response.headers[key] = value
response.status = self.status
class HTTPError(HTTPResponse):
""" Used to generate an error page """
def __init__(self, code=500, output='Unknown Error', exception=None, traceback=None, header=None):
super(HTTPError, self).__init__(output, code, header)
self.exception = exception
self.traceback = traceback
def __repr__(self):
return ''.join(ERROR_PAGE_TEMPLATE.render(e=self))
# Routing
class RouteError(BottleException):
""" This is a base class for all routing related exceptions """
class RouteSyntaxError(RouteError):
""" The route parser found something not supported by this router """
class RouteBuildError(RouteError):
""" The route could not been build """
class Route(object):
''' Represents a single route and can parse the dynamic route syntax '''
syntax = re.compile(r'(.*?)(?<!\\):([a-zA-Z_]+)?(?:#(.*?)#)?')
default = '[^/]+'
def __init__(self, route, target=None, name=None, static=False):
""" Create a Route. The route string may contain `:key`,
`:key#regexp#` or `:#regexp#` tokens for each dynamic part of the
route. These can be escaped with a backslash infront of the `:`
and are compleately ignored if static is true. A name may be used
to refer to this route later (depends on Router)
self.route = route = target = name
if static:
self.route = self.route.replace(':','\\:')
self._tokens = None
def tokens(self):
""" Return a list of (type, value) tokens. """
if not self._tokens:
self._tokens = list(self.tokenise(self.route))
return self._tokens
def tokenise(cls, route):
''' Split a string into an iterator of (type, value) tokens. '''
match = None
for match in cls.syntax.finditer(route):
pre, name, rex = match.groups()
if pre: yield ('TXT', pre.replace('\\:',':'))
if rex and name: yield ('VAR', (rex, name))
elif name: yield ('VAR', (cls.default, name))
elif rex: yield ('ANON', rex)
if not match:
yield ('TXT', route.replace('\\:',':'))
elif match.end() < len(route):
yield ('TXT', route[match.end():].replace('\\:',':'))
def group_re(self):
''' Return a regexp pattern with named groups '''
out = ''
for token, data in self.tokens():
if token == 'TXT': out += re.escape(data)
elif token == 'VAR': out += '(?P<%s>%s)' % (data[1], data[0])
elif token == 'ANON': out += '(?:%s)' % data
return out
def flat_re(self):
''' Return a regexp pattern with non-grouping parentheses '''
rf = lambda m: if len( % 2 else + '(?:'
return re.sub(r'(\\*)(\(\?P<[^>]*>|\((?!\?))', rf, self.group_re())
def format_str(self):
''' Return a format string with named fields. '''
out, i = '', 0
for token, value in self.tokens():
if token == 'TXT': out += value.replace('%','%%')
elif token == 'ANON': out += '%%(anon%d)s' % i; i+=1
elif token == 'VAR': out += '%%(%s)s' % value[1]
return out
def static(self):
return not self.is_dynamic()
def is_dynamic(self):
''' Return true if the route contains dynamic parts '''
for token, value in self.tokens():
if token != 'TXT':
return True
return False
def __repr__(self):
return "<Route(%s) />" % repr(self.route)
def __eq__(self, other):
return self.route == other.route
class Router(object):
''' A route associates a string (e.g. URL) with an object (e.g. function)
Some dynamic routes may extract parts of the string and provide them as
a dictionary. This router matches a string against multiple routes and
returns the associated object along with the extracted data.
def __init__(self):
self.routes = [] # List of all installed routes
self.named = {} # Cache for named routes and their format strings
self.static = {} # Cache for static routes
self.dynamic = [] # Search structure for dynamic routes
def add(self, route, target=None, **ka):
""" Add a route->target pair or a :class:`Route` object to the Router.
Return the Route object. See :class:`Route` for details.
if not isinstance(route, Route):
route = Route(route, target, **ka)
if self.get_route(route):
return RouteError('Route %s is not uniqe.' % route)
return route
def get_route(self, route, target=None, **ka):
''' Get a route from the router by specifying either the same
parameters as in :meth:`add` or comparing to an instance of
:class:`Route`. Note that not all parameters are considered by the
compare function. '''
if not isinstance(route, Route):
route = Route(route, **ka)
for known in self.routes:
if route == known:
return known
return None
def match(self, uri):
''' Match an URI and return a (target, urlargs) tuple '''
if uri in self.static:
return self.static[uri], {}
for combined, subroutes in self.dynamic:
match = combined.match(uri)
if not match: continue
target, args_re = subroutes[match.lastindex - 1]
args = args_re.match(uri).groupdict() if args_re else {}
return target, args
return None, {}
def build(self, _name, **args):
''' Build an URI out of a named route and values for te wildcards. '''
return self.named[_name] % args
except KeyError:
raise RouteBuildError("No route found with name '%s'." % _name)
def compile(self):
''' Build the search structures. Call this before actually using the
self.named = {}
self.static = {}
self.dynamic = []
for route in self.routes:
self.named[] = route.format_str()
if route.static:
self.static[route.route] =
gpatt = route.group_re()
fpatt = route.flat_re()
gregexp = re.compile('^(%s)$' % gpatt) if '(?P' in gpatt else None
combined = '%s|(^%s$)' % (self.dynamic[-1][0].pattern, fpatt)
self.dynamic[-1] = (re.compile(combined), self.dynamic[-1][1])
self.dynamic[-1][1].append((, gregexp))
except (AssertionError, IndexError), e: # AssertionError: Too many groups
self.dynamic.append((re.compile('(^%s$)'%fpatt),[(, gregexp)]))
except re.error, e:
raise RouteSyntaxError("Could not add Route: %s (%s)" % (route, e))
def __eq__(self, other):
return self.routes == other.routes
# WSGI abstraction: Application, Request and Response objects
class Bottle(object):
""" WSGI application """
def __init__(self, catchall=True, autojson=True, config=None):
""" Create a new bottle instance.
You usually don't do that. Use `` instead.
self.routes = Router()
self.mounts = {}
self.error_handler = {}
self.catchall = catchall
self.config = config or {}
self.serve = True
self.castfilter = []
if autojson and json_dumps:
self.add_filter(dict, dict2json)
def optimize(self, *a, **ka):
depr("Bottle.optimize() is obsolete.")
def mount(self, app, script_path):
''' Mount a Bottle application to a specific URL prefix '''
if not isinstance(app, Bottle):
raise TypeError('Only Bottle instances are supported for now.')
script_path = '/'.join(filter(None, script_path.split('/')))
path_depth = script_path.count('/') + 1
if not script_path:
raise TypeError('Empty script_path. Perhaps you want a merge()?')
for other in self.mounts:
if other.startswith(script_path):
raise TypeError('Conflict with existing mount: %s' % other)
@self.route('/%s/:#.*#' % script_path, method="ANY")
def mountpoint():
return app.handle(request.path, request.method)
self.mounts[script_path] = app
def add_filter(self, ftype, func):
''' Register a new output filter. Whenever bottle hits a handler output
matching `ftype`, `func` is applied to it. '''
if not isinstance(ftype, type):
raise TypeError("Expected type object, got %s" % type(ftype))
self.castfilter = [(t, f) for (t, f) in self.castfilter if t != ftype]
self.castfilter.append((ftype, func))
def match_url(self, path, method='GET'):
""" Find a callback bound to a path and a specific HTTP method.
