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#!/usr/bin/env python
# This file is part of the OpenMV project.
# Copyright (c) 2013/2014 Ibrahim Abdelkader <i.abdalkader@gmail.com>
# This work is licensed under the MIT license, see the file LICENSE for
# details.
"""This module implements enough functionality to program the STM32F4xx over
DFU, without requiring dfu-util.
See app note AN3156 for a description of the DFU protocol.
See document UM0391 for a dscription of the DFuse file.
"""
from __future__ import print_function
import argparse
import collections
import re
import struct
import sys
import usb.core
import usb.util
import zlib
# VID/PID
__VID = 0x0483
__PID = 0xdf11
# USB request __TIMEOUT
__TIMEOUT = 4000
# DFU commands
__DFU_DETACH = 0
__DFU_DNLOAD = 1
__DFU_UPLOAD = 2
__DFU_GETSTATUS = 3
__DFU_CLRSTATUS = 4
__DFU_GETSTATE = 5
__DFU_ABORT = 6
# DFU status
__DFU_STATE_APP_IDLE = 0x00
__DFU_STATE_APP_DETACH = 0x01
__DFU_STATE_DFU_IDLE = 0x02
__DFU_STATE_DFU_DOWNLOAD_SYNC = 0x03
__DFU_STATE_DFU_DOWNLOAD_BUSY = 0x04
__DFU_STATE_DFU_DOWNLOAD_IDLE = 0x05
__DFU_STATE_DFU_MANIFEST_SYNC = 0x06
__DFU_STATE_DFU_MANIFEST = 0x07
__DFU_STATE_DFU_MANIFEST_WAIT_RESET = 0x08
__DFU_STATE_DFU_UPLOAD_IDLE = 0x09
__DFU_STATE_DFU_ERROR = 0x0a
_DFU_DESCRIPTOR_TYPE = 0x21
# USB device handle
__dev = None
# Configuration descriptor of the device
__cfg_descr = None
__verbose = None
# USB DFU interface
__DFU_INTERFACE = 0
# Python 3 deprecated getargspec in favour of getfullargspec, but
# Python 2 doesn't have the latter, so detect which one to use
import inspect
getargspec = getattr(inspect, 'getfullargspec', inspect.getargspec)
if 'length' in getargspec(usb.util.get_string).args:
# PyUSB 1.0.0.b1 has the length argument
def get_string(dev, index):
return usb.util.get_string(dev, 255, index)
else:
# PyUSB 1.0.0.b2 dropped the length argument
def get_string(dev, index):
return usb.util.get_string(dev, index)
def find_dfu_cfg_descr(descr):
if len(descr) == 9 and descr[0] == 9 and descr[1] == _DFU_DESCRIPTOR_TYPE:
nt = collections.namedtuple('CfgDescr',
['bLength', 'bDescriptorType', 'bmAttributes',
'wDetachTimeOut', 'wTransferSize', 'bcdDFUVersion'])
return nt(*struct.unpack('<BBBHHH', bytearray(descr)))
return None
def init():
"""Initializes the found DFU device so that we can program it."""
global __dev, __cfg_descr
devices = get_dfu_devices(idVendor=__VID, idProduct=__PID)
if not devices:
raise ValueError('No DFU device found')
if len(devices) > 1:
raise ValueError("Multiple DFU devices found")
__dev = devices[0]
__dev.set_configuration()
# Claim DFU interface
usb.util.claim_interface(__dev, __DFU_INTERFACE)
# Find the DFU configuration descriptor, either in the device or interfaces
__cfg_descr = None
for cfg in __dev.configurations():
__cfg_descr = find_dfu_cfg_descr(cfg.extra_descriptors)
if __cfg_descr:
break
for itf in cfg.interfaces():
__cfg_descr = find_dfu_cfg_descr(itf.extra_descriptors)
if __cfg_descr:
break
# Get device into idle state
for attempt in range(4):
status = get_status()
if status == __DFU_STATE_DFU_IDLE:
break
elif (status == __DFU_STATE_DFU_DOWNLOAD_IDLE
or status == __DFU_STATE_DFU_UPLOAD_IDLE):
abort_request()
else:
clr_status()
def abort_request():
"""Sends an abort request."""
__dev.ctrl_transfer(0x21, __DFU_ABORT, 0, __DFU_INTERFACE, None, __TIMEOUT)
def clr_status():
"""Clears any error status (perhaps left over from a previous session)."""
