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Proposal: Variadic Kinds -- Give specific types to variadic functions #5453

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sandersn opened this issue Oct 29, 2015 · 265 comments
Closed

Proposal: Variadic Kinds -- Give specific types to variadic functions #5453

sandersn opened this issue Oct 29, 2015 · 265 comments

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@sandersn
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@sandersn sandersn commented Oct 29, 2015

Variadic Kinds

Give Specific Types to Variadic Functions

This proposal lets Typescript give types to higher-order functions that take a variable number of parameters.
Functions like this include concat, apply, curry, compose and almost any decorator that wraps a function.
In Javascript, these higher-order functions are expected to accept variadic functionsas arguments.
With the ES2015 and ES2017 standards, this use will become even more common as programmers start using spread arguments and rest parameters for both arrays and objects.
This proposal addresses these use cases with a single, very general typing strategy based on higher-order kinds.

This proposal would completely or partially address several issues, including:

  1. #5331 -- Tuples as types for rest ...arguments
  2. #4130 -- Compiler incorrectly reports parameter/call target signature mismatch when using the spread operator
  3. #4988 -- Tuples should be clonable with Array.prototype.slice()
  4. #1773 -- Variadic generics?
  5. #3870 -- Rest types in generics for intersection types.
  6. #212 -- bind, call and apply are untyped (requires #3694's this-function types).
  7. #1024 -- Typed ...rest parameters with generics

I'll be updating this proposal on my fork of the Typescript-Handbook: sandersn/TypeScript-Handbook@76f5a75
I have an in-progress implementation at sandersn/TypeScript@f3c327a which currently has the simple parts of the proposal implemented.
It supercedes part 2 of my previous proposal, #5296.
Edit: Added a section on assignability. I'm no longer sure that it strictly supercedes #5296.

Preview example with curry

curry for functions with two arguments is simple to write in Javascript and Typescript:

function curry(f, a) {
    return b => f(a, b);
}

and in Typescript with type annotations:

function curry<T, U, V>(f: (t: T, u: U) => V, a:T): (b:U) => V {
    return b => f(a, b);
}

However, a variadic version is easy to write in Javascript but cannot be given a type in TypeScript:

function curry(f, ...a) {
    return ...b => f(...a, ...b);
}

Here's an example of using variadic kinds from this proposal to type curry:

function curry<...T,...U,V>(f: (...ts: [...T, ...U]) => V, ...as:...T): (...bs:...U) => V {
    return ...b => f(...a, ...b);
}

The syntax for variadic tuple types that I use here matches the spread and rest syntax used for values in Javascript.
This is easier to learn but might make it harder to distinguish type annotations from value expressions.
Similarly, the syntax for concatenating looks like tuple construction, even though it's really concatenation of two tuple types.

Now let's look at an example call to curry:

function f(n: number, m: number, s: string, c: string): [number, number, string, string] {
    return [n,m,s,c];
}
let [n,m,s,c] = curry(f, 1, 2)('foo', 'x');
let [n,m,s,c] = curry(f, 1, 2, 'foo', 'x')();

In the first call,

V = [number, number, string, string]
...T = [number, number]
...U = [string, string]

In the second call,

V = [number, number, string, string]
...T = [number, number, string, string]
...U = []

Syntax

The syntax of a variadic kind variable is ...T where T is an identifier that is by convention a single upper-case letter, or T followed by a PascalCase identifier.
Variadic kind variables can be used in a number of syntactic contexts:

Variadic kinds can be bound in the usual location for type parameter binding, including functions and classes:

function f<...T,...U>() {}
}
class C<...T> {
}

And they can be referenced in any type annotation location:

function makeTuple<...T>(ts:...T): ...T {
    return ts;
}
function f<...T,...U>(ts:...T): [...T,...U] {
    // note that U is constrained to [string,string] in this function
    let us: ...U = makeTuple('hello', 'world');
    return [...ts, ...us];
}

