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<table id="myTable">
<tr><th colspan="2">Popular shortcuts</th></tr>
<tr><td>Free Transform</td><td>⌘ + T</td></tr>
<tr><td>Decrease Brush Size</td><td>[</td></tr>
<tr><td>Increase Brush Size</td><td>]</td></tr>
<tr><td>Decrease Brush Hardness</td><td>{</td></tr>
<tr><td>Increase Brush Hardness</td><td>}</td></tr>
<tr><td>Default Foreground/Background colors</td><td>D</td></tr>
<tr><td>Switch Foreground/Background colors</td><td>X</td></tr>
<tr><td>New layer via copy</td><td>⌘ + J</td></tr>
<tr><td>New layer via cut</td><td>⇧ + ⌘ + J</td></tr>
<tr><td>Add to a selection</td><td>Any selection tool + ⇧-drag</td></tr>
<tr><td>Delete brush or swatch</td><td>⌥-click brush or swatch</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle auto-select with move tool</td><td>⌘-click</td></tr>
<tr><td>Cancel any modal dialog window (including the Start Workspace)</td><td>Escape</td></tr>
<tr><td>Navigate between fields</td><td>Tab</td></tr>
<tr><td>Navigate between fields in opposite direction</td><td>Tab + ⇧</td></tr>
<tr><td>Change Cancel to Reset</td><td></td></tr>
<tr><td>Zoom 2x (temporary)</td><td>X</td></tr>
<tr><td>Zoom in</td><td>⌘ + + (plus)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Zoom out</td><td>⌘ + - (hyphen)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Fit in view</td><td>⌘ + 0 (zero), Double-click Hand tool</td></tr>
<tr><td>Zoom to center at 100%</td><td>Double-click Zoom tool</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Function keys</th></tr>
<tr><td>Start Help</td><td>Help key</td></tr>
<tr><td>Show/Hide Brush panel</td><td>F5</td></tr>
<tr><td>Show/Hide Color panel</td><td>F6</td></tr>
<tr><td>Show/Hide Layers panel</td><td>F7</td></tr>
<tr><td>Show/Hide Info panel</td><td>F8</td></tr>
<tr><td>Show/Hide Actions panel</td><td>⌥ + F9</td></tr>
<tr><td>Fill</td><td>⇧ + F5</td></tr>
<tr><td>Feather Selection</td><td>⇧ + F6</td></tr>
<tr><td>Inverse Selection</td><td>⇧ + F7</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Select tools</th></tr>
<tr><td>Cycle through tools with the same shortcut key</td><td>⇧-press shortcut key (if Use ⇧ Key for Tool Switch preference is selected)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Cycle through hidden tools</td><td>⌥-click + tool (except Add Anchor Point, Delete Anchor Point, and Convert Point tools)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Move tool</td><td>V</td></tr>
<tr><td>Rectangular Marquee tool / Elliptical Marquee tool</td><td>M</td></tr>
<tr><td>Lasso tool / Polygonal Lasso tool / Magnetic Lasso tool</td><td>L</td></tr>
<tr><td>Magic Wand tool / Quick Selection tool</td><td>W</td></tr>
<tr><td>Crop tool / Slice tool / Slice Select tool</td><td>C</td></tr>
<tr><td>Eyedropper tool / Color Sampler tool / Ruler tool / Note tool</td><td>I</td></tr>
<tr><td>Spot Healing Brush tool / Healing Brush tool / Patch tool / Red Eye tool</td><td>J</td></tr>
<tr><td>Brush tool / Pencil tool / Color Replacement tool / Mixer Brush tool</td><td>B</td></tr>
<tr><td>Clone Stamp tool / Pattern Stamp tool</td><td>S</td></tr>
<tr><td>History Brush tool / Art History Brush tool</td><td>Y</td></tr>
<tr><td>Eraser tool / Background Eraser tool / Magic Eraser tool</td><td>E</td></tr>
<tr><td>Gradient tool / Paint Bucket tool</td><td>G</td></tr>
<tr><td>Dodge tool / Burn tool / Sponge tool</td><td>O</td></tr>
<tr><td>Pen tool / Freeform Pen tool</td><td>P</td></tr>
<tr><td>Horizontal Type tool / Vertical Type tool / Horizontal Type mask tool / Vertical Type mask tool</td><td>T</td></tr>
<tr><td>Path Selection tool / Direct Selection tool</td><td>A</td></tr>
<tr><td>Rectangle tool / Rounded Rectangle tool / Ellipse tool / Polygon tool / Line tool / Custom Shape tool</td><td>U</td></tr>
<tr><td>Hand tool</td><td>H</td></tr>
<tr><td>Rotate View tool</td><td>R</td></tr>
<tr><td>Zoom tool</td><td>Z</td></tr>
<tr><td>Default Foreground/Background colors</td><td>D</td></tr>
<tr><td>Switch Foreground/Background colors</td><td>X</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle Standard/Quick Mask modes</td><td>Q</td></tr>
<tr><td>Content-Aware Move tool</td><td>J</td></tr>
<tr><td>Perspective Crop tool</td><td>C</td></tr>
<tr><td>Artboard tool</td><td>V</td></tr>
<tr><td>Rotate View tool</td><td>R</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle Preserve Transparency</td><td>/ (forward slash)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Decrease Brush Hardness</td><td>{</td></tr>
<tr><td>Increase Brush Hardness</td><td>}</td></tr>
<tr><td>Previous Brush</td><td>,</td></tr>
<tr><td>Next Brush</td><td>.</td></tr>
<tr><td>First Brush</td><td><</td></tr>
<tr><td>Last Brush</td><td>></td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Images</th></tr>