__dev.ctrl_transfer(0x21, __DFU_CLRSTATUS, 0, __DFU_INTERFACE,
None, __TIMEOUT)
def get_status():
"""Get the status of the last operation."""
stat = __dev.ctrl_transfer(0xA1, __DFU_GETSTATUS, 0, __DFU_INTERFACE,
6, 20000)
# print (__DFU_STAT[stat[4]], stat)
return stat[4]
def mass_erase():
"""Performs a MASS erase (i.e. erases the entire device."""
# Send DNLOAD with first byte=0x41
__dev.ctrl_transfer(0x21, __DFU_DNLOAD, 0, __DFU_INTERFACE,
"\x41", __TIMEOUT)
# Execute last command
if get_status() != __DFU_STATE_DFU_DOWNLOAD_BUSY:
raise Exception("DFU: erase failed")
# Check command state
if get_status() != __DFU_STATE_DFU_DOWNLOAD_IDLE:
raise Exception("DFU: erase failed")
def page_erase(addr):
"""Erases a single page."""
if __verbose:
print("Erasing page: 0x%x..." % (addr))
# Send DNLOAD with first byte=0x41 and page address
buf = struct.pack("<BI", 0x41, addr)
__dev.ctrl_transfer(0x21, __DFU_DNLOAD, 0, __DFU_INTERFACE, buf, __TIMEOUT)
# Execute last command
if get_status() != __DFU_STATE_DFU_DOWNLOAD_BUSY:
raise Exception("DFU: erase failed")
# Check command state
if get_status() != __DFU_STATE_DFU_DOWNLOAD_IDLE:
raise Exception("DFU: erase failed")
def set_address(addr):
"""Sets the address for the next operation."""
# Send DNLOAD with first byte=0x21 and page address
buf = struct.pack("<BI", 0x21, addr)
__dev.ctrl_transfer(0x21, __DFU_DNLOAD, 0, __DFU_INTERFACE, buf, __TIMEOUT)
# Execute last command
if get_status() != __DFU_STATE_DFU_DOWNLOAD_BUSY:
raise Exception("DFU: set address failed")
# Check command state
if get_status() != __DFU_STATE_DFU_DOWNLOAD_IDLE:
raise Exception("DFU: set address failed")
def write_memory(addr, buf, progress=None, progress_addr=0, progress_size=0):
"""Writes a buffer into memory. This routine assumes that memory has
already been erased.
"""
xfer_count = 0
xfer_bytes = 0
xfer_total = len(buf)
xfer_base = addr
while xfer_bytes < xfer_total:
if __verbose and xfer_count % 512 == 0:
print ("Addr 0x%x %dKBs/%dKBs..." % (xfer_base + xfer_bytes,
xfer_bytes // 1024,
xfer_total // 1024))
if progress and xfer_count % 2 == 0:
progress(progress_addr, xfer_base + xfer_bytes - progress_addr,
progress_size)
# Set mem write address
set_address(xfer_base+xfer_bytes)
# Send DNLOAD with fw data
chunk = min(__cfg_descr.wTransferSize, xfer_total-xfer_bytes)
__dev.ctrl_transfer(0x21, __DFU_DNLOAD, 2, __DFU_INTERFACE,
buf[xfer_bytes:xfer_bytes + chunk], __TIMEOUT)
# Execute last command
if get_status() != __DFU_STATE_DFU_DOWNLOAD_BUSY:
raise Exception("DFU: write memory failed")
# Check command state
if get_status() != __DFU_STATE_DFU_DOWNLOAD_IDLE:
raise Exception("DFU: write memory failed")
xfer_count += 1
xfer_bytes += chunk
def write_page(buf, xfer_offset):
"""Writes a single page. This routine assumes that memory has already
been erased.
"""
xfer_base = 0x08000000
# Set mem write address
set_address(xfer_base+xfer_offset)
# Send DNLOAD with fw data
__dev.ctrl_transfer(0x21, __DFU_DNLOAD, 2, __DFU_INTERFACE, buf, __TIMEOUT)
# Execute last command
if get_status() != __DFU_STATE_DFU_DOWNLOAD_BUSY:
raise Exception("DFU: write memory failed")
# Check command state
if get_status() != __DFU_STATE_DFU_DOWNLOAD_IDLE:
raise Exception("DFU: write memory failed")
if __verbose:
print ("Write: 0x%x " % (xfer_base + xfer_offset))
def exit_dfu():
"""Exit DFU mode, and start running the program."""