Return (callback, param) tuple or raise HTTPError.
method: HEAD falls back to GET. All methods fall back to ANY.
path, method = path.strip().lstrip('/'), method.upper()
callbacks, args = self.routes.match(path)
if not callbacks:
raise HTTPError(404, "Not found: " + path)
if method in callbacks:
return callbacks[method], args
if method == 'HEAD' and 'GET' in callbacks:
return callbacks['GET'], args
if 'ANY' in callbacks:
return callbacks['ANY'], args
allow = [m for m in callbacks if m != 'ANY']
if 'GET' in allow and 'HEAD' not in allow:
raise HTTPError(405, "Method not allowed.",
def get_url(self, routename, **kargs):
""" Return a string that matches a named route """
scriptname = request.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME', '').strip('/') + '/'
location =, **kargs).lstrip('/')
return urljoin(urljoin('/', scriptname), location)
def route(self, path=None, method='GET', **kargs):
""" Decorator: bind a function to a GET request path.
If the path parameter is None, the signature of the decorated
function is used to generate the paths. See yieldroutes()
for details.
The method parameter (default: GET) specifies the HTTP request
method to listen to. You can specify a list of methods too.
def wrapper(callback):
routes = [path] if path else yieldroutes(callback)
methods = method.split(';') if isinstance(method, str) else method
for r in routes:
for m in methods:
r, m = r.strip().lstrip('/'), m.strip().upper()
old = self.routes.get_route(r, **kargs)
if old:[m] = callback
self.routes.add(r, {m: callback}, **kargs)
return callback
return wrapper
def get(self, path=None, method='GET', **kargs):
""" Decorator: Bind a function to a GET request path.
See :meth:'route' for details. """
return self.route(path, method, **kargs)
def post(self, path=None, method='POST', **kargs):
""" Decorator: Bind a function to a POST request path.
See :meth:'route' for details. """
return self.route(path, method, **kargs)
def put(self, path=None, method='PUT', **kargs):
""" Decorator: Bind a function to a PUT request path.
See :meth:'route' for details. """
return self.route(path, method, **kargs)
def delete(self, path=None, method='DELETE', **kargs):
""" Decorator: Bind a function to a DELETE request path.
See :meth:'route' for details. """
return self.route(path, method, **kargs)
def error(self, code=500):
""" Decorator: Registrer an output handler for a HTTP error code"""
def wrapper(handler):
self.error_handler[int(code)] = handler
return handler
return wrapper
def handle(self, url, method):
""" Execute the handler bound to the specified url and method and return
its output. If catchall is true, exceptions are catched and returned as
HTTPError(500) objects. """
if not self.serve:
return HTTPError(503, "Server stopped")
handler, args = self.match_url(url, method)
return handler(**args)
except HTTPResponse, e:
return e
except Exception, e:
if isinstance(e, (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError))\
or not self.catchall:
return HTTPError(500, 'Unhandled exception', e, format_exc(10))
def _cast(self, out, request, response, peek=None):
""" Try to convert the parameter into something WSGI compatible and set
correct HTTP headers when possible.
Support: False, str, unicode, dict, HTTPResponse, HTTPError, file-like,
iterable of strings and iterable of unicodes
# Filtered types (recursive, because they may return anything)
for testtype, filterfunc in self.castfilter:
if isinstance(out, testtype):
return self._cast(filterfunc(out), request, response)
# Empty output is done here
if not out:
response.headers['Content-Length'] = 0
return []
# Join lists of byte or unicode strings. Mixed lists are NOT supported
if isinstance(out, (tuple, list))\
and isinstance(out[0], (StringType, unicode)):
out = out[0][0:0].join(out) # b'abc'[0:0] -> b''
# Encode unicode strings
if isinstance(out, unicode):
out = out.encode(response.charset)
# Byte Strings are just returned
if isinstance(out, StringType):
response.headers['Content-Length'] = str(len(out))
return [out]
# HTTPError or HTTPException (recursive, because they may wrap anything)
if isinstance(out, HTTPError):
return self._cast(self.error_handler.get(out.status, repr)(out), request, response)
if isinstance(out, HTTPResponse):
return self._cast(out.output, request, response)
# File-like objects.
if hasattr(out, 'read'):
if 'wsgi.file_wrapper' in request.environ:
return request.environ['wsgi.file_wrapper'](out)
elif hasattr(out, 'close') or not hasattr(out, '__iter__'):
return WSGIFileWrapper(out)
# Handle Iterables. We peek into them to detect their inner type.
out = iter(out)
first =
while not first:
first =
except StopIteration:
return self._cast('', request, response)
except HTTPResponse, e:
first = e
except Exception, e:
first = HTTPError(500, 'Unhandled exception', e, format_exc(10))
if isinstance(e, (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError))\
or not self.catchall:
# These are the inner types allowed in iterator or generator objects.
if isinstance(first, HTTPResponse):
return self._cast(first, request, response)
if isinstance(first, StringType):
return itertools.chain([first], out)
if isinstance(first, unicode):
return itertools.imap(lambda x: x.encode(response.charset),
itertools.chain([first], out))
return self._cast(HTTPError(500, 'Unsupported response type: %s'\
% type(first)), request, response)
def __call__(self, environ, start_response):
""" The bottle WSGI-interface. """
environ[''] = self
out = self.handle(request.path, request.method)
out = self._cast(out, request, response)
# rfc2616 section 4.3
if response.status in (100, 101, 204, 304) or request.method == 'HEAD':
out = []
status = '%d %s' % (response.status, HTTP_CODES[response.status])
start_response(status, response.headerlist)
return out
except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError):
except Exception, e:
if not self.catchall:
err = '<h1>Critical error while processing request: %s</h1>' \
% environ.get('PATH_INFO', '/')
err += '<h2>Error:</h2>\n<pre>%s</pre>\n' % repr(e)
err += '<h2>Traceback:</h2>\n<pre>%s</pre>\n' % format_exc(10)
environ['wsgi.errors'].write(err) #TODO: wsgi.error should not get html
start_response('500 INTERNAL SERVER ERROR', [('Content-Type', 'text/html')])
return [tob(err)]
class Request(threading.local, DictMixin):
""" Represents a single HTTP request using thread-local attributes.
