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NeuronBlocks 教程

English Version

安装

注意: NeuronBlocks 目前基于 Python 3.6

  1. Clone 本项目.

    git clone https://github.com/Microsoft/NeuronBlocks
  2. 安装在 requirements.txt 里面制定的 python 安装包.

    pip install -r requirements.txt

NeuronBlocks 目前支持 PyTorch 0.4.1.

  • Linux 用户, 第二步中 pytorch 将被自动安装
  • Windows 用户,建议按照 PyTorch官方安装教程 通过Conda安装PyTorch。

快速开始

通过以下示例快速入门NeuronBlocks。对于Windows,建议使用PowerShell工具运行命令。

提示: 在下文中, PROJECTROOT表示本项目的根目录。

# 训练
cd PROJECT_ROOT
python train.py --conf_path=model_zoo/demo/conf.json

# 测试
python test.py --conf_path=model_zoo/demo/conf.json

# 预测
python predict.py --conf_path=model_zoo/demo/conf.json

如何设计NLP模型

定义模型配置文件

通过 NeuronBlocks 训练一个深度神经网络,您只需要在一个JSON 配置文件里面定义网络结构和一些额外的参数设置即可。 您可以在 PROJECTROOT/model_zoo/ 下面建立您的模型目录,用于保存模型配置文件。模型相关的数据建议保存在 PROJECTROOT/dataset/.

PROJECTROOT/model_zoo/demo/conf.json 为例 (便于说明工具包的用法,这个展示用例的网络结构并不是一个实际的结构)。 这个配置文件定义的任务是问答对匹配问题, 也就是判断一个答案是否可以回答对应的问题。 相关的样例数据保存在 PROJECTROOT/dataset/demo/.

配置文件的架构如下:

  • language. [optional, default: English] Firstly define language type here, we support English and Chinese now.

  • inputs. This part defines the input configuration.

    • use_cache. If use_cache is true, the toolkit would make cache at the first time so that we can accelerate the training process at the next time.
    • dataset_type. Declare the task type here. Currently, we support classification, regression and so on.
    • data_paths.
      • train_data_path. [necessary for training] Data for training.
      • valid_data_path. [optional for training] Data for validation. During training, the toolkit would save the model which has the best performance on validation data. If you don't need a validation, just remove this node.
      • test_data_path. [necessary for training, test] Data for test. If valid_data_path is not defined, the toolkit would save the model which has the best performance on test data.
      • predict_data_path. [conditionally necessary for prediction] Data for prediction. When we are predicting, if predict_data_path is not declared, the toolkit will predict on test_data_path instead.
      • pre_trained_emb. [optional for training] Pre-trained embeddings.
    • pretrained_emb_type. [optional, default: glove] Currently, We support glove, word2vec, fasttext.
    • pretrained_emb_binary_or_text. [optional, default: text] We support text and binary.
    • involve_all_words_in_pretrained_emb. [optional, default: false] If true, all the words in the pretrained embedings are added to the embedding matrix.
    • add_start_end_for_seq. [optional, default: true] For sequences in data or target, whether to add start and end tag automatically.
    • file_header. [necesssary for training and test] This part defines the file format of train/valid/test data. For instance, the following configuration means there are 3 columns in the data, and we name the first to third columns as question_text, answer_text and label, respectively.
      "file_header": {
        "question_text": 0,
        "answer_text": 1,
        "label": 2
      }
    • predict_file_header. [conditionally necessary for prediction] This part defines the file format of prediction data. If the file_header of prediction data is not consistent with file_header of train/valid/test data, we have to define "predict_file_header" for prediction data, otherwise conf[inputs][file_header] is applied to the prediction data by default. Two file_headers are consistent if the indices of data column involved in conf[inputs][model_inputs]) are consistent.
      "predict_file_header": {
        "question_text": 0,
        "answer_text": 1
      },
    • file_with_col_header. [optional, default: false] If your dataset has column name title, remember to set file_with_col_header to True. Otherwise, it may result in program error.
    • model_inputs. The node is used for defining model inputs. In this example, there are two inputs: question and answer.
      "model_inputs": {
        "question": [
          "question_text"
        ],
        "answer": [
          "answer_text"
        ]
      }
    • target. [necessary for training and test] This node defines the target column in the train/valid/test data. The type of target is array because our tookit will support multi-target tasks.
  • outputs. This node defines the settings of path to save models and logs, as well as cache.