Variadic kind variables, like type variables, are quite opaque.
They do have one operation, unlike type variables.
They can be concatenated with other kinds or with actual tuples.
The syntax used for this is identical to the tuple-spreading syntax, but in type annotation location:

let t1: [...T,...U] = [...ts,...uProducer<...U>()];
let t2: [...T,string,string,...U,number] = [...ts,'foo','bar',...uProducer<...U>(),12];

Tuple types are instances of variadic kinds, so they continue to appear wherever type annotations were previously allowed:

function f<...T>(ts:...T): [...T,string,string] { 
    // note the type of `us` could have been inferred here
    let us: [string,string] = makeTuple('hello', 'world');
    return [...ts, ...us];
}

let tuple: [number, string] = [1,'foo'];
f<[number,string]>(tuple);

Semantics

A variadic kind variable represents a tuple type of any length.
Since it represents a set of types, we use the term 'kind' to refer to it, following its use in type theory.
Because the set of types it represents is tuples of any length, we qualify 'kind' with 'variadic'.

Therefore, declaring a variable of variadic tuple kind allows it to take on any single tuple type.
Like type variables, kind variables can only be declared as parameters to functions, classes, etc, which then allows them to be used inside the body:

function f<...T>(): ...T {
    let a: ...T;
}

Calling a function with arguments typed as a variadic kind will assign a specific tuple type to the kind:

f([1,2,"foo"]);

Assigns the tuple type ...T=[number,number,string]...T. So in this application off,let a:...Tis instantiated aslet a:[number,number,string]. However, because the type ofais not known when the function is written, the elements of the tuple cannot be referenced in the body of the function. Only creating a new tuple froma` is allowed.
For example, new elements can be added to the tuple:

function cons<H,...Tail>(head: H, tail: ...Tail): [H,...Tail] {
    return [head, ...tail];
}
let l: [number, string, string, boolean]; 
l = cons(1, cons("foo", ["baz", false]));

Like type variables, variadic kind variables can usually be inferred.
The calls to cons could have been annotated:

l = cons<number,[string,string,boolean]>(1, cons<string,[string,boolean]>("foo", ["baz", false]));

For example, cons must infer two variables, a type H and a kind ...Tail.
In the innermost call, cons("foo", ["baz", false]), H=string and ...Tail=[string,boolean].
In the outermost call, H=number and ...Tail=[string, string, boolean].
The types assigned to ...Tail are obtained by typing list literals as tuples -- variables of a tuple type can also be used:

let tail: [number, boolean] = ["baz", false];
let l = cons(1, cons("foo", tail));

Additionally, variadic kind variables can be inferred when concatenated with types:

function car<H,...Tail>(l: [H, ...Tail]): H {
    let [head, ...tail] = l;
    return head;
}
car([1, "foo", false]);

Here, the type of l is inferred as [number, string, boolean].
Then H=number and ...Tail=[string, boolean].

Limits on type inference

Concatenated kinds cannot be inferred because the checker cannot guess where the boundary between two kinds should be:

function twoKinds<...T,...U>(total: [...T,string,...U]) {
}
twoKinds("an", "ambiguous", "call", "to", "twoKinds")

The checker cannot decide whether to assign

  1. ...T = [string,string,string], ...U = [string]
  2. ...T = [string,string], ...U = [string,string]
  3. ...T = [string], ...U = [string,string,string]

Some unambiguous calls are a casualty of this restriction:

twoKinds(1, "unambiguous", 12); // but still needs an annotation!

The solution is to add type annotations:

twoKinds<[string,string],[string,string]>("an", "ambiguous", "call", "to", "twoKinds");
twoKinds<[number],[number]>(1, "unambiguous", 12);

Uncheckable dependencies between type arguments and the function body can arise, as in rotate:

function rotate(l:[...T, ...U], n: number): [...U, ...T] {
    let first: ...T = l.slice(0, n);
    let rest: ...U = l.slice(n);
    return [...rest, ...first];
}
rotate<[boolean, boolean, string], [string, number]>([true, true, 'none', 12', 'some'], 3);

This function can be typed, but there is a dependency between n and the kind variables: n === ...T.length must be true for the type to be correct.
I'm not sure whether this is code that should actually be allowed.