The Request object wraps a WSGI environment and can be used as such.
def __init__(self, environ=None, config=None):
""" Create a new Request instance.
You usually don't do this but use the global `bottle.request`
instance instead.
self.bind(environ or {}, config)
def bind(self, environ, config=None):
""" Bind a new WSGI enviroment.
This is done automatically for the global `bottle.request`
instance on every request.
self.environ = environ
self.config = config or {}
# These attributes are used anyway, so it is ok to compute them here
self.path = '/' + environ.get('PATH_INFO', '/').lstrip('/')
self.method = environ.get('REQUEST_METHOD', 'GET').upper()
def _environ(self):
depr("Request._environ renamed to Request.environ")
return self.environ
def copy(self):
''' Returns a copy of self '''
return Request(self.environ.copy(), self.config)
def path_shift(self, shift=1):
''' Shift path fragments from PATH_INFO to SCRIPT_NAME and vice versa.
:param shift: The number of path fragments to shift. May be negative to
change the shift direction. (default: 1)
script_name = self.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME','/')
self['SCRIPT_NAME'], self.path = path_shift(script_name, self.path, shift)
self['PATH_INFO'] = self.path
def __getitem__(self, key): return self.environ[key]
def __delitem__(self, key): self[key] = ""; del(self.environ[key])
def __iter__(self): return iter(self.environ)
def __len__(self): return len(self.environ)
def keys(self): return self.environ.keys()
def __setitem__(self, key, value):
""" Shortcut for Request.environ.__setitem__ """
self.environ[key] = value
todelete = []
self.bind(self.environ, self.config)
elif key == 'wsgi.input': todelete = ('body','forms','files','params')
elif key == 'QUERY_STRING': todelete = ('get','params')
elif key.startswith('HTTP_'): todelete = ('headers', 'cookies')
for key in todelete:
if 'bottle.' + key in self.environ:
del self.environ['bottle.' + key]
def query_string(self):
""" The content of the QUERY_STRING environment variable. """
return self.environ.get('QUERY_STRING', '')
def fullpath(self):
""" Request path including SCRIPT_NAME (if present) """
return self.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME', '').rstrip('/') + self.path
def url(self):
""" Full URL as requested by the client (computed).
This value is constructed out of different environment variables
and includes scheme, host, port, scriptname, path and query string.
scheme = self.environ.get('wsgi.url_scheme', 'http')
host = self.environ.get('HTTP_X_FORWARDED_HOST', self.environ.get('HTTP_HOST', None))
if not host:
host = self.environ.get('SERVER_NAME')
port = self.environ.get('SERVER_PORT', '80')
if scheme + port not in ('https443', 'http80'):
host += ':' + port
parts = (scheme, host, urlquote(self.fullpath), self.query_string, '')
return urlunsplit(parts)
def content_length(self):
""" Content-Length header as an integer, -1 if not specified """
return int(self.environ.get('CONTENT_LENGTH','') or -1)
def header(self):
''' :class:`HeaderDict` filled with request headers.
HeaderDict keys are case insensitive str.title()d
if 'bottle.headers' not in self.environ:
header = self.environ['bottle.headers'] = HeaderDict()
for key, value in self.environ.iteritems():
if key.startswith('HTTP_'):
key = key[5:].replace('_','-').title()
header[key] = value
return self.environ['bottle.headers']
def GET(self):
""" The QUERY_STRING parsed into a MultiDict.
Keys and values are strings. Multiple values per key are possible.
See MultiDict for details.
if 'bottle.get' not in self.environ:
data = parse_qs(self.query_string, keep_blank_values=True)
get = self.environ['bottle.get'] = MultiDict()
for key, values in data.iteritems():
for value in values:
get[key] = value
return self.environ['bottle.get']
def POST(self):
""" Property: The HTTP POST body parsed into a MultiDict.
This supports urlencoded and multipart POST requests. Multipart
is commonly used for file uploads and may result in some of the
values being cgi.FieldStorage objects instead of strings.
Multiple values per key are possible. See MultiDict for details.
if '' not in self.environ:
self.environ[''] = MultiDict()
self.environ['bottle.forms'] = MultiDict()
self.environ['bottle.files'] = MultiDict()
safe_env = {'QUERY_STRING':''} # Build a safe environment for cgi
if key in self.environ: safe_env[key] = self.environ[key]
if NCTextIOWrapper:
fb = NCTextIOWrapper(self.body, encoding='ISO-8859-1', newline='\n')
# TODO: Content-Length may be wrong now. Does cgi.FieldStorage
# use it at all? I think not, because all tests pass.
fb = self.body
data = cgi.FieldStorage(fp=fb, environ=safe_env, keep_blank_values=True)
for item in data.list or []:
if item.filename:
self.environ[''][] = item
self.environ['bottle.files'][] = item
self.environ[''][] = item.value
self.environ['bottle.forms'][] = item.value
return self.environ['']
def forms(self):
""" Property: HTTP POST form data parsed into a MultiDict. """
if 'bottle.forms' not in self.environ: self.POST
return self.environ['bottle.forms']
def files(self):
""" Property: HTTP POST file uploads parsed into a MultiDict. """
if 'bottle.files' not in self.environ: self.POST
return self.environ['bottle.files']
def params(self):
""" A combined MultiDict with POST and GET parameters. """
if 'bottle.params' not in self.environ:
self.environ['bottle.params'] = MultiDict(self.GET)
return self.environ['bottle.params']
def body(self):
""" The HTTP request body as a seekable buffer object.
This property returns a copy of the `wsgi.input` stream and should
be used instead of `environ['wsgi.input']`.
if 'bottle.body' not in self.environ:
maxread = max(0, self.content_length)
stream = self.environ['wsgi.input']
body = BytesIO() if maxread < MEMFILE_MAX else TemporaryFile(mode='w+b')
while maxread > 0:
part =, MEMFILE_MAX))
if not part: #TODO: Wrong content_length. Error? Do nothing?
maxread -= len(part)
self.environ['wsgi.input'] = body
self.environ['bottle.body'] = body
return self.environ['bottle.body']
def auth(self): #TODO: Tests and docs. Add support for digest. namedtuple?
""" HTTP authorisation data as a (user, passwd) tuple. (experimental)
This implementation currently only supports basic auth and returns
None on errors.
return parse_auth(self.environ.get('HTTP_AUTHORIZATION',''))
def COOKIES(self):
""" Cookie information parsed into a dictionary.