    • save_base_dir. The directory to save models and logs.
    • model_name. The model would be saved as save_base_dir/model_name.
    • train_log_name/test_log_name/predict_log_name. The name of log during training/test/prediction.
    • predict_fields. A list to set up the fields you want to predict, such as prediction and confidence.
    • cache_dir. The directory to save cache.
  • training_params. We define the optimizer and training hyper parameters here.

    • optimizer.
      • name. We support all the optimizers defined in torch.optim.
      • params. The optimizer parameters are exactly the same as the parameters of the initialization function of optimizers in torch.optim.
    • use_gpu. [default: true] Whether to use GPU if there is at least one GPU available. In addition, all GPUs are used by default if there are multiple GPUs, and you can also specify which GPU to use via setting the CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES variable as below.
      # Run on GPU0
      CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES=0 python train.py
      # Run on GPU0 and GPU1
      CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES=0,1 python train.py
      # Run on CPU
      CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES= python train.py
    • cpu_num_workers. [default: -1] Define the number of processes to preprocess the dataset. The number of processes is equal to that of logical cores CPU supports if value is negtive or 0, otherwise it is equal to cpu_num_workers.
    • batch_size. Define the batch size here. If there are multiple GPUs, batch_size is the batch size of each GPU.
    • batch_num_to_show_results. [necessary for training] During the training process, show the results every batch_num_to_show_results batches.
    • max_epoch. [necessary for training] The maximum number of epochs to train.
    • valid_times_per_epoch. [optional for training, default: 1] Define how many times to conduct validation per epoch. Usually, we conduct validation after each epoch, but for a very large corpus, we'd better validate multiple times in case to miss the best state of our model. The default value is 1.
    • tokenizer. [optional] Define tokenizer here. Currently, we support 'nltk' and 'jieba'. By default, 'nltk' for English and 'jieba' for Chinese.
  • architecture. Define the model architecture. The node is a list of layers (blocks) in block_zoo to represent a model. The supported layers of this toolkit are given in block_zoo overview.

    • Embedding layer. The first layer of this example (as shown below) defines the embedding layer, which is composed of one type of embedding: "word" (word embedding) and the dimension of "word" are 300. You need to keep this dimension and the dimension of pre-trained embeddings consistent if you specify pre-trained embeddings in inputs/data_paths/pre_trained_emb.
      {
          "layer": "Embedding",
          "conf": {
            "word": {
              "cols": ["question_text", "answer_text"],
              "dim": 300
            }
           }
      }
    • Using layers to design your model. You can choose layers in block_zoo to build your model following the fomat:
      • layer_id. Customized name for one model layer.
      • layer. The layer name in block_zoo.
      • conf. Each layer has their own configs (you can find layer name and corresponding parameters in block_zoo overview).
      • inputs. The layer_id which connect to this layer, the type of inputs must be array, because one layer can have multi-layer inputs. This is a BiLSTM layer example:
      {
          "layer_id": "question_1",
          "layer": "BiLSTM",
          "conf": {
            "hidden_dim": 64,
            "dropout": 0
          },
          "inputs": ["question"]
      }
      To access more about supported layers and their configurations, please go to block_zoo overview. For example, if we want to know the parameters of BiLSTM, we can find that there are a BiLSTM class and a BiLSTMConf class, the parameters of BiLSTM would be given at BiLSTMConf.
  • loss. [necessary for training and test] Currently, we support all the loss functions offered by PyTorch loss functions. The parameters defined in configuration/loss/conf are exactly the same with the parameters of initialization function of loss functions in PyTorch loss functions. Additionally, we offer more options, such as Focal Loss, please refer to Loss function overview. Specially, for classification tasks, we usually add a Linear layer to project the output to dimension of number of classes, if we don't know the #classes, we can use '-1' instead and we would calculate the number of classes from the corpus.

  • metrics. Different tasks have different supported metrics, you can follow the table below to select metrics according specific task.

    Task Supported Metrics
    classification auc, accuracy, f1, macro_f1, macro_precision, macro_recall, micro_f1, micro_precision, micro_recall, weighted_f1, weighted_precision, weighted_recall
    sequence_tagging seq_tag_f1, accuracy
    regression MSE, RMSE
    mrc F1, EM

    During validation, the toolkit selects the best model according to the first metric.

Tips: The [optional] and [necessary] mark means corresponding node in the configuration file is optional or necessary for training/test/prediction. If there is no mark, it means the node is necessary all the time. Actually, it would be more convenient to prepare a configuration file that contains all the configurations for training, test and prediction.