<tr><td>Cycle through open documents</td><td>⌃ + Tab</td></tr>
<tr><td>Switch to previous document</td><td>⇧ + ⌘ + `(grave accent)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle (forward) between Standard screen mode, Full screen mode with menu bar, and Full screen mode</td><td>F</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle (backward) between Standard screen mode, Full screen mode with menu bar, and Full screen mode</td><td>⇧ + F</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle (forward) canvas color</td><td>Spacebar + F (or ⌃-click canvas background and select color)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle (backward) canvas color</td><td>Spacebar + ⇧ + F</td></tr>
<tr><td>Fit image in window</td><td>Double-click Hand tool</td></tr>
<tr><td>Magnify 100%</td><td>Double-click Zoom tool or ⌘ + 1</td></tr>
<tr><td>Switch to Hand tool (when not in text-edit mode)</td><td>Spacebar</td></tr>
<tr><td>Simultaneously pan multiple documents with Hand tool</td><td>⇧-drag</td></tr>
<tr><td>Switch to Zoom In tool</td><td>⌘ + spacebar</td></tr>
<tr><td>Switch to Zoom Out tool</td><td>⌥ + spacebar</td></tr>
<tr><td>Move Zoom marquee while dragging with the Zoom tool</td><td>Spacebar-drag</td></tr>
<tr><td>Apply zoom percentage, and keep zoom percentage box active</td><td>⇧ + Return in Navigator panel zoom percentage box</td></tr>
<tr><td>Zoom in on specified area of an image</td><td>⌘-drag over preview in Navigator panel</td></tr>
<tr><td>Temporarily zoom into an image</td><td>Hold down H and then click in the image and hold down the mouse button</td></tr>
<tr><td>Scroll image with Hand tool</td><td>Spacebar-drag, or drag view area box in Navigator panel</td></tr>
<tr><td>Move view to upper-left corner or lower-right corner</td><td>Home or End</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle layer mask on/off as rubylith (layer mask must be selected)</td><td>\ (backslash)</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Refine Edge</th></tr>
<tr><td>Open the Refine Edge dialog box</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + R</td></tr>
<tr><td>Cycle (forward) through preview modes</td><td>F</td></tr>
<tr><td>Cycle (backward) through preview modes</td><td>⇧ + F</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle between original image and selection preview</td><td>X</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle between original selection and refined version</td><td>P</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle radius preview on and off</td><td>J</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle between Refine Radius and Erase Refinements tools</td><td>⇧ + E</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Filter Gallery</th></tr>
<tr><td>Apply a new filter on top of selected</td><td>⌥-click a filter</td></tr>
<tr><td>Reapply last-used filter</td><td>⌃ + ⌘ + F</td></tr>
<tr><td>Open/close all disclosure triangles</td><td>⌥-click a disclosure triangle</td></tr>
<tr><td>Change Cancel button to Default</td><td></td></tr>
<tr><td>Change Cancel button to Reset</td><td></td></tr>
<tr><td>Undo/Redo</td><td>⌘ + Z</td></tr>
<tr><td>Step forward</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + Z</td></tr>
<tr><td>Step backward</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + Z</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Liquify filter</th></tr>
<tr><td>Forward Warp tool</td><td>W</td></tr>
<tr><td>Reconstruct tool</td><td>R</td></tr>
<tr><td>Twirl Clockwise tool</td><td>C</td></tr>
<tr><td>Pucker tool</td><td>S</td></tr>
<tr><td>Bloat tool</td><td>B</td></tr>
<tr><td>Push Left tool</td><td>O</td></tr>
<tr><td>Mirror tool</td><td>M</td></tr>
<tr><td>Turbulence tool</td><td>T</td></tr>
<tr><td>Freeze Mask tool</td><td>F</td></tr>
<tr><td>Thaw Mask tool</td><td>D</td></tr>
<tr><td>Reverse direction for Bloat, Pucker, Push Left, and Mirror tools</td><td>⌥ + tool</td></tr>
<tr><td>Continually sample the distortion</td><td>⌥-drag in preview with Reconstruct tool, Displace, Amplitwist, or Affine mode selected</td></tr>
<tr><td>Decrease/increase brush size by 2, or density, pressure, rate, or turbulent jitter by 1</td><td>↓/↑ in Brush Size, Density, Pressure, Rate, or Turbulent Jitter text box</td></tr>
<tr><td>Decrease/increase brush size by 2, or density, pressure, rate, or turbulent jitter by 1</td><td>←/→ with Brush Size, Density, Pressure, Rate, or Turbulent Jitter slider showing</td></tr>
<tr><td>Cycle through controls on right from top</td><td>Tab</td></tr>
<tr><td>Cycle through controls on right from bottom</td><td>⇧ + Tab</td></tr>
<tr><td>Change Cancel to Reset</td><td></td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Vanishing Point</th></tr>
