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Ddoc
$(D_S D for Win32,
$(P This describes the D implementation for 32 bit Windows systems.
Naturally,
Windows specific D features are not portable to other platforms.
)
$(P Instead of the:)
$(CCODE
#include <windows.h>
)
$(P of C, in D there is:)
--------------------
import std.c.windows.windows;
--------------------
<h2>Calling Conventions</h2>
$(P In C, the Windows API calling conventions are $(CODE __stdcall).
In D, it is simply:
)
--------------------
extern (Windows)
{
/* ... function declarations ... */
}
--------------------
$(P The Windows linkage attribute sets both the calling convention
and the name mangling scheme to be compatible with Windows.
)
$(P For functions that in C would be $(CODE __declspec(dllimport)) or
$(CODE __declspec(dllexport)), use the $(CODE export) attribute:
)
--------------------
export void func(int foo);
--------------------
$(P If no function body is given, it's imported. If a function body
is given, it's exported.
)
<h2>Windows Executables</h2>
$(P Windows GUI applications can be written with D.
A sample such can be found in $(TT $(DMDDIR)\samples\d\winsamp.d)
)
$(P These are required:)
$(OL
$(LI Instead of a $(CODE main) function serving as the entry point,
a $(CODE WinMain) function is needed.
)
$(LI $(CODE WinMain) must follow this form:
--------------------
import core.runtime;
import std.c.windows.windows;
extern (Windows)
int $(B WinMain)(HINSTANCE hInstance,
HINSTANCE hPrevInstance,
LPSTR lpCmdLine,
int nCmdShow)
{
int result;
void exceptionHandler(Exception e)
{
throw e;
}
try
{
Runtime.initialize(&exceptionHandler);
result = $(B myWinMain)(hInstance, hPrevInstance, lpCmdLine, nCmdShow);
Runtime.terminate(&exceptionHandler);
}
catch (Object o) // catch any uncaught exceptions
{
MessageBoxA(null, cast(char *)o.toString(), "Error",
MB_OK | MB_ICONEXCLAMATION);
result = 0; // failed
}
return result;
}
int $(B myWinMain)(HINSTANCE hInstance,
HINSTANCE hPrevInstance,
LPSTR lpCmdLine,
int nCmdShow)
{
/* ... insert user code here ... */
}
--------------------
The $(TT myWinMain()) function is where the user code goes, the
rest of $(TT WinMain) is boilerplate to initialize and shut down
the D runtime system.
)
$(LI A $(CODE .def)
($(LINK2 http://www.digitalmars.com/ctg/ctgDefFiles.html, Module Definition File))
with at least the following
two lines in it:
$(MODDEFFILE
EXETYPE NT
SUBSYSTEM WINDOWS
)
Without those, Win32 will open a text console window whenever
the application is run.
)
$(LI The presence of $(TT WinMain()) is recognized by the compiler
causing it to emit a reference to
$(LINK2 http://www.digitalmars.com/ctg/acrtused.html, __acrtused_dll)
and the phobos.lib runtime library.
)
)
)
Macros:
TITLE=Windows
WIKI=Windows
CATEGORY_HOWTOS=$0