Semantics on classes and interfaces

The semantics are the same on classes and interfaces.

TODO: There are probably some class-specific wrinkles in the semantics.

Assignability between tuples and parameter lists

Tuple kinds can be used to give a type to rest arguments of functions inside their scope:

function apply<...T,U>(ap: (...args:...T) => U, args: ...T): U {
    return ap(...args);
}
function f(a: number, b: string) => string {
    return b + a;
}
apply(f, [1, 'foo']);

In this example, the parameter list of f: (a: number, b:string) => string must be assignable to the tuple type instantiated for the kind ...T.
The tuple type that is inferred is [number, string], which means that (a: number, b: string) => string must be assignable to (...args: [number, string]) => string.

As a side effect, function calls will be able to take advantage of this assignability by spreading tuples into rest parameters, even if the function doesn't have a tuple kind:

function g(a: number, ...b: [number, string]) {
    return a + b[0];
}
g(a, ...[12, 'foo']);

Tuple types generated for optional and rest parameters

Since tuples can't represent optional parameters directly, when a function is assigned to a function parameter that is typed by a tuple kind, the generated tuple type is a union of tuple types.
Look at the type of h after it has been curried:

function curry<...T,...U,V>(cur: (...args:[...T,...U]) => V, ...ts:...T): (...us:...U) => V {
    return ...us => cur(...ts, ...us);
}
function h(a: number, b?:string): number {
}
let curried = curry(h, 12);
curried('foo'); // ok
curried(); // ok

Here ...T=([number] | [number, string]), so curried: ...([number] | [number, string]) => number which can be called as you would expect. Unfortunately, this strategy does not work for rest parameters. These just get turned into arrays:

function i(a: number, b?: string, ...c: boolean[]): number {
}
let curried = curry(i, 12);
curried('foo', [true, false]);
curried([true, false]);

Here, curried: ...([string, boolean[]] | [boolean[]]) => number.
I think this could be supported if there were a special case for functions with a tuple rest parameter, where the last element of the tuple is an array.
In that case the function call would allow extra arguments of the correct type to match the array.
However, that seems too complex to be worthwhile.

Extensions to the other parts of typescript

  1. Typescript does not allow users to write an empty tuple type.
    However, this proposal requires variadic kinds to be bindable to a empty tuple.
    So Typescript will need to support empty tuples, even if only internally.

Examples

Most of these examples are possible as fixed-argument functions in current Typescript, but with this proposal they can be written as variadic.
Some, like cons and concat, can be written for homogeneous arrays in current Typescript but can now be written for heteregoneous tuples using tuple kinds.
This follows typical Javascript practise more closely.

Return a concatenated type

function cons<H,...T>(head: H, tail:...T): [H, ...T] {
    return [head, ...tail];
}
function concat<...T,...U>(first: ...T, ...second: ...U): [...T, ...U] {
    return [...first, ...second];
}
cons(1, ["foo", false]); // === [1, "foo", false]
concat(['a', true], 1, 'b'); // === ['a', true, 1, 'b']
concat(['a', true]); // === ['a', true, 1, 'b']

let start: [number,number] = [1,2]; // type annotation required here
cons(3, start); // == [3,1,2]

Concatenated type as parameter

function car<H,...T>(l: [H,...T]): H {
    let [head, ...tail] = l;
    return head;
}
function cdr<H,...T>(l: [H,...T]): ...T {
    let [head, ...tail] = l;
    return ...tail;
}

cdr(["foo", 1, 2]); // => [1,2]
car(["foo", 1, 2]); // => "foo"