<tr><td>Increase brush size (Brush, Stamp tools)</td><td>]</td></tr>
<tr><td>Decrease brush size (Brush, Stamp tools)</td><td>[</td></tr>
<tr><td>Increase brush hardness (Brush, Stamp tools)</td><td>⇧ + ]</td></tr>
<tr><td>Decrease brush hardness (Brush, Stamp tools)</td><td>⇧ + [</td></tr>
<tr><td>Undo last action</td><td>⌘ + Z</td></tr>
<tr><td>Redo last action</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + Z</td></tr>
<tr><td>Deselect all</td><td>⌘ + D</td></tr>
<tr><td>Hide selection and planes</td><td>⌘ + H</td></tr>
<tr><td>Move selection 1 pixel</td><td>Arrow keys</td></tr>
<tr><td>Move selection 10 pixels</td><td>⇧ + arrow keys</td></tr>
<tr><td>Copy</td><td>⌘ + C</td></tr>
<tr><td>Paste</td><td>⌘ + V</td></tr>
<tr><td>Repeat last duplicate and move</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + T</td></tr>
<tr><td>Create a floating selection from the current selection</td><td></td></tr>
<tr><td>Fill a selection with image under the pointer</td><td>⌘-drag</td></tr>
<tr><td>Create a duplicate of the selection as a floating selection</td><td>⌘ + ⌥-drag</td></tr>
<tr><td>Constrain selection to a 15° rotation</td><td>⌥ + ⇧ to rotate</td></tr>
<tr><td>Select a plane under another selected plane</td><td>⌘-click the plane</td></tr>
<tr><td>Create 90 degree plane off parent plane</td><td>⌘-drag</td></tr>
<tr><td>Delete last node while creating plane</td><td>Delete</td></tr>
<tr><td>Make a full canvas plane, square to the camera</td><td>Double-click the Create Plane tool</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Camera Raw dialog box</th></tr>
<tr><td>Zoom tool</td><td>Z</td></tr>
<tr><td>Hand tool</td><td>H</td></tr>
<tr><td>White Balance tool</td><td>I</td></tr>
<tr><td>Color Sampler tool</td><td>S</td></tr>
<tr><td>Crop tool</td><td>C</td></tr>
<tr><td>Straighten tool</td><td>A</td></tr>
<tr><td>Spot Removal tool</td><td>B</td></tr>
<tr><td>Red Eye Removal tool</td><td>E</td></tr>
<tr><td>Basic panel</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + 1</td></tr>
<tr><td>Tone Curve panel</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + 2</td></tr>
<tr><td>Detail panel</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + 3</td></tr>
<tr><td>HSL/Grayscale panel</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + 4</td></tr>
<tr><td>Split Toning panel</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + 5</td></tr>
<tr><td>Lens Corrections panel</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + 6</td></tr>
<tr><td>Camera Calibration panel</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + 7</td></tr>
<tr><td>Presets panel</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + 9 (macOS Universal Access zoom shortcut must be disabled in System Preferences)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Open Snapshots panel</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + 9</td></tr>
<tr><td>Parametric Curve Targeted Adjustment tool</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + ⇧ + T</td></tr>
<tr><td>Hue Targeted Adjustment tool</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + ⇧ + H</td></tr>
<tr><td>Saturation Targeted Adjustment tool</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + ⇧ + S</td></tr>
<tr><td>Luminance Targeted Adjustment tool</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + ⇧ + L</td></tr>
<tr><td>Grayscale Mix Targeted Adjustment tool</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + ⇧ + G</td></tr>
<tr><td>Last-used Targeted Adjustment tool</td><td>T</td></tr>
<tr><td>Adjustment Brush tool</td><td>K</td></tr>
<tr><td>Graduated Filter tool</td><td>G</td></tr>
<tr><td>Increase/decrease brush size</td><td>] / [</td></tr>
<tr><td>Increase/decrease brush feather</td><td>⇧ + ] / ⇧ + [</td></tr>
<tr><td>Increase/decrease Adjustment Brush tool flow in increments of 10</td><td>= (equal sign) / - (hyphen)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Temporarily switch from Add to Erase mode for theAdjustment Brush tool, or from Erase to Add mode</td><td></td></tr>
<tr><td>Increase/decrease temporary Adjustment Brush tool size</td><td>⌥ + ] / ⌥ + [</td></tr>
<tr><td>Increase/decrease temporary Adjustment Brush tool feather</td><td>⌥ + ⇧ + ] / ⌥ + ⇧ + [</td></tr>
<tr><td>Increase/decrease temporary Adjustment Brush tool flow in increments of 10</td><td>⌥ = (equal sign) / ⌥ + - (hyphen)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Switch to New mode from Add or Erase mode of theAdjustment Brush tool or the Graduated Filter</td><td>N</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle Auto Mask for Adjustment Brush tool</td><td>M</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle Show Mask for Adjustment Brush tool</td><td>Y</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle pins for Adjustment Brush tool</td><td>V</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle overlay for Graduated Filter, Spot Removal tool, or Red Eye Removal tool.</td><td>V</td></tr>