Secure cookies are NOT decoded automatically. See
Request.get_cookie() for details.
if 'bottle.cookies' not in self.environ:
raw_dict = SimpleCookie(self.environ.get('HTTP_COOKIE',''))
self.environ['bottle.cookies'] = {}
for cookie in raw_dict.itervalues():
self.environ['bottle.cookies'][cookie.key] = cookie.value
return self.environ['bottle.cookies']
def get_cookie(self, name, secret=None):
""" Return the (decoded) value of a cookie. """
value = self.COOKIES.get(name)
dec = cookie_decode(value, secret) if secret else None
return dec or value
def is_ajax(self):
''' True if the request was generated using XMLHttpRequest '''
#TODO: write tests
return self.header.get('X-Requested-With') == 'XMLHttpRequest'
class Response(threading.local):
""" Represents a single HTTP response using thread-local attributes.
def __init__(self, config=None):
def bind(self, config=None):
""" Resets the Response object to its factory defaults. """
self._COOKIES = None
self.status = 200
self.headers = HeaderDict()
self.content_type = 'text/html; charset=UTF-8'
self.config = config or {}
def header(self):
depr("Response.header renamed to Response.headers")
return self.headers
def copy(self):
''' Returns a copy of self '''
copy = Response(self.config)
copy.status = self.status
copy.headers = self.headers.copy()
copy.content_type = self.content_type
return copy
def wsgiheader(self):
''' Returns a wsgi conform list of header/value pairs. '''
for c in self.COOKIES.values():
if c.OutputString() not in self.headers.getall('Set-Cookie'):
self.headers.append('Set-Cookie', c.OutputString())
# rfc2616 section 10.2.3, 10.3.5
if self.status in (204, 304) and 'content-type' in self.headers:
del self.headers['content-type']
if self.status == 304:
for h in ('allow', 'content-encoding', 'content-language',
'content-length', 'content-md5', 'content-range',
'content-type', 'last-modified'): # + c-location, expires?
if h in self.headers:
del self.headers[h]
return list(self.headers.iterallitems())
headerlist = property(wsgiheader)
def charset(self):
""" Return the charset specified in the content-type header.
This defaults to `UTF-8`.
if 'charset=' in self.content_type:
return self.content_type.split('charset=')[-1].split(';')[0].strip()
return 'UTF-8'
def COOKIES(self):
""" A dict-like SimpleCookie instance. Use Response.set_cookie() instead. """
if not self._COOKIES:
self._COOKIES = SimpleCookie()
return self._COOKIES
def set_cookie(self, key, value, secret=None, **kargs):
""" Add a new cookie with various options.
If the cookie value is not a string, a secure cookie is created.
Possible options are:
expires, path, comment, domain, max_age, secure, version, httponly
See for details
if not isinstance(value, basestring):
if not secret:
raise TypeError('Cookies must be strings when secret is not set')
value = cookie_encode(value, secret).decode('ascii') #2to3 hack
self.COOKIES[key] = value
for k, v in kargs.iteritems():
self.COOKIES[key][k.replace('_', '-')] = v
def get_content_type(self):
""" Current 'Content-Type' header. """
return self.headers['Content-Type']
def set_content_type(self, value):
self.headers['Content-Type'] = value
content_type = property(get_content_type, set_content_type, None,
# Data Structures
class MultiDict(DictMixin):
""" A dict that remembers old values for each key """
# collections.MutableMapping would be better for Python >= 2.6
def __init__(self, *a, **k):
self.dict = dict()
for k, v in dict(*a, **k).iteritems():
self[k] = v
def __len__(self): return len(self.dict)
def __iter__(self): return iter(self.dict)
def __contains__(self, key): return key in self.dict
def __delitem__(self, key): del self.dict[key]
def keys(self): return self.dict.keys()
def __getitem__(self, key): return self.get(key, KeyError, -1)
def __setitem__(self, key, value): self.append(key, value)
def append(self, key, value): self.dict.setdefault(key, []).append(value)
def replace(self, key, value): self.dict[key] = [value]
def getall(self, key): return self.dict.get(key) or []
def get(self, key, default=None, index=-1):
if key not in self.dict and default != KeyError:
return [default][index]
return self.dict[key][index]
def iterallitems(self):
for key, values in self.dict.iteritems():
for value in values:
yield key, value
class HeaderDict(MultiDict):
""" Same as :class:`MultiDict`, but title()s the keys and overwrites by default. """
def __contains__(self, key): return MultiDict.__contains__(self, self.httpkey(key))
def __getitem__(self, key): return MultiDict.__getitem__(self, self.httpkey(key))
def __delitem__(self, key): return MultiDict.__delitem__(self, self.httpkey(key))
def __setitem__(self, key, value): self.replace(key, value)
def get(self, key, default=None, index=-1): return MultiDict.get(self, self.httpkey(key), default, index)
def append(self, key, value): return MultiDict.append(self, self.httpkey(key), str(value))
def replace(self, key, value): return MultiDict.replace(self, self.httpkey(key), str(value))
def getall(self, key): return MultiDict.getall(self, self.httpkey(key))
def httpkey(self, key): return str(key).replace('_','-').title()
class AppStack(list):
""" A stack implementation. """
def __call__(self):
""" Return the current default app. """
return self[-1]
def push(self, value=None):
""" Add a new Bottle instance to the stack """
if not isinstance(value, Bottle):
value = Bottle()
return value
class WSGIFileWrapper(object):
def __init__(self, fp, buffer_size=1024*64):
self.fp, self.buffer_size = fp, buffer_size
for attr in ('fileno', 'close', 'read', 'readlines'):
if hasattr(fp, attr): setattr(self, attr, getattr(fp, attr))
def __iter__(self):
read, buff =, self.buffer_size
while True:
part = read(buff)
if not part: break
yield part
# Module level functions
# Output filter
def dict2json(d):
response.content_type = 'application/json'
return json_dumps(d)
def abort(code=500, text='Unknown Error: Appliction stopped.'):
""" Aborts execution and causes a HTTP error. """
raise HTTPError(code, text)
def redirect(url, code=303):
""" Aborts execution and causes a 303 redirect """
scriptname = request.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME', '').rstrip('/') + '/'
location = urljoin(request.url, urljoin(scriptname, url))
raise HTTPResponse("", status=code, header=dict(Location=location))
def send_file(*a, **k): #BC 0.6.4
""" Raises the output of static_file(). (deprecated) """
raise static_file(*a, **k)
def static_file(filename, root, guessmime=True, mimetype=None, download=False):
""" Opens a file in a safe way and returns a HTTPError object with status
code 200, 305, 401 or 404. Sets Content-Type, Content-Length and
Last-Modified header. Obeys If-Modified-Since header and HEAD requests.