中文支持

在使用中文数据时,JSON配置里的language应被设置为'Chinese'。中文默认使用jieba分词。中文任务示例参见任务 7: 中文情感分析

另外,我们也支持中文预处理词向量。首先从Chinese Word Vectors下载中文词向量并解压,然后将其放置在某一文件夹下(例如 dataset/chinese_word_vectors/ ),最后在JSON配置里定义 inputs/data_paths/pre_trained_emb

模型可视化

本项目提供了一个模型可视化工具,用于模型的可视化和模型配置文件的语法正确性检查。请参考 Model Visualizer README。下图是一个模型可视化样例:

NLP 任务 Model Zoo

在 Model Zoo 当中,我们提供了一系列针对常用自然语言理解任务的经典NLP模型。 这里的模型以JSON 配置文件存在. 您可以快速从已有的模型中选择一个模型开始模型训练,也可以进行简单的配置文件修改来构建新的网络结构。

注释: 在开始模型训练前,请先下载 GloVe 词向量.

cd PROJECT_ROOT/dataset
./get_glove.sh

任务 1: 文本分类

Text classification is a core problem to many applications like spam filtering, email routing, book classification, etc. This task aims to train a classifier using labeled dataset containing text documents and their labels.

  • 数据集

    The 20 Newsgroups data set is a collection of approximately 20,000 newsgroup documents, partitioned (nearly) evenly across 20 different newsgroups.

  • 用法

    1. Run data downloading and preprocessing script.
    cd PROJECT_ROOT/dataset
    python get_20_newsgroups.py
    1. Train text classification model.
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python train.py --conf_path=model_zoo/nlp_tasks/text_classification/conf_text_classification_cnn.json 
    1. Test your model.
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python test.py --conf_path=model_zoo/nlp_tasks/text_classification/conf_text_classification_cnn.json 

    Tips: you can try different models by running different JSON config files.

  • 结果

    Model Accuracy
    TextCNN (NeuronBlocks) 0.961
    BiLSTM+Attention (NeuronBlocks) 0.970

    Tips: the model file and train log file can be found in JOSN config file's outputs/save_base_dir after you finish training.

任务 2: 问答对匹配

Question answer matching is a crucial subtask of the question answering problem, with the aim of determining whether question-answer pairs are matched or not.

  • 数据集

    Microsoft Research WikiQA Corpus is a publicly available set of question and sentence pairs, collected and annotated for research on open-domain question answer matching. WikiQA includes 3,047 questions and 29,258 sentences, where 1,473 sentences were labeled as answer sentences to their corresponding questions. More details of this corpus can be found in the paper WikiQA: A Challenge Dataset for Open-Domain Question Answering.

  • 用法

    1. Run data downloading script.
    cd PROJECT_ROOT/dataset
    python get_WikiQACorpus.py
    1. Train question answer matching model.
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python train.py --conf_path=model_zoo/nlp_tasks/question_answer_matching/conf_question_answer_matching_bilstm_match_attention.json
    1. Test your model.
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python test.py --conf_path=model_zoo/nlp_tasks/question_answer_matching/conf_question_answer_matching_bilstm_match_attention.json

    Tips: you can try different models by running different JSON config files.

  • 结果

    Model AUC
    CNN (WikiQA paper) 0.735
    CNN-Cnt (WikiQA paper) 0.753
    CNN (NeuronBlocks) 0.747
    BiLSTM (NeuronBlocks) 0.767
    BiLSTM+Attn (NeuronBlocks) 0.754
    MatchPyramid (NeuronBlocks) 0.763
    BiLSTM+Match Attention (NeuronBlocks) 0.786

    Tips: the model file and train log file can be found in JOSN config file's outputs/save_base_dir after you finish training.

任务 3: 自然语言问题推理

Natural language inference (NLI) is a task that incorporates much of what is necessary to understand language, such as the ability to leverage world knowledge or perform lexico-syntactic reasoning. Given two sentences, a premise and a hypothesis, an NLI system must determine whether the hypothesis is implied by the premise.

  • 数据集

    The Stanford Question Answering Dataset is a question-answering dataset consisting of question-paragraph pairs, where one of the sentences in the paragraph (drawn from Wikipedia) contains the answer to the corresponding question (written by an annotator). QNLI converts this task into sentence pair classification by forming a pair between each question and each sentence in the corresponding context, and filtering out pairs with low lexical overlap between the question and the context sentence. The task is to determine whether the context sentence contains the answer to the question.

