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README

leJOS, a Java system for the Lego Mindstorms RCX

Summary
-------

-- You need a Java Development Kit (JDK).
-- JDK 1.1 to 1.4 work.
-- Your PATH must contain the JDK's bin directory.
-- In Unix, type 'make' to finish installation of leJOS.
-- Add leJOS's bin directory to your PATH.
-- Set RCXTTY to your 'tower' device (e.g. COM1 or USB or /dev/ttyS0).
-- Download firmware using lejosfirmdl.
-- Compile using lejosc (or lejosc1) instead of javac.
-- Run programs in the RCX using lejos.
-- Run programs in the host using emu-lejos.
-- In Unix, if you use the rcxcomm package, set LD_LIBRARY_PATH to the
   leJOS bin directory. 
-- Exceptions: Use lejos -verbose. Exceptions are shown in 
   the RCX as [XXXX Y], where XXXX = method_signature, and 
   Y = exception_class_index MOD 10.
	     
What is leJOS?
--------------

leJOS is a tiny (~ 16 Kb) Java-based operating system
that has been ported to the following platforms:

- Lego Mindstorms RCX, i.e. Hitachi H8300
- Unix (for emulation of RCX programs only)

leJOS was forked out of the TinyVM project
(http://tinyvm.sourceforge.net). leJOS contains
a VM for Java bytecodes, and additional software to load
and run Java programs. These are some of the features
offered by leJOS:

- Object oriented language (Java).
- Preemptive threads (tasks).
- Arrays, including multi-dimensional ones.
- Recursion.
- Synchronization.
- Exceptions.
- Well-documented API.

The above are also provided by TinyVM. But in addition
to these, leJOS also offers:

- A Windows version, which doesn't require CygWin.
- Floating point operations (doubles truncated to 32 bits).
- String constants.
- Casting of longs to ints and vice versa.
- Marks references in the stack (which makes it feasible
  to implement garbage collection).
- Multi-program downloading.
- java.lang.Math class with sin, cos, tan, atan, pow, etc.
- More APIs.

TinyVM is still around simply as a low-footprint alternative
to leJOS. TinyVM is about 7 Kb smaller in the RCX.

Compatibility
-------------

RCX 1.0/2.0 in RIS 1.0/1.5/2.0: yes

Serial IR Tower in RIS 1.0/1.5: yes

USB IR Tower in RIS 2.0: yes (this is supported on Max OSX, 
Linux and Windows)

How do you pronounce leJOS?
---------------------------

I pronounce it like the Spanish word "lejos" (which means far).

Requirements
------------

- A Java Development Kit
  Lejos is known to work with JDK1.1.x to 1.4.x from SUN
  (see http://java.sun.com).
  Other Java environments (for example jikes) may also work.

- leJOS is known to work on Linux and Windows. It should 
  work on Unix systems in general.

Setup
-----

Environment:
  - Your PATH is assumed to point to the 
    JDK's bin directory.
  - You should also add $LEJOS_HOME/bin to
    your PATH.
  - RCXTTY must be defined to point to the
    IR device file. For example, in my Linux
    partition, it's /dev/ttyS1, which corresponds
    to COM2 under Windows. If you are using USB,
    you can specify RCXTTY=usb or pass --tty=usb to 
    the commands.

Building the Tools (UNIX ONLY):
  If you are building the tools for Linux, go to the installation 
  directory and type 'make'. 

  Note: if you are using USB on Linux, there is a USB driver for
	the Lego IR tower in tools/linux/legousbtower. See the 
	README in that directory for details.

Downloading the Firmware:
  Run the lejosfirmdl utility. When the firmware
  starts, the LCD shows the battery voltage, and
  you should hear a double beep.
  
  The firmware only needs to be downloaded once.
  It is also easy to replace, say, with the official
  Lego firmware. Simply run the Lego GUI and do what
  you would normally do to download the firmware.

Example
-------

A nice example to get started is the View example,
which you can use later if you need to test sensors 
and motors. To run the View example, 
execute the following commands (assuming the current 
directory is the leJOS installation directory):

   LINUX                      WINDOWS
   -----                      -------
    
lejosfirmdl -f              lejosfirmdl -f

(Wait for double-beep in RCX. This step doesn't have to be
repeated to run the example again).

cd examples/view            cd examples\view
export CLASSPATH=.          set CLASSPATH=.
lejosc *.java               lejosc *.java
lejos View                  lejos View

(The last step will take about half a minute).

Compiling, Linking and Running
------------------------------

To compile your Java classes, use lejosc instead of
javac. If the JDK in your PATH is a 1.1 JDK, use
lejosc1 instead.

Note that lejosc is not a Java compiler. It's simply
a small program that calls javac after setting an
appropriate value for -bootclasspath. If you prefer
another Java compiler to javac, define the JAVAC
environment variable.