<tr><td>Rotate image left</td><td>L or ⌘ + ]</td></tr>
<tr><td>Rotate image right</td><td>R or ⌘ + [</td></tr>
<tr><td>Zoom in</td><td>⌘ + + (plus)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Zoom out</td><td>⌘ + - (hyphen)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Temporarily switch to Zoom In tool</td><td></td></tr>
<tr><td>(Doesn’t work when Straighten tool is selected. If Crop tool is active, temporarily switches to Straighten tool.)</td><td></td></tr>
<tr><td>Temporarily switch to Zoom Out tool and change the Open Image button to Open Copy and the Cancel button to Reset.</td><td></td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle preview</td><td>P</td></tr>
<tr><td>Full screen mode</td><td>F</td></tr>
<tr><td>Temporarily activate the White Balance tool and change the Open Image button to Open Object.</td><td></td></tr>
<tr><td>Select multiple points in Curves panel</td><td>Click the first point; ⇧-click additional points</td></tr>
<tr><td>Add point to curve in Curves panel</td><td>⌘-click in preview</td></tr>
<tr><td>Move selected point in Curves panel (1 unit)</td><td>Arrow keys</td></tr>
<tr><td>Move selected point in Curves panel (10 units)</td><td>⇧-arrow</td></tr>
<tr><td>Open selected images in Camera Raw dialog box from Bridge</td><td>⌘ + R</td></tr>
<tr><td>Open selected images from Bridge bypassing Camera Raw dialog box</td><td>⇧ + double-click image</td></tr>
<tr><td>Display highlights that will be clipped in Preview</td><td>⌥-drag Exposure, Recovery, or Black sliders</td></tr>
<tr><td>Highlight clipping warning</td><td>O</td></tr>
<tr><td>Shadows clipping warning</td><td>U</td></tr>
<tr><td>(Filmstrip mode) Add 1 - 5 star rating</td><td>⌘ + 1 - 5</td></tr>
<tr><td>(Filmstrip mode) Increase/decrease rating</td><td>⌘ + . (period) / ⌘+, (comma)</td></tr>
<tr><td>(Filmstrip mode) Add red label</td><td>⌘ + 6</td></tr>
<tr><td>(Filmstrip mode) Add yellow label</td><td>⌘ + 7</td></tr>
<tr><td>(Filmstrip mode) Add green label</td><td>⌘ + 8</td></tr>
<tr><td>(Filmstrip mode) Add blue label</td><td>⌘ + 9</td></tr>
<tr><td>(Filmstrip mode) Add purple label</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + 0</td></tr>
<tr><td>Camera Raw preferences</td><td>⌘ + K</td></tr>
<tr><td>Deletes Adobe Camera Raw preferences</td><td>⌥ + ⇧ (on open)</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Black-and-White dialog box</th></tr>
<tr><td>Open the Black-and-White dialog box</td><td>⇧ + ⌘ + ⌥+ B</td></tr>
<tr><td>Increase/decrease selected value by 1%</td><td>↑/↓</td></tr>
<tr><td>Increase/decrease selected value by 10%</td><td>⇧ + ↑/↓</td></tr>
<tr><td>Change the values of the closest color slider</td><td>Click-drag on the image</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Curves</th></tr>
<tr><td>Open the Curves dialog box</td><td>⌘ + M</td></tr>
<tr><td>Select next point on the curve</td><td>+ (plus)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Select the previous point on the curve</td><td>– (minus)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Select multiple points on the curve</td><td>⇧-click the points</td></tr>
<tr><td>Deselect a point</td><td>⌘ + D</td></tr>
<tr><td>To delete a point on the curve</td><td>Select a point and press Delete</td></tr>
<tr><td>Move the selected point 1 unit</td><td>Arrow keys</td></tr>
<tr><td>Move the selected point 10 units</td><td>⇧ + Arrow keys</td></tr>
<tr><td>Display highlights and shadows that will be clipped</td><td>⌥-drag black/white point sliders</td></tr>
<tr><td>Set a point to the composite curve</td><td>⌘-click the image</td></tr>
<tr><td>Set a point to the channel curves</td><td>⇧ + ⌘-click the image</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle grid size</td><td>⌥-click the field</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Select and move objects</th></tr>
<tr><td>Reposition marquee while selecting</td><td>Any marquee tool (except single column and single row) + spacebar-drag</td></tr>
<tr><td>Add to a selection</td><td>Any selection tool + ⇧-drag</td></tr>
<tr><td>Subtract from a selection</td><td>Any selection tool + ⌥-drag</td></tr>
<tr><td>Intersect a selection</td><td>Any selection tool (except Quick Selection tool) + ⇧-⌥-drag</td></tr>
<tr><td>Constrain marquee to square or circle (if no other selections are active)</td><td>⇧-drag</td></tr>
<tr><td>Draw marquee from center (if no other selections are active)</td><td>⌥-drag</td></tr>
<tr><td>Constrain shape and draw marquee from center</td><td>⇧ + ⌥-drag</td></tr>