  • 用法

    1. Run data downloading script.
    cd PROJECT_ROOT/dataset
    python get_QNLI.py
    1. Train natural language inference model.
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python train.py --conf_path=model_zoo/nlp_tasks/question_nli/conf_qnli_bilstm.json
    1. Test your model.
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python test.py --conf_path=model_zoo/nlp_tasks/question_nli/conf_qnli_bilstm.json

    Tips: you can try different models by running different JSON config files.

  • 结果

    Model Accuracy
    BiLSTM(GLUE paper) 0.770
    BiLSTM+Attn(GLUE paper) 0.772
    BiLSTM(NeuronBlocks) 0.798
    BiLSTM+Attn(NeuronBlocks) 0.810

    Tips: the model file and train log file can be found in JOSN config file's outputs/save_base_dir after you finish training.

任务 4: 情感分析

Sentiment analysis is aimed to predict the sentiment (positive, negative, etc) of a given sentence/document, which is widely applied to many fields.

  • 数据集

    The Stanford Sentiment Treebank consists of sentences from movie reviews and human annotations of their sentiment. We use the two-way (positive/negative) class split, and use only sentence-level labels.

  • 用法

    1. Run data downloading script.
    cd PROJECT_ROOT/dataset
    python get_SST-2.py
    1. Train sentiment analysis model.
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python train.py --conf_path=model_zoo/nlp_tasks/sentiment_analysis/conf_sentiment_analysis_bilstm.json
    1. Test your model.
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python test.py --conf_path=model_zoo/nlp_tasks/sentiment_analysis/conf_sentiment_analysis_bilstm.json

    Tips: you can try different models by running different JSON config files.

  • 结果

    Model Accuracy
    BiLSTM (GLUE paper) 0.875
    BiLSTM+Attn (GLUE paper) 0.875
    BiLSTM (NeuronBlocks) 0.876
    BiLSTM+Attn (NeuronBlocks) 0.883

    Tips: the model file and train log file can be found in JOSN config file's outputs/save_base_dir after you finish training.

任务 5: 相似问题判别

This task is to determine whether a pair of questions are semantically equivalent.

  • 数据集

    The Quora Question Pairs dataset is a collection of question pairs from the community question-answering website Quora.

  • 用法

    1. Run data downloading script.
    cd PROJECT_ROOT/dataset
    python get_QQP.py
    1. Train question paraphrase model.
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python train.py --conf_path=model_zoo/nlp_tasks/question_pairs/conf_question_pairs_bilstm.json
    1. Test your model.
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python test.py --conf_path=model_zoo/nlp_tasks/question_pairs/conf_question_pairs_bilstm.json

    Tips: you can try different models by running different JSON config files.

  • 结果

    The class distribution in QQP is unbalanced (63% negative), so we report both accuracy and F1 score.

    Model Accuracy F1
    BiLSTM (GLUE paper) 0.853 0.820
    BiLSTM+Attn (GLUE paper) 0.877 0.839
    BiLSTM (NeuronBlocks) 0.864 0.831
    BiLSTM+Attn (NeuronBlocks) 0.878 0.839

    Tips: the model file and train log file can be found in JSON config file's outputs/save_base_dir.

任务 6: 基于知识蒸馏的模型压缩

Knowledge Distillation is a common method to compress model in order to improve inference speed. Here are some reference papers:

6.1: 文本二分类的模型压缩

This task is to train a query regression model to learn from a heavy teacher model such as BERT based query classifier model. The training process is to minimize the score difference between the student model output and teacher model output.

  • 数据集 PROJECT_ROOT/dataset/knowledge_distillation/query_binary_classifier:

    • train.tsv and valid.tsv: two columns, namely Query and Score. Score is the output score of a heavy teacher model (BERT base finetune model), which is the soft label to be learned by student model as knowledge.

    • test.tsv: two columns, namely Query and Label. Label is a binary value which 0 means negative and 1 means positive.

      In the meanwhile, you can also replace with your own dataset for compression task trainning.

  • 用法

    1. Train student model
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python train.py --conf_path=model_zoo/nlp_tasks/knowledge_distillation/query_binary_classifier_compression/conf_kdqbc_bilstmattn_cnn.json
    1. Test student model
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python test.py --conf_path=model_zoo/nlp_tasks/knowledge_distillation/query_binary_classifier_compression/conf_kdqbc_bilstmattn_cnn.json
    1. Calculate AUC metric
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python tools/calculate_AUC.py --input_file models/kdqbc_bilstmattn_cnn/train/predict.tsv --predict_index 2 --label_index 1 

    Tips: you can try different models by running different JSON config files.