The basic way to use the linker is to make sure that
class files can be located in CLASSPATH, and execute 
'lejos' a you would execute 'java', e.g.

  lejos MyMainClass

The above links and resolves all classes that could
be used by a program with entry point in MyMainClass.
The resulting linked binary is downloaded to the
RCX. (This is done by creating a temporary
file, so the current directory should be writable).

To simply create a binary file containing the linked
program, use:

  lejos -o MyProgram.bin MyProgram
  
You can download a previously linked program with:

  lejosrun MyProgram.bin

You can also download multiple programs in one shot as 
follows:

  lejos Class1,Class2,...
  
The programs will be linked together, and will replace
any programs previously in the RCX. You can press Prgm
to select which program to run.
  
After the standing man figure appears in the RCX, you
can press Run to start a program. If the program exits
by itself, the standing man figure will appear again.
To stop a running program, hold the Run button while 
you press On/Off. Switching off the RCX will also stop
a running program.

Omitting unused methods
-----------------------

From release 2.1.0 the lejos linker omits methods that 
it can deduce are not used. This reduces the size of 
programs and has been shown to work with all programs 
tested so far.

You can see which methods have been omitted if you use
the -verbose flag on the lejos command.

If you suspect that this feature is not working 
correctly and is causing a problem with your program, 
you can specify the -all flag on the lejos command. 
This reverts to the previous behavior and ensures that 
all methods are included.

Note that the current version does not do a full 
analysis and detect all unused methods. It may be 
improved to reduce program sizes further in later 
versions of lejos.

Emulation
---------

You should be able to run linked programs in the 
host computer. All you need to do is use emu-lejos 
instead of lejos, and emu-lejosrun to run a linked
binary, e.g.

  emu-lejos -o MyProgram.bin MyProgram
  emu-lejosrun MyProgram.bin

To get more informative traces, use the -v option:

  emu-lejosrun -v MyProgram.bin
  
NOTE: The above is fine for Intel x86 architectures.
Under Sparc and other systems with big endian 
byte ordering, use lejos instead of emu-lejos, e.g.

  lejos -o MyProgram.bin MyProgram
  emu-lejosrun -v MyProgram.bin
  
In some cases it might be easier to debug
programs with the emulated VM, and you'll also 
get slightly more detailed exception information.
But this emulation tool does not attempt to
simulate an RCX graphically or anything like
that. It simply dumps traces that allow you
to check what your program is doing.

Limitations
-----------

Due to size constraints, some language features
have been omitted. Others just haven't been 
implemented yet. The limitations that come to 
mind are:

  - Garbage collection is not performed yet.
    (The number of objects in your program
    should be bounded).
  - Switch statements are not supported.
  - Arithmetic operations on variables of type 
    long are not supported, although you can
    cast ints to longs and vice versa.
  - Maximum array length is 511.
  - The instanceof operation will always be true  
    for interfaces. In bytecode, CHECKCAST succeeds
    on all interface classes (which is a bit unsafe).
  - The instanceof and checkcast operations are
    rejected by the linker when they are performed
    on array classes (e.g. b instanceof byte[]).
  - There are no objects of type java.lang.Class, 
    which means that the ".class" construct won't
    work. Class.forName() throws ClassNotFoundException
    at all times.
  - Most JDK APIs are unavailable.

Known Bugs
----------

  - MONITOREXIT ignores null objects (it assumes
    MONITORENTER has handled them). Furthermore, it 
    doesn't check monitor validity. Until this bug 
    is fixed (actually, at all times) all monitors should 
    be constants.

  - Initializers (static or otherwise) are not
    implicitly synchronized. This could lead to access
    of statics before they are initialized, when
    multiple threads use a class.
    
Documentation
-------------

The latest API Reference should be available at
http://lejos.sourceforge.net/. The API Reference
for this release can be obtained with 'make javadoc'.

About the License
-----------------

We are releasing under the Mozilla Public License (see LICENSE)
for now, since Kekoa Proudfoot's librcx is under that same 
license, and leJOS is linked against -lrcx and -lfloat, which
are part of librcx. No changes have been made to those libraries, 
so they haven't been redistributed. They are only needed if you 
are planning to modify the native C source code. See docs/hacking.

The founder of leJOS is Jose Solorzano.  Jose has announced
he will be leaving the leJOS project so he can spend more
time with his other baby, Mark Humberto.  Paul Andrews and
Juergen Stuber will be taking over as project leaders.

Questions/Problems
------------------

Please direct feedback to the lejos-discussion mailing list
<lejos-discussion@lists.sourceforge.net>.  To subscribe
see http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/lejos-discussion .

Take a look at the Lejos website at http://lejos.sourceforge.net/
or its project page at http://sourceforge.net/projects/lejos .

Finally, there is a newsgroup at LUGNET for Java on the RCX,
see http://www.lugnet.com/robotics/rcx/java/ .
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