Variadic functions as arguments

function apply<...T,U>(f: (...args:...T) => U, args: ...T): U {
    return f(...args);
}

function f(x: number, y: string) {
}
function g(x: number, y: string, z: string) {
}

apply(f, [1, 'foo']); // ok
apply(f, [1, 'foo', 'bar']); // too many arguments
apply(g, [1, 'foo', 'bar']); // ok
function curry<...T,...U,V>(f: (...args:[...T,...U]) => V, ...ts:...T): (...us: ...U) => V {
    return us => f(...ts, ...us);
}
let h: (...us: [string, string]) = curry(f, 1);
let i: (s: string, t: string) = curry(f, 2);
h('hello', 'world');
function compose<...T,U,V>(f: (u:U) => U, g: (ts:...T) => V): (args: ...T) => V {
    return ...args => f(g(...args));
}
function first(x: number, y: number): string {
}
function second(s: string) {
}
let j: (x: number, y: number) => void = compose(second, first);
j(1, 2);

TODO: Could f return ...U instead of U?

Decorators

function logged<...T,U>(target, name, descriptor: { value: (...T) => U }) {
    let method = descriptor.value;
    descriptor.value = function (...args: ...T): U {
        console.log(args);
        method.apply(this, args);
    }
}

Open questions

  1. Does the tuple-to-parameter-list assignability story hold up? It's especially shaky around optional and rest parameters.
  2. Will the inferred type be a union of tuples as with the optional-parameter case? Because bind, call and apply are methods defined on Function, their type arguments need to be bound at function-creation time rather than the bind call site (for example). But this means that functions with overloads can't take or return types specific to their arguments -- they have to be a union of the overload types. Additionally, Function doesn't have a constructor that specifies type arguments directly, so there's really no way provide the correct types to bind et al. TODO: Add an example here. Note that this problem isn't necessarily unique to variadic functions.
  3. Should rest parameters be special-cased to retain their nice calling syntax, even when they are generated from a tuple type? (In this proposal, functions typed by a tuple kind have to pass arrays to their rest parameters, they can't have extra parameters.)
@ivogabe
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@ivogabe ivogabe commented Oct 31, 2015

+1, this is really useful for functional programming in TypeScript! How would this work with optional or rest arguments? More concrete, can the compose function be used on functions with rest arguments or optional arguments?

@sandersn
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@sandersn sandersn commented Nov 2, 2015

Good point. I think you could assign the smallest allowed tuple type to an optional-param function since tuple are just objects, which allow additional members. But that's not ideal. I'll see if I can figure out the compose example and then I'll update the proposal.

@sandersn
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@sandersn sandersn commented Nov 2, 2015

Actually union types would probably work better. Something like

function f(a: string, b? number, ...c: boolean[]): number;
function id<T>(t: T): T;
let g = compose(f, id): (...ts: ([string] | [string, number] | [string, number, boolean[]]) => number

g("foo"); // ok
g("foo", 12); // ok
g("foo", 12, [true, false, true]); // ok

This still breaks rest parameters, though.

@sandersn
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@sandersn sandersn commented Nov 4, 2015

@ahejlsberg, you had some ideas how tuple kinds would work, I think.

@kitsonk
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@kitsonk kitsonk commented Nov 5, 2015

So 👍 on this. For information this is related to (and would fulfill) #3870. We have tried to implement a compose type API in TypeScript but are having to work around some of the limitations noted in this proposal. This would certainly solve some of those problems!

It seems though that sometimes you may want to "merge" such tuple types instead of persisting them, especially with something like compose. For example:

function compose<T, ...U>(base: T, ...mixins: ...U): T&U {
    /* mixin magic */
}

Also, in a lot of your examples, you have been using primitives. How would you see something more complex working, especially if there are conflicts?

@sandersn
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@sandersn sandersn commented Nov 5, 2015

Unfortunately this proposal as-is does not address #3870 or the type composition, since the only composition operator for tuple kinds is [T,...U]. You could also write this as T + ...U (which is more indicative of what happens to the types), but #3870 and your type composition library need T & ...U. I think that might be possible, but I need to understand @JsonFreeman's and @jbondc's ideas from #3870 first. I'll expand the proposal if I can figure out how it should work.