<tr><td>Switch to Move tool</td><td>⌘ (except when Hand, Slice, Path, Shape, or any Pen tool is selected)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Switch from Magnetic Lasso tool to Lasso tool</td><td>⌥-drag</td></tr>
<tr><td>Switch from Magnetic Lasso tool to polygonal Lasso tool</td><td>⌥-click</td></tr>
<tr><td>Move copy of selection</td><td>Move tool + ⌥-drag selection</td></tr>
<tr><td>Move selection area 1 pixel</td><td>Any selection + →, ←, ↑, or ↓</td></tr>
<tr><td>Move selection 1 pixel</td><td>Move tool + →, ←, ↑, or ↓</td></tr>
<tr><td>Move layer 1 pixel when nothing selected on layer</td><td>⌘ + →, ←, ↑, or ↓</td></tr>
<tr><td>Increase/decrease detection width</td><td>Magnetic Lasso tool + [ or ]</td></tr>
<tr><td>Accept cropping or exit cropping</td><td>Crop tool + Return or Esc</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle crop shield off and on</td><td>/ (forward slash)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Make protractor</td><td>Ruler tool + ⌥-drag end point</td></tr>
<tr><td>Snap guide to ruler ticks (except when View > Snap is unchecked)</td><td>⇧-drag guide</td></tr>
<tr><td>Convert between horizontal and vertical guide</td><td>⌥-drag guide</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Transform selections, selection borders, and paths</th></tr>
<tr><td>Transform from center or reflect</td><td></td></tr>
<tr><td>Cancel</td><td>⌘ + . (period) or Esc</td></tr>
<tr><td>Free transform with duplicate data</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + T</td></tr>
<tr><td>Transform again with duplicate data</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + ⌥ + T</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Edit paths</th></tr>
<tr><td>Select multiple anchor points</td><td>Direct selection tool + ⇧-click</td></tr>
<tr><td>Select entire path</td><td>Direct selection tool + ⌥-click</td></tr>
<tr><td>Duplicate a path</td><td>Pen (any Pen tool), Path Selection or Direct Selection tool + ⌘ + ⌥-drag</td></tr>
<tr><td>Switch from Path Selection, Pen, Add Anchor Point, Delete Anchor Point, or Convert Point tools to Direct Selection tool</td><td></td></tr>
<tr><td>Switch from Pen tool or Freeform Pen tool to Convert Point tool when pointer is over anchor or direction point</td><td></td></tr>
<tr><td>Close path</td><td>Magnetic Pen tool-double-click</td></tr>
<tr><td>Close path with straight-line segment</td><td>Magnetic Pen tool + ⌥-double-click</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Painting</th></tr>
<tr><td>Select foreground color from color picker</td><td>Any painting tool + ⌃ + ⌥ + ⌘ and drag</td></tr>
<tr><td>Select foreground color from image with Eyedropper tool</td><td>Any painting tool + ⌥ or any shape tool + ⌥ (except when Paths ⌥ is selected)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Select background color</td><td>Eyedropper tool + ⌥-click</td></tr>
<tr><td>Color sampler tool</td><td>Eyedropper tool + ⇧</td></tr>
<tr><td>Deletes color sampler</td><td>Color sampler tool + ⌥-click</td></tr>
<tr><td>Sets opacity, tolerance, strength, or exposure for painting mode</td><td>Any painting or editing tool + number keys (e.g., 0 = 100%, 1 = 10%, 4 then 5 in quick succession = 45%) (when airbrush ⌥ is enabled, use ⇧ + number keys)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Sets flow for painting mode</td><td>Any painting or editing tool + ⇧ + number keys (e.g., 0 = 100%, 1 = 10%, 4 then 5 in quick succession = 45%) (when airbrush ⌥ is enabled, omit ⇧)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Mixer Brush changes Mix setting</td><td>⌥ + ⇧ + number</td></tr>
<tr><td>Mixer Brush changes Wet setting</td><td>Number keys</td></tr>
<tr><td>Mixer Brush changes Wet and Mix to zero</td><td>0</td></tr>
<tr><td>Cycle through blending modes</td><td>⇧ + + (plus) or – (minus)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Open Fill dialog box on background or standard layer</td><td>Delete or ⇧ + Delete</td></tr>
<tr><td>Fill with foreground or background color</td><td>⌥ + Delete or ⌘ + Delete</td></tr>
<tr><td>Fill from history</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + Delete</td></tr>
<tr><td>Displays Fill dialog box</td><td>⇧ + Delete</td></tr>
<tr><td>Lock transparent pixels on/off</td><td>/ (forward slash)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Connects points with a straight line</td><td>Any painting tool + ⇧-click</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Blending modes</th></tr>
<tr><td>Cycle through blending modes</td><td>⇧ + + (plus) or – (minus)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Normal</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + N</td></tr>