  • 结果

    The AUC of student model is very close to that of teacher model and its inference speed is 32X~38X times faster.

    Model AUC
    Teacher (BERT base) 0.9112
    Student-BiLSTMAttn+TextCNN (NeuronBlocks) 0.8941

    Tips: the model file and train log file can be found in JSON config file's outputs/save_base_dir.

6.2: 文本匹配的模型压缩

This task is to train a query-passage regression model to learn from a heavy teacher model such as BERT based query-passage matching classifier model. The training process is to minimize the score difference between the student model output and teacher model output.

  • 数据集 PROJECT_ROOT/dataset/knowledge_distillation/text_matching_data:

    • train.tsv and valid.tsv: three columns, namely Query, Passage and Score. Score is the output score of a heavy teacher model (BERT base finetune model), which is the soft label to be learned by student model as knowledge.

    • test.tsv: three columns, namely Query, Passage and Label. Label is a binary value which 0 means negative and 1 means positive.

      In the meanwhile, you can also replace with your own dataset for compression task trainning.

  • 用法

    1. Train student model
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python train.py --conf_path=model_zoo/nlp_tasks/knowledge_distillation/text_matching_model_compression/conf_kdtm_match_linearAttn.json
    1. Test student model
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python test.py --conf_path=model_zoo/nlp_tasks/knowledge_distillation/text_matching_model_compression/conf_kdtm_match_linearAttn.json
    1. Calculate AUC metric
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python tools/calculate_AUC.py --input_file=models/kdtm_match_linearAttn/predict.tsv --predict_index=3 --label_index=2 

    Tips: you can try different models by running different JSON config files.

  • 结果

    The AUC of student model is close to that of teacher model and its inference speed is multi-x times faster.

    Model AUC
    Teacher (BERT large) 0.9284
    Student-BiLSTM+matchAttn (NeuronBlocks) 0.8817

    NOTE: the result is achieved with 1200w data, we can only give sample data for demo, you can replace the data with your own data.

6.3: 槽填充的模型压缩 (ongoing)

6.4: 机器阅读理解模型的模型压缩 (ongoing)

任务 7: 中文情感分析

这里给出一个中文情感分析的示例。

  • 数据集

    PROJECT_ROOT/dataset/chinese_sentiment_analysis 是中文情感分析的样例数据。

  • 用法

    1. 训练中文情感分析模型。
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python train.py --conf_path=model_zoo/nlp_tasks/chinese_sentiment_analysis/conf_chinese_sentiment_analysis_bilstm.json
    1. 测试模型。
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python test.py --conf_path=model_zoo/nlp_tasks/chinese_sentiment_analysis/conf_chinese_sentiment_analysis_bilstm.json

    提示:您可以通过运行不同的JSON配置文件来尝试不同的模型。当训练完成后,模型文件和训练日志文件可以在JSON配置的outputs/save_base_dir目录中找到。

任务 8:中文文本匹配

这里给出一个中文文本匹配的示例

  • 数据集

    PROJECT_ROOT/dataset/chinese_text_matching 是中文文本匹配的样例数据。

  • 用法

    1. 训练中文文本匹配模型。
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python train.py --conf_path=model_zoo/nlp_tasks/chinese_text_matching/conf_chinese_text_matching.json
    1. 测试模型。
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python test.py --conf_path=model_zoo/nlp_tasks/chinese_text_matching/conf_chinese_text_matching.json

    提示:您可以通过运行不同的JSON配置文件来尝试不同的模型。当训练完成后,模型文件和训练日志文件可以在JSON配置的outputs/save_base_dir目录中找到。

任务 9: 序列标注

序列标注是一项重要的NLP任务,包括 NER, Slot Tagging, Pos Tagging 等任务。

  • 数据集

    在序列标注任务中,CoNLL 2003是一个很常用的数据集。在我们的序列标注任务中,使用 CoNLL 2003 中英文 NER 数据作为实验数据,其中数据格式可以参考我们给出的抽样数据

  • 标注策略

    • NeuronBlocks 支持 BIO 和 BIOES 标注策略。
    • IOB 标注标注是不被支持的,因为在大多实验中它具有很差的表现。
    • NeuronBlocks 提供一个在不同标注策略(IOB/BIO/BIOES)中的转化脚本(脚本仅支持具有 数据和标签 的两列tsv文件输入)。
  • 用法

    1. BiLSTM 词表示和 Softmax 输出
    cd PROJECT_ROOT
    python train.py --conf_path=model_zoo/nlp_tasks/slot_tagging/conf_slot_tagging.json
  • 结果

    1. BiLSTM 词表示和 Softmax 输出
    Model F1-score
    Ma and Hovy(2016) 87.00
    BiLSTM+Softmax(NeuronBlocks) 88.50

高阶用法

After building a model, the next goal is to train a model with good performance. It depends on a highly expressive model and tricks of the model training. NeuronBlocks provides some tricks of model training.