Note: I decided to go with the syntax [...T, ...U] because it looks like the equivalent value spreading syntax, but T + ...U is more indicative of what's happening with the types. If we end up with both, then + and & might be the operators to use.

@sccolbert
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@sccolbert sccolbert commented Nov 5, 2015

Big 👍 on this!

@Igorbek
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@Igorbek Igorbek commented Nov 6, 2015

+1 awesome! It would allow to express such things much more expressive and lightweight.

@JsonFreeman
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@JsonFreeman JsonFreeman commented Nov 6, 2015

My point in #3870 seems to be an issue here. Specifically, I worry about inferring type arguments for variadic type parameters.

Type argument inference is a rather complicated process, and it has changed in subtle ways over time. When arguments are matched against parameters in order to infer type type arguments, there are no guarantees about the order in which candidates are inferred, nor how many candidates are inferred (for a given type parameter). This has generally not been a problem because the result surfaced to the user does not (in most cases) expose these details. But if you make a tuple type out of the inference results, it certainly does expose both the order and the count of the inferences. These details were not intended to be observable.

How serious is this? I think it depends on how exactly the inference works. What is the result of the following:

function f<...T>(x: ...T, y: ...T): ...T { }
f(['hello', 0, true], [[], 'hello', { }]); // what is the type returned by f?
@sandersn
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@sandersn sandersn commented Nov 6, 2015

@jbondc, - seems like a good idea. I'll keep it in mind but not explore it here, because I think we should introduce new type operators one at a time. Both & and + create new types, but & creates an intersection type whereas + creates a new tuple type (which is why I prefer the syntax [T,...U] instead of T + ...U, because [T,U] already does this for types).

@JsonFreeman l think it's OK to do one of two things with repeated kind parameters:

  1. Union the types: f(['hello', 1], [1, false]): [string | number, number | boolean]
  2. Disallow inference of repeated tuple kind parameters, particularly if type argument inference proves complicated. Something like this:
f(['hello', 1], [1, false]) // error, type arguments required
f<[string, number]>(['hello', 1], [1, false]) // error, 'number' is not assignable to 'string'
f<[string | number, number | boolean]>(['hello', 1], [1, false]); // ok

I think real libraries (like the reactive extensions @Igorbek linked to) will usually only have one tuple kind parameter so even though neither (1) nor (2) are particularly usable, it shouldn't impact real-world code much.

In the examples above, curry is the hardest to infer -- you have to skip f: (...args:[...T,...U]) => V, infer ...ts:...T, then go back and set ...U to what's left after consuming ...T from f's parameters.

I've started prototyping this (sandersn/TypeScript@1d5725d), but haven't got that far yet. Any idea if that will work?

@JsonFreeman
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@JsonFreeman JsonFreeman commented Nov 6, 2015

I would err on the side of disallowing anything where the semantics is not clear (like repeated inferences to the same spreaded type parameter). That allays my concern above as well.

I can't think of a good mechanism for typing curry. As you point out, you have to skip the parameter list of the first function to consume the ...T argument and then see what's left over. There would have to be some policy to postpone inferences to a spreaded type parameter if it's not final in its list. It could get messy.

That said, I think this is worth a try. There is high demand for the feature.

@sandersn
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@sandersn sandersn commented Nov 6, 2015

I think you would have to skip multiple tuple kinds that occur in the same context (eg top-level like (...T,string,...U) => V or concatenated like [...T,...U,...T]). Then you can make multiple passes on the skipped kinds, eliminating already-inferred kinds and re-skipping kinds that are still ambiguous. If at any point no single kind is available for inference, stop and return an error.

So, yeah. Complicated.

@JsonFreeman
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@JsonFreeman JsonFreeman commented Nov 7, 2015

You may be able to draw inspiration from a similar problem. It is actually somewhat similar to the problem of inferring to a union or intersection. When inferring to a union type that includes a type parameter that is a member of the inference context, as in function f<T>(x: T | string[]), you don't know whether to infer to T. The intended manifestation of the union type may have been string[]. So typescript first infers to all other constituents, and then if no inferences were made, infers to T.

