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Implementations of Grover oracles for the block ciphers AES and LowMC in the quantum-focused programming language Q#
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Grover-blocks v1.0

Grover's algorithm for block cipher key search

The grover-blocks project contains implementations of Grover oracles for exhaustive key search on block ciphers via Grover's quantum search algorithm. Version 1.0 provides oracles for AES and LowMC in the quantum-focused programming language Q# and depends on the Microsoft Quantum Development Kit. The code can be used to obtain quantum resource estimates for exhaustive key search to inform the post-quantum security assessment of AES and LowMC.

The code was developed by Microsoft Research for experimentation purposes.

Installation instructions


  • Fernando Virdia
  • Samuel Jaques


Grover-blocks is licensed under the MIT License; see License for details.


[1] Samuel Jaques, Michael Naehrig, Martin Roetteler, and Fernando Virdia, "Implementing Grover oracles for quantum key search on AES and LowMC". Preprint available at


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