root = os.path.abspath(root) + os.sep
filename = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(root, filename.strip('/\\')))
header = dict()
if not filename.startswith(root):
return HTTPError(403, "Access denied.")
if not os.path.exists(filename) or not os.path.isfile(filename):
return HTTPError(404, "File does not exist.")
if not os.access(filename, os.R_OK):
return HTTPError(403, "You do not have permission to access this file.")
if not mimetype and guessmime:
header['Content-Type'] = mimetypes.guess_type(filename)[0]
header['Content-Type'] = mimetype if mimetype else 'text/plain'
if download == True:
download = os.path.basename(filename)
if download:
header['Content-Disposition'] = 'attachment; filename="%s"' % download
stats = os.stat(filename)
lm = time.strftime("%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT", time.gmtime(stats.st_mtime))
header['Last-Modified'] = lm
ims = request.environ.get('HTTP_IF_MODIFIED_SINCE')
if ims:
ims = ims.split(";")[0].strip() # IE sends "<date>; length=146"
ims = parse_date(ims)
if ims is not None and ims >= int(stats.st_mtime):
header['Date'] = time.strftime("%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT", time.gmtime())
return HTTPResponse(status=304, header=header)
header['Content-Length'] = stats.st_size
if request.method == 'HEAD':
return HTTPResponse('', header=header)
return HTTPResponse(open(filename, 'rb'), header=header)
# Utilities
def debug(mode=True):
""" Change the debug level.
There is only one debug level supported at the moment."""
global DEBUG
DEBUG = bool(mode)
def parse_date(ims):
""" Parse rfc1123, rfc850 and asctime timestamps and return UTC epoch. """
ts = email.utils.parsedate_tz(ims)
return time.mktime(ts[:8] + (0,)) - (ts[9] or 0) - time.timezone
except (TypeError, ValueError, IndexError):
return None
def parse_auth(header):
""" Parse rfc2617 HTTP authentication header string (basic) and return (user,pass) tuple or None"""
method, data = header.split(None, 1)
if method.lower() == 'basic':
name, pwd = base64.b64decode(data).split(':', 1)
return name, pwd
except (KeyError, ValueError, TypeError):
return None
def _lscmp(a, b):
''' Compares two strings in a cryptographically save way:
Runtime is not affected by a common prefix. '''
return not sum(0 if x==y else 1 for x, y in zip(a, b)) and len(a) == len(b)
def cookie_encode(data, key):
''' Encode and sign a pickle-able object. Return a string '''
msg = base64.b64encode(pickle.dumps(data, -1))
sig = base64.b64encode(, msg).digest())
return tob('!') + sig + tob('?') + msg
def cookie_decode(data, key):
''' Verify and decode an encoded string. Return an object or None'''
data = tob(data)
if cookie_is_encoded(data):
sig, msg = data.split(tob('?'), 1)
if _lscmp(sig[1:], base64.b64encode(, msg).digest())):
return pickle.loads(base64.b64decode(msg))
return None
def cookie_is_encoded(data):
''' Return True if the argument looks like a encoded cookie.'''
return bool(data.startswith(tob('!')) and tob('?') in data)
def tonativefunc(enc='utf-8'):
''' Returns a function that turns everything into 'native' strings using enc '''
if sys.version_info >= (3,0,0):
return lambda x: x.decode(enc) if isinstance(x, bytes) else str(x)
return lambda x: x.encode(enc) if isinstance(x, unicode) else str(x)
def yieldroutes(func):
""" Return a generator for routes that match the signature (name, args)
of the func parameter. This may yield more than one route if the function
takes optional keyword arguments. The output is best described by example:
a() -> '/a'
b(x, y) -> '/b/:x/:y'
c(x, y=5) -> '/c/:x' and '/c/:x/:y'
d(x=5, y=6) -> '/d' and '/d/:x' and '/d/:x/:y'
path = func.__name__.replace('__','/').lstrip('/')
spec = inspect.getargspec(func)
argc = len(spec[0]) - len(spec[3] or [])
path += ('/:%s' * argc) % tuple(spec[0][:argc])
yield path
for arg in spec[0][argc:]:
path += '/:%s' % arg
yield path
def path_shift(script_name, path_info, shift=1):
''' Shift path fragments from PATH_INFO to SCRIPT_NAME and vice versa.
:return: The modified paths.
:param script_name: The SCRIPT_NAME path.
:param script_name: The PATH_INFO path.
:param shift: The number of path fragments to shift. May be negative to
change ths shift direction. (default: 1)
if shift == 0: return script_name, path_info
pathlist = path_info.strip('/').split('/')
scriptlist = script_name.strip('/').split('/')
if pathlist and pathlist[0] == '': pathlist = []
if scriptlist and scriptlist[0] == '': scriptlist = []
if shift > 0 and shift <= len(pathlist):
moved = pathlist[:shift]
scriptlist = scriptlist + moved
pathlist = pathlist[shift:]
elif shift < 0 and shift >= -len(scriptlist):
moved = scriptlist[shift:]
pathlist = moved + pathlist
scriptlist = scriptlist[:shift]
empty = 'SCRIPT_NAME' if shift < 0 else 'PATH_INFO'
raise AssertionError("Cannot shift. Nothing left from %s" % empty)
new_script_name = '/' + '/'.join(scriptlist)
new_path_info = '/' + '/'.join(pathlist)
if path_info.endswith('/') and pathlist: new_path_info += '/'
return new_script_name, new_path_info
# Decorators
#TODO: Replace default_app() with app()
def validate(**vkargs):
Validates and manipulates keyword arguments by user defined callables.
Handles ValueError and missing arguments by raising HTTPError(403).
def decorator(func):
def wrapper(**kargs):
for key, value in vkargs.iteritems():
if key not in kargs:
abort(403, 'Missing parameter: %s' % key)
kargs[key] = value(kargs[key])
except ValueError:
abort(403, 'Wrong parameter format for: %s' % key)
return func(**kargs)
return wrapper
return decorator
route = functools.wraps(Bottle.route)(lambda *a, **ka: app().route(*a, **ka))
get = functools.wraps(Bottle.get)(lambda *a, **ka: app().get(*a, **ka))
post = functools.wraps( *a, **ka: app().post(*a, **ka))
put = functools.wraps(Bottle.put)(lambda *a, **ka: app().put(*a, **ka))
delete = functools.wraps(Bottle.delete)(lambda *a, **ka: app().delete(*a, **ka))
error = functools.wraps(Bottle.error)(lambda *a, **ka: app().error(*a, **ka))
url = functools.wraps(Bottle.get_url)(lambda *a, **ka: app().get_url(*a, **ka))
mount = functools.wraps(Bottle.mount)(lambda *a, **ka: app().mount(*a, **ka))
def default():
depr("The default() decorator is deprecated. Use @error(404) instead.")