In the case of intersection, it's even harder because you may have to split the type of the argument across the different intersection constituents. Typescript doesn't make inferences to intersection types at all.

What if you only allowed spreading tuple if it is the last type in its sequence? So [string, ...T] would be allowed, but [...T, string] would not be?

@isiahmeadows
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@isiahmeadows isiahmeadows commented Dec 17, 2015

If I understand correctly, this would actually solve the mixin story in TypeScript. Am I correct in this understanding?

@sandersn
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@sandersn sandersn commented Dec 17, 2015

Maybe. Can you give an example? I'm not fluent with mixin patterns.

@zpdDG4gta8XKpMCd
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@zpdDG4gta8XKpMCd zpdDG4gta8XKpMCd commented Dec 18, 2015

The syntax of a variadic kind variable is ...T where T is an identifier that is by convention a single upper-case letter, or T followed by a PascalCase identifier.

Can we leave the case of a type parameter identifier up to the developer?

@isiahmeadows
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@isiahmeadows isiahmeadows commented Dec 18, 2015

@Aleksey-Bykov +1. I don't see a reason why that shouldn't be the case.

@zpdDG4gta8XKpMCd
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@zpdDG4gta8XKpMCd zpdDG4gta8XKpMCd commented Dec 18, 2015

Developers with Haskell background would appreciate that.

@sandersn
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@sandersn sandersn commented Dec 19, 2015

Sorry, that sentence can be parsed ambiguously. I meant 'or' to parse tightly: "by convention (a single upper-case letter || T followed by a PascalCase identifier)". I'm not proposing constraining the case of the identifiers, just pointing out the convention.

For what it's worth, though, I have a Haskell background and I don't like breaking conventions of the language I'm writing in.

@zpdDG4gta8XKpMCd
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@zpdDG4gta8XKpMCd zpdDG4gta8XKpMCd commented Dec 19, 2015

Sorry for derailing. My last curious question (if you don't mind me asking) what is the "convention" of TypeScript that might get broken and who is concerned?

@ahejlsberg
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@ahejlsberg ahejlsberg commented Jun 16, 2020

This issue is now fixed by #39094, slated for TS 4.0.

@ahejlsberg ahejlsberg added this to the TypeScript 4.0 milestone Jun 16, 2020
@Shinigami92
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@Shinigami92 Shinigami92 commented Jun 16, 2020

If this is coming with 4.0, we now have a reason to name it 4.0 😃
This is really a major new feature 🎉

@gioragutt
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@gioragutt gioragutt commented Jun 16, 2020

@Harpush
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@Harpush Harpush commented Jun 16, 2020

This is great! Only thing "left" is the same for literal string types

@gioragutt
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@gioragutt gioragutt commented Jun 17, 2020

@sandersn I'm trying to think about how would this syntax be used in things like RxJS, where the pipe method parameters are sorta dependent one one another,

as in pipe(map<T, V>(...), map<V, U>(...), filter(...), ...). How would you type it in a way that's not what they do now? (The dozens of lines of different variadic lengths typing)

@tylorr
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@tylorr tylorr commented Jun 17, 2020

@gioragutt using the PR that @ahejlsberg submitted I think this would work but I could be wrong though 😄

type Last<T extends readonly unknown[]> = T extends readonly [...infer _, infer U] ? U : undefined;

interface UnaryFunction<T, R> { (source: T): R; }

type PipeParams<T, R extends unknown[]> = R extends readonly [infer U] ? [UnaryFunction<T, U>, ...PipeParams<R>] : [];

function pipe<T, R extends unknown[]>(...fns: PipeParams<T, R>): UnaryFunction<T, Last<R>>;
@isiahmeadows
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@isiahmeadows isiahmeadows commented Jun 17, 2020

@tylorr Doesn't quite work, due to a circular type error.