<tr><td>Dissolve</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + I</td></tr>
<tr><td>Behind (Brush tool only)</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + Q</td></tr>
<tr><td>Clear (Brush tool only)</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + R</td></tr>
<tr><td>Darken</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + K</td></tr>
<tr><td>Multiply</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + M</td></tr>
<tr><td>Color Burn</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + B</td></tr>
<tr><td>Linear Burn</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + A</td></tr>
<tr><td>Lighten</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + G</td></tr>
<tr><td>Screen</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + S</td></tr>
<tr><td>Color Dodge</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + D</td></tr>
<tr><td>Linear Dodge</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + W</td></tr>
<tr><td>Overlay</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + O</td></tr>
<tr><td>Soft Light</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + F</td></tr>
<tr><td>Hard Light</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + H</td></tr>
<tr><td>Vivid Light</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + V</td></tr>
<tr><td>Linear Light</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + J</td></tr>
<tr><td>Pin Light</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + Z</td></tr>
<tr><td>Hard Mix</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + L</td></tr>
<tr><td>Difference</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + E</td></tr>
<tr><td>Exclusion</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + X</td></tr>
<tr><td>Hue</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + U</td></tr>
<tr><td>Saturation</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + T</td></tr>
<tr><td>Color</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + C</td></tr>
<tr><td>Luminosity</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + Y</td></tr>
<tr><td>Desaturate</td><td>Sponge tool + ⇧ + ⌥ + D</td></tr>
<tr><td>Saturate</td><td>Sponge tool + ⇧ + ⌥ + S</td></tr>
<tr><td>Dodge/burn shadows</td><td>Dodge tool/Burn tool + ⇧ + ⌥ + S</td></tr>
<tr><td>Dodge/burn midtones</td><td>Dodge tool/Burn tool + ⇧ + ⌥ + M</td></tr>
<tr><td>Dodge/burn highlights</td><td>Dodge tool/Burn tool + ⇧ + ⌥ + H</td></tr>
<tr><td>Set blending mode to Threshold for bitmap images, Normal for all other images</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + N</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Select and edit text</th></tr>
<tr><td>Move type in image</td><td>⌘-drag type when Type layer is selected</td></tr>
<tr><td>Select 1 character left/right or 1 line down/up, or 1 word left/right</td><td>⇧ + ←/→ or ↓/↑, or ⌘ + ⇧ + ←/→</td></tr>
<tr><td>Select characters from insertion point to mouse click point</td><td>⇧-click</td></tr>
<tr><td>Move 1 character left/right, 1 line down/up, or 1 word left/right</td><td>←/→, ↓/↑, or ⌘ + ←/→</td></tr>
<tr><td>Create a new text layer, when a text layer is selected in the Layers panel</td><td>⇧-click</td></tr>
<tr><td>Select a word, line, paragraph, or story</td><td>Double-click, triple-click, quadruple-click, or quintuple-click</td></tr>
<tr><td>Show/Hide selection on selected type</td><td>⌘ + H</td></tr>
<tr><td>Display the bounding box for transforming text when editing text, or activate Move tool if cursor is inside the bounding box</td><td></td></tr>
<tr><td>Scale text within a bounding box when resizing the bounding box</td><td>⌘-drag a bounding box handle</td></tr>
<tr><td>Move text box while creating text box</td><td>Spacebar-drag</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Format type</th></tr>
<tr><td>Align left, center, or right</td><td>Horizontal Type tool + ⌘ + ⇧ + L, C, or R</td></tr>
<tr><td>Align top, center, or bottom</td><td>Vertical Type tool + ⌘ + ⇧ + L, C, or R</td></tr>
<tr><td>Choose 100% horizontal scale</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + X</td></tr>
<tr><td>Choose 100% vertical scale</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + ⌥ + X</td></tr>
<tr><td>Choose Auto leading</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + ⌥ + A</td></tr>
<tr><td>Choose 0 for tracking</td><td>⌘ + ⌃ + ⇧ + Q</td></tr>
<tr><td>Justify paragraph, left aligns last line</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + J</td></tr>
<tr><td>Justify paragraph, justifies all</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + F</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle paragraph hyphenation on/off</td><td>⌘ + ⌃ + ⇧ + ⌥ + H</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle single/every-line composer on/off</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + ⌥ + T</td></tr>