return error(404)
# Server adapter
class ServerAdapter(object):
quiet = False
def __init__(self, host='', port=8080, **kargs):
self.options = kargs = host
self.port = int(port)
def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
def __repr__(self):
args = ', '.join(['%s=%s'%(k,repr(v)) for k, v in self.options.items()])
return "%s(%s)" % (self.__class__.__name__, args)
class CGIServer(ServerAdapter):
quiet = True
def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
from wsgiref.handlers import CGIHandler
CGIHandler().run(handler) # Just ignore host and port here
class FlupFCGIServer(ServerAdapter):
def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
import flup.server.fcgi
flup.server.fcgi.WSGIServer(handler, bindAddress=(, self.port)).run()
class WSGIRefServer(ServerAdapter):
def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
from wsgiref.simple_server import make_server, WSGIRequestHandler
if self.quiet:
class QuietHandler(WSGIRequestHandler):
def log_request(*args, **kw): pass
self.options['handler_class'] = QuietHandler
srv = make_server(, self.port, handler, **self.options)
class CherryPyServer(ServerAdapter):
def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
from cherrypy import wsgiserver
server = wsgiserver.CherryPyWSGIServer((, self.port), handler)
class PasteServer(ServerAdapter):
def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
from paste import httpserver
from paste.translogger import TransLogger
app = TransLogger(handler)
httpserver.serve(app,, port=str(self.port), **self.options)
class FapwsServer(ServerAdapter):
Extremly fast webserver using libev.
def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
import fapws._evwsgi as evwsgi
from fapws import base
evwsgi.start(, self.port)
def app(environ, start_response):
environ['wsgi.multiprocess'] = False
return handler(environ, start_response)
class TornadoServer(ServerAdapter):
""" Untested. As described here: """
def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
import tornado.wsgi
import tornado.httpserver
import tornado.ioloop
container = tornado.wsgi.WSGIContainer(handler)
server = tornado.httpserver.HTTPServer(container)
class AppEngineServer(ServerAdapter):
""" Untested. """
quiet = True
def run(self, handler):
from google.appengine.ext.webapp import util
class TwistedServer(ServerAdapter):
""" Untested. """
def run(self, handler):
from twisted.web import server, wsgi
from twisted.python.threadpool import ThreadPool
from twisted.internet import reactor
thread_pool = ThreadPool()
reactor.addSystemEventTrigger('after', 'shutdown', thread_pool.stop)
factory = server.Site(wsgi.WSGIResource(reactor, thread_pool, handler))
reactor.listenTCP(self.port, factory,
class DieselServer(ServerAdapter):
""" Untested. """
def run(self, handler):
from diesel.protocols.wsgi import WSGIApplication
app = WSGIApplication(handler, port=self.port)
class GunicornServer(ServerAdapter):
""" Untested. """
def run(self, handler):
import gunicorn.arbiter
gunicorn.arbiter.Arbiter((, self.port), 4, handler).run()
class EventletServer(ServerAdapter):
""" Untested """
def run(self, handler):
from eventlet import wsgi, listen
wsgi.server(listen((, self.port)), handler)
class RocketServer(ServerAdapter):
""" Untested. As requested in issue 63 """
def run(self, handler):
from rocket import Rocket
server = Rocket((, self.port), 'wsgi', { 'wsgi_app' : handler })
class AutoServer(ServerAdapter):
""" Untested. """
adapters = [CherryPyServer, PasteServer, TwistedServer, WSGIRefServer]
def run(self, handler):
for sa in self.adapters:
return sa(, self.port, **self.options).run(handler)
except ImportError:
def run(app=None, server=WSGIRefServer, host='', port=8080,
interval=1, reloader=False, quiet=False, **kargs):
""" Runs bottle as a web server. """
app = app if app else default_app()
# Instantiate server, if it is a class instead of an instance
if isinstance(server, type):
server = server(host=host, port=port, **kargs)
if not isinstance(server, ServerAdapter):
raise RuntimeError("Server must be a subclass of WSGIAdapter")
server.quiet = server.quiet or quiet
if not server.quiet and not os.environ.get('BOTTLE_CHILD'):
print "Bottle server starting up (using %s)..." % repr(server)
print "Listening on http://%s:%d/" % (, server.port)
print "Use Ctrl-C to quit."
if reloader:
interval = min(interval, 1)
if os.environ.get('BOTTLE_CHILD'):
_reloader_child(server, app, interval)
_reloader_observer(server, app, interval)
except KeyboardInterrupt: pass
if not server.quiet and not os.environ.get('BOTTLE_CHILD'):
print "Shutting down..."
class FileCheckerThread(threading.Thread):
''' Thread that periodically checks for changed module files. '''
def __init__(self, lockfile, interval):
self.lockfile, self.interval = lockfile, interval
#1: lockfile to old; 2: lockfile missing
#3: module file changed; 5: external exit
self.status = 0
def run(self):
exists = os.path.exists
mtime = lambda path: os.stat(path).st_mtime
files = dict()
for module in sys.modules.values():
path = inspect.getsourcefile(module)
if path and exists(path): files[path] = mtime(path)
except TypeError: pass
while not self.status:
for path, lmtime in files.iteritems():
if not exists(path) or mtime(path) > lmtime:
self.status = 3
if not exists(self.lockfile):
self.status = 2
elif mtime(self.lockfile) < time.time() - self.interval - 5:
self.status = 1
if not self.status:
if self.status != 5:
def _reloader_child(server, app, interval):
''' Start the server and check for modified files in a background thread.
As soon as an update is detected, KeyboardInterrupt is thrown in
the main thread to exit the server loop. The process exists with status
code 3 to request a reload by the observer process. If the lockfile
is not modified in 2*interval second or missing, we assume that the
observer process died and exit with status code 1 or 2.
lockfile = os.environ.get('BOTTLE_LOCKFILE')
bgcheck = FileCheckerThread(lockfile, interval)
except KeyboardInterrupt, e: pass
bgcheck.status, status = 5, bgcheck.status
bgcheck.join() # bgcheck.status == 5 --> silent exit
if status: sys.exit(status)
def _reloader_observer(server, app, interval):
''' Start a child process with identical commandline arguments and restart
it as long as it exists with status code 3. Also create a lockfile and
touch it (update mtime) every interval seconds.
fd, lockfile = tempfile.mkstemp(prefix='bottle-reloader.', suffix='.lock')
os.close(fd) # We only need this file to exist. We never write to it
while os.path.exists(lockfile):
args = [sys.executable] + sys.argv
environ = os.environ.copy()
environ['BOTTLE_CHILD'] = 'true'
environ['BOTTLE_LOCKFILE'] = lockfile
p = subprocess.Popen(args, env=environ)
while p.poll() is None: # Busy wait...
os.utime(lockfile, None) # I am alive!
if p.poll() != 3:
if os.path.exists(lockfile): os.unlink(lockfile)
elif not server.quiet:
print "Reloading server..."
except KeyboardInterrupt: pass
if os.path.exists(lockfile): os.unlink(lockfile)
# Templates
class TemplateError(HTTPError):
def __init__(self, message):
HTTPError.__init__(self, 500, message)
class BaseTemplate(object):
""" Base class and minimal API for template adapters """
extentions = ['tpl','html','thtml','stpl']
settings = {} #used in prepare()
defaults = {} #used in render()
def __init__(self, source=None, name=None, lookup=[], encoding='utf8', **settings):
""" Create a new template.