However, the usual workaround works.

type Last<T extends readonly unknown[]> = T extends readonly [...infer _, infer U] ? U : undefined;

interface UnaryFunction<T, R> { (source: T): R; }

type PipeParams<T, R extends unknown[]> = {
    0: [],
    1: R extends readonly [infer U, ...infer V]
    ? [UnaryFunction<T, U>, ...PipeParams<U, V>]
    : never
}[R extends readonly [unknown] ? 1 : 0];

declare function pipe<T, R extends unknown[]>(...fns: PipeParams<T, R>): UnaryFunction<T, Last<R>>;
@treybrisbane
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@treybrisbane treybrisbane commented Jun 18, 2020

@isiahmeadows That doesn't seem to work for me. 😢
Playground example.

@tylorr
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@tylorr tylorr commented Jun 18, 2020

I got something closer to working but it won't deduce the types.
playground example

I had to change
R extends readonly [unknown] ? 1 : 0
to
R extends readonly [infer _, ...infer __] ? 1 : 0

Not sure why

@isiahmeadows
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@isiahmeadows isiahmeadows commented Jun 18, 2020

@tylorr @treybrisbane Might be related: #39094 (comment)

Also, in either case, I'd highly recommend sharing that in the pull request that comment's in.

@ford04
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@ford04 ford04 commented Jun 18, 2020

Variadic tuple types are an awesome addition to the language, thank you for the effort!

It seems, constructs like curry might also benefit (just tested with the staging playground):

// curry with max. three nestable curried function calls (extendable)
declare function curry<T extends unknown[], R>(fn: (...ts: T) => R):
  <U extends unknown[]>(...args: SubTuple<U, T>) => ((...ts: T) => R) extends ((...args: [...U, ...infer V]) => R) ?
    V["length"] extends 0 ? R :
    <W extends unknown[]>(...args: SubTuple<W, V>) => ((...ts: V) => R) extends ((...args: [...W, ...infer X]) => R) ?
      X["length"] extends 0 ? R :
      <Y extends unknown[]>(...args: SubTuple<Y, X>) => ((...ts: X) => R) extends ((...args: [...Y, ...infer Z]) => R) ?
        Z["length"] extends 0 ? R : never
        : never
      : never
    : never

type SubTuple<T extends unknown[], U extends unknown[]> = {
  [K in keyof T]: Extract<keyof U, K> extends never ?
  never :
  T[K] extends U[Extract<keyof U, K>] ?
  T[K]
  : never
}

type T1 = SubTuple<[string], [string, number]> // [string]
type T2 = SubTuple<[string, number], [string]> // [string, never]

const fn = (a1: number, a2: string, a3: boolean) => 42

const curried31 = curry(fn)(3)("dlsajf")(true) // number
const curried32 = curry(fn)(3, "dlsajf")(true) // number
const curried33 = curry(fn)(3, "dlsajf", true) // number
const curried34 = curry(fn)(3, "dlsajf", "foo!11") // error

Generic function don't work with above curry though.

@AlexAegis
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@AlexAegis AlexAegis commented Jun 19, 2020

I don't believe this PR solves this particular issue tbh.

With the PR this works

function foo<T extends any[]>(a: [...T]) {
  console.log(a)
}

foo<[number, string]>([12, '13']);

But this issue would like to see an implementation for this as far as I see:

function bar<...T>(...b: ...T) {
  console.log(b)
}

bar<number, string>(12, '13');

There is a lot angle brackets there, looks a little redundant.

@ahejlsberg
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@ahejlsberg ahejlsberg commented Jun 19, 2020

@AlexAegis I'm not sure I see a lot of value in "rest type parameters" like that. You can already do this:

declare function foo<T extends any[]>(...a: T): void;

foo(12, '13');  // Just have inference figure it out
foo<[number, string]>(12, '13');  // Expclitly, but no need to

Don't think we really want a whole new concept (i.e. rest type parameters) just so the square brackets can be avoided in the rare cases where inference can't figure it out.