Take PROJECTROOT/model_zoo/advanced/conf.json as an example (we make it more suitable for the usage explanation so that the model architecture might not be practical) to introduce the advanced usage, the configuration is used for question answer matching task. The sample data lies in PROJECTROOT/dataset/advanced_demo.

额外的 Feature

Providing more features (postag, NER, char-level feature, etc) to the model than just a single original text may bring more improvements in performance. NeuronBlocks supports multi-feature input and embedding.

To achieve it, you need:

  1. Specify the corresponding column name in config file's inputs/file_header (char-level feature doesn't need to be specified).
    "file_header": {
        "question_text": 0,
        "answer_text": 1,
        "label":   2,
        "question_postag": 3,
        "answer_postag": 4
      }
  1. Specify the corresponding feature name in config file's inputs/model_inputs.
    "model_inputs": {
        "question": ["question_text","question_postag","question_char"],
        "answer": ["answer_text","answer_postag","answer_char"]
      }
  1. Set the corresponding feature embedding in config file's architecture Embedding layer.
    {
          "layer": "Embedding",
          "conf": {
            "word": {
              "cols": ["question_text", "answer_text"],
              "dim": 300,
              "fix_weight": true
            },
            "postag": {
              "cols": ["question_postag","answer_postag"],
              "dim": 20
            },
            "char": {
              "cols": ["question_char", "answer_char"],
              "type": "CNNCharEmbedding",
              "dropout": 0.2,
              "dim": 30,
              "embedding_matrix_dim": 8,
              "stride":1,
              "window_size": 5,
              "activation": null
            }
          }
      }

学习率衰减

The learning rate is one of the most important hyperparameters to tune during training. Choosing suitable learning rate is challenging. A too small value may result in a long training process that could get stuck, while a too large value may result in learning a sub-optimal set of weights too fast or an unstable training process.

When training a model, it is often recommended to lower the learning rate as the training progresses. NeuronBlocks provides the function for supporting learning rate decay by setting several parameters in config files.

training_params/lr_decay. [float, optional for training, default: 1.0] lr_decay is a float number between 0 and 1, and learning rate will multiply by it at each epoch after epoch_start_lr_decay.

training_params/minimum_lr. [float, optional for training, default: 0.0] The minimum learning rate during training. Once less than it, the learning rate will be replaced by minimum_lr.

training_params/epoch_start_lr_decay. [int, optional for training, default: 1] The epoch number of starting learning rate decay.

An example of learning rate decay:

"optimizer": {
  "name": "Adam",
  "params": {
    "lr": 0.001
  }
},
"lr_decay": 0.95,
"minimum_lr": 0.0001,
"epoch_start_lr_decay": 1

固定 Embedding & 词表大小设置

When corpus is very large, the vocabulary size will become large correspondingly. Moreover the training process will be slow if the vocabulary embedding vectors keep updating during training.

To solve the above problems, NeuronBlocks supports fixing embedding weight (embedding vectors don't update during training) and limiting vocabulary size.

  • Fix embedding weight

    fix_weight. [bool, optional for training, default: false] By setting fix_weight parameter in architecture/Embedding layer, you can control the embeding vectors is updatable or not during training.

    For example, set word embedding not updatable:

    {
      "layer": "Embedding",
      "conf": {
        "word": {
          "cols": ["question_text", "answer_text"],
          "dim": 300,
          "fix_weight": true
        }
      }
    }
  • Limit vocabulary size

    training_params/vocabulary/min_word_frequency. [int, optional for training, default: 3] The word will be removed from corpus vocabulary if its statistical frequency is less than min_word_frequency.

    training_params/vocabulary/max_vocabulary. [int, optional for training, default: 800,000] The max size of corpus vocabulary. If corpus vocabulary size is larger than max_vocabulary, it will be cut according to word frequency.

常见问题与答案

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