<tr><td>Decrease or increase type size of selected text 2 points or pixels</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + < or ></td></tr>
<tr><td>Decrease or increase leading 2 points or pixels</td><td>⌥ + ↓ or ↑</td></tr>
<tr><td>Decrease or increase baseline shift 2 points or pixels</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + ↓ or ↑</td></tr>
<tr><td>Decrease or increase kerning/tracking 20/1000 ems</td><td>⌥ + ← or →</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Panels</th></tr>
<tr><td>Set options for new items (except for Actions, Animation, Styles, Brushes, Tool Presets, and Layer Comps panels)</td><td>⌥-click New button</td></tr>
<tr><td>Delete without confirmation (except for the Brush panel)</td><td>⌥-click Delete button</td></tr>
<tr><td>Apply value and keep text box active</td><td>⇧ + Return</td></tr>
<tr><td>Show/Hide all panels</td><td>Tab</td></tr>
<tr><td>Show/Hide all panels except the toolbox and options bar</td><td>⇧ + Tab</td></tr>
<tr><td>Highlight options bar</td><td>Select tool and press Return</td></tr>
<tr><td>Increase/decrease selected values by 10</td><td>⇧ + ↑/↓</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Adjustment layers</th></tr>
<tr><td>Choose specific channel for adjustment</td><td>⌥ + 3 (red), 4 (green), 5 (blue)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Choose composite channel for adjustment</td><td>⌥ + 2</td></tr>
<tr><td>Delete adjustment layer</td><td>Delete</td></tr>
<tr><td>Define Auto options for Levels or Curves</td><td>⌥-click Auto button</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Brush panel</th></tr>
<tr><td>Delete brush</td><td>⌥-click brush</td></tr>
<tr><td>Rename brush</td><td>Double-click brush</td></tr>
<tr><td>Change brush size</td><td>Ctrl + ⌥ + drag left or right</td></tr>
<tr><td>Decrease/increase brush softness/hardness</td><td>Ctrl + ⌥ + drag up or down</td></tr>
<tr><td>Select previous/next brush size</td><td>, (comma) or . (period)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Select first/last brush</td><td>⇧ + , (comma) or . (period)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Display precise cross hair for brushes</td><td>Caps Lock</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle airbrush option</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + P</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Clone Source panel</th></tr>
<tr><td>Show Clone Source (overlays image)</td><td>⌥ + ⇧</td></tr>
<tr><td>Nudge Clone Source</td><td>⌥ + ⇧ + arrow keys</td></tr>
<tr><td>Rotate Clone Source</td><td>⌥ + ⇧ + < or ></td></tr>
<tr><td>Scale (increase or reduce size) Clone Source</td><td>⌥ + ⇧ + [ or ]</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Color panel</th></tr>
<tr><td>Select background color</td><td>⌥-click color in color bar</td></tr>
<tr><td>Display Color Bar menu</td><td>⌃-click color bar</td></tr>
<tr><td>Cycle through color choices</td><td>⇧-click color bar</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">History panel</th></tr>
<tr><td>Create a new snapshot</td><td>⌥ + New Snapshot</td></tr>
<tr><td>Rename snapshot</td><td>Double-click snapshot name</td></tr>
<tr><td>Step forward through image states</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + Z</td></tr>
<tr><td>Step backward through image states</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + Z</td></tr>
<tr><td>Duplicate any image state, except the current state</td><td>⌥-click the image state</td></tr>
<tr><td>Permanently clear history (no Undo)</td><td>⌥ + Clear History (in History panel pop‑up menu)</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Layers panel</th></tr>
<tr><td>Load layer transparency as a selection</td><td>⌘-click layer thumbnail</td></tr>
<tr><td>Add to current selection</td><td>⌘ + ⇧-click layer thumbnail</td></tr>
<tr><td>Subtract from current selection</td><td>⌘ + ⌥-click layer thumbnail</td></tr>
<tr><td>Intersect with current selection</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + ⌥-click layer thumbnail</td></tr>
<tr><td>Load filter mask as a selection</td><td>⌘-click filter mask thumbnail</td></tr>
<tr><td>New layer</td><td>⌘ + ⇧+ N</td></tr>
<tr><td>New layer via copy</td><td>⌘ + J</td></tr>
<tr><td>New layer via cut</td><td>⇧ + ⌘ + J</td></tr>
<tr><td>Group layers</td><td>⌘ + G</td></tr>
<tr><td>Ungroup layers</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + G</td></tr>
<tr><td>Create/release clipping mask</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + G</td></tr>
<tr><td>Select all layers</td><td>⌘ + ⌥ + A</td></tr>