If the source parameter (str or buffer) is missing, the name argument
is used to guess a template filename. Subclasses can assume that
self.source and/or self.filename are set. Both are strings.
The lookup, encoding and settings parameters are stored as instance
The lookup parameter stores a list containing directory paths.
The encoding parameter should be used to decode byte strings or files.
The settings parameter contains a dict for engine-specific settings.
""" = name
self.source = if hasattr(source, 'read') else source
self.filename = source.filename if hasattr(source, 'filename') else None
self.lookup = map(os.path.abspath, lookup)
self.encoding = encoding
self.settings = self.settings.copy() # Copy from class variable
self.settings.update(settings) # Apply
if not self.source and
self.filename =, self.lookup)
if not self.filename:
raise TemplateError('Template %s not found.' % repr(name))
if not self.source and not self.filename:
raise TemplateError('No template specified.')
def search(cls, name, lookup=[]):
""" Search name in all directories specified in lookup.
First without, then with common extensions. Return first hit. """
if os.path.isfile(name): return name
for spath in lookup:
fname = os.path.join(spath, name)
if os.path.isfile(fname):
return fname
for ext in cls.extentions:
if os.path.isfile('%s.%s' % (fname, ext)):
return '%s.%s' % (fname, ext)
def global_config(cls, key, *args):
''' This reads or sets the global settings stored in class.settings. '''
if args:
cls.settings[key] = args[0]
return cls.settings[key]
def prepare(self, **options):
""" Run preparations (parsing, caching, ...).
It should be possible to call this again to refresh a template or to
update settings.
raise NotImplementedError
def render(self, **args):
""" Render the template with the specified local variables and return
a single byte or unicode string. If it is a byte string, the encoding
must match self.encoding. This method must be thread-safe!
raise NotImplementedError
class MakoTemplate(BaseTemplate):
def prepare(self, **options):
from mako.template import Template
from mako.lookup import TemplateLookup
#TODO: This is a hack...
mylookup = TemplateLookup(directories=['.']+self.lookup, **options)
if self.source:
self.tpl = Template(self.source, lookup=mylookup)
else: #mako cannot guess extentions. We can, but only at top level...
name =
if not os.path.splitext(name)[1]:
name += os.path.splitext(self.filename)[1]
self.tpl = mylookup.get_template(name)
def render(self, **args):
_defaults = self.defaults.copy()
return self.tpl.render(**_defaults)
class CheetahTemplate(BaseTemplate):
def prepare(self, **options):
from Cheetah.Template import Template
self.context = threading.local()
self.context.vars = {}
options['searchList'] = [self.context.vars]
if self.source:
self.tpl = Template(source=self.source, **options)
self.tpl = Template(file=self.filename, **options)
def render(self, **args):
out = str(self.tpl)
return [out]
class Jinja2Template(BaseTemplate):
def prepare(self, filters=None, tests=None, **kwargs):
from jinja2 import Environment, FunctionLoader
if 'prefix' in kwargs: # TODO: to be removed after a while
raise RuntimeError('The keyword argument `prefix` has been removed. '
'Use the full jinja2 environment name line_statement_prefix instead.')
self.env = Environment(loader=FunctionLoader(self.loader), **kwargs)
if filters: self.env.filters.update(filters)
if tests: self.env.tests.update(tests)
if self.source:
self.tpl = self.env.from_string(self.source)
self.tpl = self.env.get_template(self.filename)
def render(self, **args):
_defaults = self.defaults.copy()
return self.tpl.render(**_defaults).encode("utf-8")
def loader(self, name):
fname =, self.lookup)
if fname:
with open(fname, "rb") as f:
class SimpleTemplate(BaseTemplate):
blocks = ('if','elif','else','try','except','finally','for','while','with','def','class')
dedent_blocks = ('elif', 'else', 'except', 'finally')
def prepare(self, escape_func=cgi.escape, noescape=False):
self.cache = {}
if self.source:
self.code = self.translate(self.source) = compile(self.code, '<string>', 'exec')
self.code = self.translate(open(self.filename).read()) = compile(self.code, self.filename, 'exec')
enc = self.encoding
self._str = lambda x: touni(x, enc)
self._escape = lambda x: escape_func(touni(x, enc))
if noescape:
self._str, self._escape = self._escape, self._str
def translate(self, template):
stack = [] # Current Code indentation
lineno = 0 # Current line of code
ptrbuffer = [] # Buffer for printable strings and token tuple instances
codebuffer = [] # Buffer for generated python code
touni = functools.partial(unicode, encoding=self.encoding)
multiline = dedent = False
def yield_tokens(line):
for i, part in enumerate(re.split(r'\{\{(.*?)\}\}', line)):
if i % 2:
if part.startswith('!'): yield 'RAW', part[1:]
else: yield 'CMD', part
else: yield 'TXT', part
def split_comment(codeline):
""" Removes comments from a line of code. """
line = codeline.splitlines()[0]
tokens = list(tokenize.generate_tokens(iter(line).next))
except tokenize.TokenError:
return line.rsplit('#',1) if '#' in line else (line, '')
for token in tokens:
if token[0] == tokenize.COMMENT:
start, end = token[2][1], token[3][1]
return codeline[:start] + codeline[end:], codeline[start:end]
return line, ''
def flush(): # Flush the ptrbuffer
if not ptrbuffer: return
cline = ''
for line in ptrbuffer:
for token, value in line:
if token == 'TXT': cline += repr(value)
elif token == 'RAW': cline += '_str(%s)' % value
elif token == 'CMD': cline += '_escape(%s)' % value
cline += ', '
cline = cline[:-2] + '\\\n'
cline = cline[:-2]
if cline[:-1].endswith('\\\\\\\\\\n'):
cline = cline[:-7] + cline[-1] # 'nobr\\\\\n' --> 'nobr'
cline = '_printlist([' + cline + '])'
del ptrbuffer[:] # Do this before calling code() again
def code(stmt):
for line in stmt.splitlines():
codebuffer.append(' ' * len(stack) + line.strip())
for line in template.splitlines(True):
lineno += 1
line = line if isinstance(line, unicode)\
else unicode(line, encoding=self.encoding)
if lineno <= 2:
m ="%.*coding[:=]\s*([-\w\.]+)", line)
if m: self.encoding =
if m: line = line.replace('coding','coding (removed)')
if line.strip()[:2].count('%') == 1:
line = line.split('%',1)[1].lstrip() # Full line following the %
cline = split_comment(line)[0].strip()
cmd = re.split(r'[^a-zA-Z0-9_]', cline)[0]
flush() ##encodig (TODO: why?)