# set jump address
set_address(0x08000000)
# Send DNLOAD with 0 length to exit DFU
__dev.ctrl_transfer(0x21, __DFU_DNLOAD, 0, __DFU_INTERFACE,
None, __TIMEOUT)
try:
# Execute last command
if get_status() != __DFU_STATE_DFU_MANIFEST:
print("Failed to reset device")
# Release device
usb.util.dispose_resources(__dev)
except:
pass
def named(values, names):
"""Creates a dict with `names` as fields, and `values` as values."""
return dict(zip(names.split(), values))
def consume(fmt, data, names):
"""Parses the struct defined by `fmt` from `data`, stores the parsed fields
into a named tuple using `names`. Returns the named tuple, and the data
with the struct stripped off."""
size = struct.calcsize(fmt)
return named(struct.unpack(fmt, data[:size]), names), data[size:]
def cstring(string):
"""Extracts a null-terminated string from a byte array."""
return string.decode('utf-8').split('\0', 1)[0]
def compute_crc(data):
"""Computes the CRC32 value for the data passed in."""
return 0xFFFFFFFF & -zlib.crc32(data) - 1
def read_dfu_file(filename):
"""Reads a DFU file, and parses the individual elements from the file.
Returns an array of elements. Each element is a dictionary with the
following keys:
num - The element index
address - The address that the element data should be written to.
size - The size of the element ddata.
data - The element data.
If an error occurs while parsing the file, then None is returned.
"""
print("File: {}".format(filename))
with open(filename, 'rb') as fin:
data = fin.read()
crc = compute_crc(data[:-4])
elements = []
# Decode the DFU Prefix
#
# <5sBIB
# < little endian
# 5s char[5] signature "DfuSe"
# B uint8_t version 1
# I uint32_t size Size of the DFU file (not including suffix)
# B uint8_t targets Number of targets
dfu_prefix, data = consume('<5sBIB', data,
'signature version size targets')
print (" %(signature)s v%(version)d, image size: %(size)d, "
"targets: %(targets)d" % dfu_prefix)
for target_idx in range(dfu_prefix['targets']):
# Decode the Image Prefix
#
# <6sBI255s2I
# < little endian
# 6s char[6] signature "Target"
# B uint8_t altsetting
# I uint32_t named bool indicating if a name was used
# 255s char[255] name name of the target
# I uint32_t size size of image (not incl prefix)
# I uint32_t elements Number of elements in the image
img_prefix, data = consume('<6sBI255s2I', data,
'signature altsetting named name '
'size elements')
img_prefix['num'] = target_idx
if img_prefix['named']:
img_prefix['name'] = cstring(img_prefix['name'])
else:
img_prefix['name'] = ''
print(' %(signature)s %(num)d, alt setting: %(altsetting)s, '
'name: "%(name)s", size: %(size)d, elements: %(elements)d'
% img_prefix)
target_size = img_prefix['size']
target_data, data = data[:target_size], data[target_size:]
for elem_idx in range(img_prefix['elements']):
# Decode target prefix
# < little endian
# I uint32_t element address
# I uint32_t element size
elem_prefix, target_data = consume('<2I', target_data, 'addr size')
elem_prefix['num'] = elem_idx
print(' %(num)d, address: 0x%(addr)08x, size: %(size)d'
% elem_prefix)
elem_size = elem_prefix['size']
elem_data = target_data[:elem_size]
target_data = target_data[elem_size:]
elem_prefix['data'] = elem_data
elements.append(elem_prefix)
if len(target_data):
print("target %d PARSE ERROR" % target_idx)
# Decode DFU Suffix
# < little endian
# H uint16_t device Firmware version
# H uint16_t product
# H uint16_t vendor
# H uint16_t dfu 0x11a (DFU file format version)
# 3s char[3] ufd 'UFD'
# B uint8_t len 16
# I uint32_t crc32
dfu_suffix = named(struct.unpack('<4H3sBI', data[:16]),
'device product vendor dfu ufd len crc')
print (' usb: %(vendor)04x:%(product)04x, device: 0x%(device)04x, '
'dfu: 0x%(dfu)04x, %(ufd)s, %(len)d, 0x%(crc)08x' % dfu_suffix)
if crc != dfu_suffix['crc']:
print("CRC ERROR: computed crc32 is 0x%08x" % crc)
return
data = data[16:]
if data:
print("PARSE ERROR")
return
return elements
class FilterDFU(object):
"""Class for filtering USB devices to identify devices which are in DFU
mode.
"""
def __call__(self, device):
for cfg in device:
for intf in cfg:
return (intf.bInterfaceClass == 0xFE and
intf.bInterfaceSubClass == 1)
def get_dfu_devices(*args, **kwargs):
"""Returns a list of USB device which are currently in DFU mode.
Additional filters (like idProduct and idVendor) can be passed in to
refine the search.