<tr><td>Merge visible layers</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + E</td></tr>
<tr><td>Create new empty layer with dialog box</td><td>⌥-click New Layer button</td></tr>
<tr><td>Create new layer below target layer</td><td>⌘-click New Layer button</td></tr>
<tr><td>Select top layer</td><td>⌥ + . (period)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Select bottom layer</td><td>⌥ + , (comma)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Add to layer selection in Layers panel</td><td>⇧ + ⌥ + [ or ]</td></tr>
<tr><td>Select next layer down/up</td><td>⌥ + [ or ]</td></tr>
<tr><td>Move target layer down/up</td><td>⌘ + [ or ]</td></tr>
<tr><td>Merge a copy of all visible layers into target layer</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + ⌥ + E</td></tr>
<tr><td>Merge layers</td><td>Highlight the layers you want to merge, then ⌘ + E</td></tr>
<tr><td>Move layer to bottom or top</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + [ or ]</td></tr>
<tr><td>Copy current layer to layer below</td><td>⌥ + Merge Down ⌘ from the Panel pop‑up menu</td></tr>
<tr><td>Merge all visible layers to a new layer above the currently selected layer</td><td>⌥ + Merge Visible ⌘ from the Panel pop‑up menu</td></tr>
<tr><td>Show/hide this layer/layer group only or all layers/layer groups</td><td>⌃-click the eye icon</td></tr>
<tr><td>Show/hide all other currently visible layers</td><td>⌥-click the eye icon</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle lock transparency for target layer, or last applied lock</td><td>/ (forward slash)</td></tr>
<tr><td>Edit layer effect/style, options</td><td>Double-click layer effect/style</td></tr>
<tr><td>Hide layer effect/style</td><td>⌥-double-click layer effect/style</td></tr>
<tr><td>Edit layer style</td><td>Double-click layer</td></tr>
<tr><td>Disable/enable vector mask</td><td>⇧-click vector mask thumbnail</td></tr>
<tr><td>Open Layer Mask Display Options dialog box</td><td>Double-click layer mask thumbnail</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle layer mask on/off</td><td>⇧-click layer mask thumbnail</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle filter mask on/off</td><td>⇧-click filter mask thumbnail</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle between layer mask/composite image</td><td>⌥-click layer mask thumbnail</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle between filter mask/composite image</td><td>⌥-click filter mask thumbnail</td></tr>
<tr><td>Toggle rubylith mode for layer mask on/off</td><td>\ (backslash), or ⇧ + ⌥-click</td></tr>
<tr><td>Select all type; temporarily select Type tool</td><td>Double-click type layer thumbnail</td></tr>
<tr><td>Create a clipping mask</td><td>⌥-click the line dividing two layers</td></tr>
<tr><td>Rename layer</td><td>Double-click the layer name</td></tr>
<tr><td>Edit filter settings</td><td>Double-click the filter effect</td></tr>
<tr><td>Edit the Filter Blending options</td><td>Double-click the Filter Blending icon</td></tr>
<tr><td>Create new layer group below current layer/layer set</td><td>⌘-click New Group button</td></tr>
<tr><td>Create new layer group with dialog box</td><td>⌥-click New Group button</td></tr>
<tr><td>Create layer mask that hides all/selection</td><td>⌥-click Add Layer Mask button</td></tr>
<tr><td>Create vector mask that reveals all/path area</td><td>⌘-click Add Layer Mask button</td></tr>
<tr><td>Create vector mask that hides all or displays path area</td><td>⌘ + ⌥-click Add Layer Mask button</td></tr>
<tr><td>Display layer group properties</td><td>⌃-click the layer group and choose Group Properties, or double-click group</td></tr>
<tr><td>Select/deselect multiple contiguous layers</td><td>⇧-click</td></tr>
<tr><td>Select/deselect multiple discontiguous layers</td><td>⌘-click</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Paths panel</th></tr>
<tr><td>Load path as selection</td><td>⌘-click pathname</td></tr>
<tr><td>Add path to selection</td><td>⌘ + ⇧-click pathname</td></tr>
<tr><td>Subtract path from selection</td><td>⌘ + ⌥-click pathname</td></tr>
<tr><td>Retain intersection of path as selection</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + ⌥-click pathname</td></tr>
<tr><td>Hide path</td><td>⌘ + ⇧ + H</td></tr>
<tr><td>Set options for Fill Path with Foreground Color button, Stroke Path with Brush button, Load Path as a Selection button, Make Work Path from Selection button, and Create New Path button</td><td>⌥-click button</td></tr>
<tr><th colspan="2">Swatches panel</th></tr>
<tr><td>Create new swatch from foreground color</td><td>Click in empty area of panel</td></tr>
<tr><td>Set swatch color as background color</td><td>⌘-click swatch</td></tr>
<tr><td>Delete swatch</td><td>⌥-click swatch</td></tr>