if cmd in self.blocks or multiline:
cmd = multiline or cmd
dedent = cmd in self.dedent_blocks # "else:"
if dedent and not oneline and not multiline:
cmd = stack.pop()
oneline = not cline.endswith(':') # "if 1: pass"
multiline = cmd if cline.endswith('\\') else False
if not oneline and not multiline:
elif cmd == 'end' and stack:
code('#end(%s) %s' % (stack.pop(), line.strip()[3:]))
elif cmd == 'include':
p = cline.split(None, 2)[1:]
if len(p) == 2:
code("_=_include(%s, _stdout, %s)" % (repr(p[0]), p[1]))
elif p:
code("_=_include(%s, _stdout)" % repr(p[0]))
else: # Empty %include -> reverse of %rebase
elif cmd == 'rebase':
p = cline.split(None, 2)[1:]
if len(p) == 2:
code("globals()['_rebase']=(%s, dict(%s))" % (repr(p[0]), p[1]))
elif p:
code("globals()['_rebase']=(%s, {})" % repr(p[0]))
else: # Line starting with text (not '%') or '%%' (escaped)
if line.strip().startswith('%%'):
line = line.replace('%%', '%', 1)
return '\n'.join(codebuffer) + '\n'
def subtemplate(self, _name, _stdout, **args):
if _name not in self.cache:
self.cache[_name] = self.__class__(name=_name, lookup=self.lookup)
return self.cache[_name].execute(_stdout, **args)
def execute(self, _stdout, **args):
env = self.defaults.copy()
env.update({'_stdout': _stdout, '_printlist': _stdout.extend,
'_include': self.subtemplate, '_str': self._str,
'_escape': self._escape})
eval(, env)
if '_rebase' in env:
subtpl, rargs = env['_rebase']
subtpl = self.__class__(name=subtpl, lookup=self.lookup)
rargs['_base'] = _stdout[:] #copy stdout
del _stdout[:] # clear stdout
return subtpl.execute(_stdout, **rargs)
return env
def render(self, **args):
""" Render the template using keyword arguments as local variables. """
stdout = []
self.execute(stdout, **args)
return ''.join(stdout)
def template(tpl, template_adapter=SimpleTemplate, **kwargs):
Get a rendered template as a string iterator.
You can use a name, a filename or a template string as first parameter.
if tpl not in TEMPLATES or DEBUG:
settings = kwargs.get('template_settings',{})
lookup = kwargs.get('template_lookup', TEMPLATE_PATH)
if isinstance(tpl, template_adapter):
TEMPLATES[tpl] = tpl
if settings: TEMPLATES[tpl].prepare(**settings)
elif "\n" in tpl or "{" in tpl or "%" in tpl or '$' in tpl:
TEMPLATES[tpl] = template_adapter(source=tpl, lookup=lookup, **settings)
TEMPLATES[tpl] = template_adapter(name=tpl, lookup=lookup, **settings)
if not TEMPLATES[tpl]:
abort(500, 'Template (%s) not found' % tpl)
return TEMPLATES[tpl].render(**kwargs)
mako_template = functools.partial(template, template_adapter=MakoTemplate)
cheetah_template = functools.partial(template, template_adapter=CheetahTemplate)
jinja2_template = functools.partial(template, template_adapter=Jinja2Template)
def view(tpl_name, **defaults):
''' Decorator: renders a template for a handler.
The handler can control its behavior like that:
- return a dict of template vars to fill out the template
- return something other than a dict and the view decorator will not
process the template, but return the handler result as is.
This includes returning a HTTPResponse(dict) to get,
for instance, JSON with autojson or other castfilters
def decorator(func):
def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
result = func(*args, **kwargs)
if isinstance(result, (dict, DictMixin)):
tplvars = defaults.copy()
return template(tpl_name, **tplvars)
return result
return wrapper
return decorator
mako_view = functools.partial(view, template_adapter=MakoTemplate)
cheetah_view = functools.partial(view, template_adapter=CheetahTemplate)
jinja2_view = functools.partial(view, template_adapter=Jinja2Template)
# Modul initialization and configuration
TEMPLATE_PATH = ['./', './views/']
DEBUG = False
MEMFILE_MAX = 1024*100
100: 'CONTINUE',
200: 'OK',
201: 'CREATED',
202: 'ACCEPTED',
204: 'NO CONTENT',
302: 'FOUND',
303: 'SEE OTHER',
305: 'USE PROXY',
306: 'RESERVED',
404: 'NOT FOUND',
409: 'CONFLICT',
410: 'GONE',
""" A dict of known HTTP error and status codes """
ERROR_PAGE_TEMPLATE = SimpleTemplate("""
%from bottle import DEBUG, HTTP_CODES, request
%status_name = HTTP_CODES.get(e.status, 'Unknown').title()
<title>Error {{e.status}}: {{status_name}}</title>
<style type="text/css">
html {background-color: #eee; font-family: sans;}
body {background-color: #fff; border: 1px solid #ddd; padding: 15px; margin: 15px;}
pre {background-color: #eee; border: 1px solid #ddd; padding: 5px;}
<h1>Error {{e.status}}: {{status_name}}</h1>
<p>Sorry, the requested URL <tt>{{request.url}}</tt> caused an error:</p>
%if DEBUG and e.exception:
%if DEBUG and e.traceback:
%except ImportError:
<b>ImportError:</b> Could not generate the error page. Please add bottle to sys.path
""" The HTML template used for error messages """
request = Request()
""" Whenever a page is requested, the :class:`Bottle` WSGI handler stores
metadata about the current request into this instance of :class:`Request`.
It is thread-safe and can be accessed from within handler functions. """
response = Response()
""" The :class:`Bottle` WSGI handler uses metadata assigned to this instance
of :class:`Response` to generate the WSGI response. """
local = threading.local()
""" Thread-local namespace. Not used by Bottle, but could get handy """
# Initialize app stack (create first empty Bottle app)
# BC: 0.6.4 and needed for run()
app = default_app = AppStack()