"""
# convert to list for compatibility with newer pyusb
return list(usb.core.find(*args, find_all=True,
custom_match=FilterDFU(), **kwargs))
def get_memory_layout(device):
"""Returns an array which identifies the memory layout. Each entry
of the array will contain a dictionary with the following keys:
addr - Address of this memory segment
last_addr - Last address contained within the memory segment.
size - size of the segment, in bytes
num_pages - number of pages in the segment
page_size - size of each page, in bytes
"""
cfg = device[0]
intf = cfg[(0, 0)]
mem_layout_str = get_string(device, intf.iInterface)
mem_layout = mem_layout_str.split('/')
result = []
for mem_layout_index in range(1, len(mem_layout), 2):
addr = int(mem_layout[mem_layout_index], 0)
segments = mem_layout[mem_layout_index + 1].split(',')
seg_re = re.compile(r'(\d+)\*(\d+)(.)(.)')
for segment in segments:
seg_match = seg_re.match(segment)
num_pages = int(seg_match.groups()[0], 10)
page_size = int(seg_match.groups()[1], 10)
multiplier = seg_match.groups()[2]
if multiplier == 'K':
page_size *= 1024
if multiplier == 'M':
page_size *= 1024 * 1024
size = num_pages * page_size
last_addr = addr + size - 1
result.append(named((addr, last_addr, size, num_pages, page_size),
"addr last_addr size num_pages page_size"))
addr += size
return result
def list_dfu_devices(*args, **kwargs):
"""Prints a lits of devices detected in DFU mode."""
devices = get_dfu_devices(*args, **kwargs)
if not devices:
print("No DFU capable devices found")
return
for device in devices:
print("Bus {} Device {:03d}: ID {:04x}:{:04x}"
.format(device.bus, device.address,
device.idVendor, device.idProduct))
layout = get_memory_layout(device)
print("Memory Layout")
for entry in layout:
print(" 0x{:x} {:2d} pages of {:3d}K bytes"
.format(entry['addr'], entry['num_pages'],
entry['page_size'] // 1024))
def write_elements(elements, mass_erase_used, progress=None):
"""Writes the indicated elements into the target memory,
erasing as needed.
"""
mem_layout = get_memory_layout(__dev)
for elem in elements:
addr = elem['addr']
size = elem['size']
data = elem['data']
elem_size = size
elem_addr = addr
if progress:
progress(elem_addr, 0, elem_size)
while size > 0:
write_size = size
if not mass_erase_used:
for segment in mem_layout:
if addr >= segment['addr'] and \
addr <= segment['last_addr']:
# We found the page containing the address we want to
# write, erase it
page_size = segment['page_size']
page_addr = addr & ~(page_size - 1)
if addr + write_size > page_addr + page_size:
write_size = page_addr + page_size - addr
page_erase(page_addr)
break
write_memory(addr, data[:write_size], progress,
elem_addr, elem_size)
data = data[write_size:]
addr += write_size
size -= write_size
if progress:
progress(elem_addr, addr - elem_addr, elem_size)
def cli_progress(addr, offset, size):
"""Prints a progress report suitable for use on the command line."""
width = 25
done = offset * width // size
print("\r0x{:08x} {:7d} [{}{}] {:3d}% "
.format(addr, size, '=' * done, ' ' * (width - done),
offset * 100 // size), end="")
try:
sys.stdout.flush()
except OSError:
pass # Ignore Windows CLI "WinError 87" on Python 3.6
if offset == size:
print("")
def main():
"""Test program for verifying this files functionality."""
global __verbose
# Parse CMD args
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description='DFU Python Util')
#parser.add_argument("path", help="file path")
parser.add_argument(
"-l", "--list",
help="list available DFU devices",
action="store_true",
default=False
)
parser.add_argument(
"-m", "--mass-erase",
help="mass erase device",
action="store_true",
default=False
)
parser.add_argument(
"-u", "--upload",
help="read file from DFU device",
dest="path",
default=False
)
parser.add_argument(
"-v", "--verbose",
help="increase output verbosity",
action="store_true",
default=False
)
args = parser.parse_args()
__verbose = args.verbose
if args.list:
list_dfu_devices(idVendor=__VID, idProduct=__PID)
return
init()
if args.mass_erase:
print ("Mass erase...")
mass_erase()
if args.path:
elements = read_dfu_file(args.path)
if not elements:
return
print("Writing memory...")
write_elements(elements, args.mass_erase, progress=cli_progress)
print("Exiting DFU...")
exit_dfu()
return
print("No command specified")
if __name__ == '__main__':
main()
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