@AlexAegis
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@AlexAegis AlexAegis commented Jun 19, 2020

@ahejlsberg I see. I was asking because some libraries (RxJS as mentioned) used workarounds to provide this functionality. But it's finite.

bar<T1>(t1: T1);
bar<T1, T2>(t1: T1, t2:T2);
bar<T1, T2, T3>(t1: T1, t2:T2, t3: T3, ...t: unknown) { ... }

So now they either stick with that, or have the users type the brackets, which is a breaking change, and not that intuitive.

The reason why I used this example is because here it's straightforward that I defined the type of that tuple. One square bracket here, one there

foo<[number, string]>([12, '13']);

Here it's not so obvious that the tuple refers to that rest parameter if you look at it from the outside

foo<[number, string]>(12, '13'); 

But yes as you said if we let the inference figure it out then these trivial cases are not requiring any modification from the user. But we don't know if they did set them explicitly or not, it's up to them, so it still counts as a breaking change. But that's the lib's concern and not this change's.

That said I just find it odd that if there are rest parameters, defined from the outside one by one, that are a single array on the inside differentiated by ..., cannot be made generic the same way: one by one on the outside, single array on the inside, differentiated by ....

@polkovnikov-ph
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@polkovnikov-ph polkovnikov-ph commented Jun 19, 2020

@clawoflight
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@clawoflight clawoflight commented Jun 19, 2020

I am of course nowhere close to his caliber, but I respectfully disagree with @ahejlsberg .
In my experience, much of the complexity of typescript comes from the fact that a lot of (interesting and useful to be sure) features are special-cased in as their own concepts.

This complexity is not inherently a function of the number of features though!
Instead, the language could be designed around larger, more overarching concepts from which these special cases could then be trivially deduced, or implemented in the std (type) library.

The most general such concept would of course be to fully implement dependent types, from which everything else could then be derived, but going that far is not necessary:
As C++ and, to a lesser extent, Rust have shown, a few large scale, consistent concepts give you a ton of features for free.
This is similar to what OCaml and Haskell (and I assume F#?) have done on the value level, just on the type level.

Type level programming is nothing to be scared of as long as it is designed into the language instead of tacked on to provide specific features.
The facilities in C++ 14/17 are very intuitive except for their syntax, which is purely due to historical baggage.

@polkovnikov-ph
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@polkovnikov-ph polkovnikov-ph commented Jun 19, 2020

@clawoflight
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@clawoflight clawoflight commented Jun 19, 2020

@polkovnikov-ph I'm glad we agree on the issue at hand :)

As for the solution, I think it would still be worth considering progressively moving towards a more carefully designed type system. Major versions are a thing after all, and the alternative is to end up in the cluster**** that is C++ 20 - an admirable attempt at adding even more nicely designed features on top of 2 layers of previous attempts that cannot be removed, in a syntax that is already not deterministically parseable.

@polkovnikov-ph
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@polkovnikov-ph polkovnikov-ph commented Jun 19, 2020

All of this is off-topic to this thread and is being discussed here. So I'll try to be frank:

It took decades for academia to figure out correct approach to subtyping: mlsub type system was created only 6 years ago, well after TypeScript was first released. It could be that foundation for classes, interfaces, union and intersection types with overarching concepts.

But also remember there are conditional types. I'm not aware of any papers giving them formal semantics, or describing a minimal type system with conditional types with progress/preservation proofs. I believe that might have something to do with scientists still being shy to print their failed attempts. If your proposal assumes those major incompatible versions will be made in 2040's, when academia gets comfortable with conditional types, I can agree.

Otherwise "carefully designed type system" would have to remove conditional types from the language, and I don't think anyone is up to the task of converting 60% of DefinitelyTyped to use whatever alternative is chosen to replace them. (And then do it several more times, because it's not the only issue.)

I'm afraid the only viable solution is to create a separate programming language that would somehow resemble TS, and somehow (not only by being more pleasurable to write code in) lure developers to use it. Ryan was quite vocal recommending this approach for TS improvement previously.

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