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Playwright API Tip-Of-Tree

Table of Contents

Playwright module

Playwright module provides a method to launch a browser instance. The following is a typical example of using Playwright to drive automation:

const { chromium, firefox, webkit } = require('playwright');

(async () => {
  const browser = await chromium.launch();  // Or 'firefox' or 'webkit'.
  const page = await browser.newPage();
  await page.goto('http://example.com');
  // other actions...
  await browser.close();
})();

By default, the playwright NPM package automatically downloads browser executables during installation. The playwright-core NPM package can be used to skip automatic downloads.

playwright.chromium

This object can be used to launch or connect to Chromium, returning instances of ChromiumBrowser.

playwright.devices

Returns a list of devices to be used with browser.newContext(options) or browser.newPage(options). Actual list of devices can be found in src/deviceDescriptors.ts.

const { webkit, devices } = require('playwright');
const iPhone = devices['iPhone 6'];

(async () => {
  const browser = await webkit.launch();
  const context = await browser.newContext({
    viewport: iPhone.viewport,
    userAgent: iPhone.userAgent
  });
  const page = await context.newPage();
  await page.goto('http://example.com');
  // other actions...
  await browser.close();
})();

playwright.errors

Playwright methods might throw errors if they are unable to fulfill a request. For example, page.waitForSelector(selector[, options]) might fail if the selector doesn't match any nodes during the given timeframe.

For certain types of errors Playwright uses specific error classes. These classes are available via browserType.errors or playwright.errors.

An example of handling a timeout error:

try {
  await page.waitForSelector('.foo');
} catch (e) {
  if (e instanceof playwright.errors.TimeoutError) {
    // Do something if this is a timeout.
  }
}

playwright.firefox

This object can be used to launch or connect to Firefox, returning instances of FirefoxBrowser.

playwright.selectors

Selectors can be used to install custom selector engines. See Working with selectors for more information.

playwright.webkit

This object can be used to launch or connect to WebKit, returning instances of WebKitBrowser.

class: Browser

A Browser is created when Playwright connects to a browser instance, either through browserType.launch or browserType.connect.

An example of using a Browser to create a Page:

const { firefox } = require('playwright');  // Or 'chromium' or 'webkit'.

(async () => {
  const browser = await firefox.launch();
  const page = await browser.newPage();
  await page.goto('https://example.com');
  await browser.close();
})();

See ChromiumBrowser, FirefoxBrowser and WebKitBrowser for browser-specific features. Note that browserType.connect(options) and browserType.launch(options) always return a specific browser instance, based on the browser being connected to or launched.

event: 'disconnected'

Emitted when Browser gets disconnected from the browser application. This might happen because of one of the following:

  • Browser application is closed or crashed.
  • The browser.close method was called.

browser.close()

In case this browser is obtained using browserType.launch, closes the browser and all of its pages (if any were opened).

In case this browser is obtained using browserType.connect, clears all created contexts belonging to this browser and disconnects from the browser server.

The Browser object itself is considered to be disposed and cannot be used anymore.

browser.contexts()

Returns an array of all open browser contexts. In a newly created browser, this will return a single instance of BrowserContext.

browser.isConnected()

Indicates that the browser is connected.

browser.newContext(options)

  • options <Object>
    • ignoreHTTPSErrors <?boolean> Whether to ignore HTTPS errors during navigation. Defaults to false.
    • bypassCSP <?boolean> Toggles bypassing page's Content-Security-Policy.
    • viewport <?Object> Sets a consistent viewport for each page. Defaults to an 1280x720 viewport. null disables the default viewport.
      • width <number> page width in pixels.
      • height <number> page height in pixels.
      • deviceScaleFactor <number> Specify device scale factor (can be thought of as dpr). Defaults to 1.
      • isMobile <boolean> Whether the meta viewport tag is taken into account. Defaults to false.
    • userAgent <?string> Specific user agent to use in this context.
    • javaScriptEnabled <?boolean> Whether or not to enable or disable JavaScript in the context. Defaults to true.
    • timezoneId <?string> Changes the timezone of the context. See ICU’s metaZones.txt for a list of supported timezone IDs.
    • geolocation <Object>
      • latitude <number> Latitude between -90 and 90.
      • longitude <number> Longitude between -180 and 180.
      • accuracy <number> Optional non-negative accuracy value.
    • locale <?string> Specify user locale, for example en-GB, de-DE, etc. Locale will affect navigator.language value, Accept-Language request header value as well as number and date formatting rules.
    • permissions <Object> A map from origin keys to permissions values. See browserContext.setPermissions for more details.
  • returns: <Promise<BrowserContext>>

Creates a new browser context. It won't share cookies/cache with other browser contexts.

(async () => {
  const browser = await playwright.firefox.launch();  // Or 'chromium' or 'webkit'.
  // Create a new incognito browser context.
  const context = await browser.newContext();
  // Create a new page in a pristine context.
  const page = await context.newPage();
  await page.goto('https://example.com');
})();

browser.newPage([options])

  • options <Object>
    • ignoreHTTPSErrors <?boolean> Whether to ignore HTTPS errors during navigation. Defaults to false.
    • bypassCSP <?boolean> Toggles bypassing page's Content-Security-Policy.
    • viewport <?Object> Sets a consistent viewport for each page. Defaults to an 1280x720 viewport. null disables the default viewport.
      • width <number> page width in pixels.
      • height <number> page height in pixels.
      • deviceScaleFactor <number> Specify device scale factor (can be thought of as dpr). Defaults to 1.
      • isMobile <boolean> Whether the meta viewport tag is taken into account. Defaults to false.
    • userAgent <?string> Specific user agent to use in this context.
    • javaScriptEnabled <?boolean> Whether or not to enable or disable JavaScript in the context. Defaults to true.
    • timezoneId <?string> Changes the timezone of the context. See ICU’s metaZones.txt for a list of supported timezone IDs.
    • geolocation <Object>
      • latitude <number> Latitude between -90 and 90.
      • longitude <number> Longitude between -180 and 180.
      • accuracy <number> Optional non-negative accuracy value.
    • locale <?string> Specify user locale, for example en-GB, de-DE, etc. Locale will affect navigator.language value, Accept-Language request header value as well as number and date formatting rules.
    • permissions <Object> A map from origin keys to permissions values. See browserContext.setPermissions for more details.
  • returns: <Promise<Page>>

Creates a new page in a new browser context. Closing this page will close the context as well.

This is a convenience API that should only be used for the single-page scenarios and short snippets. Production code and testing frameworks should explicitly create browser.newContext followed by the browserContext.newPage to control their exact life times.

class: BrowserContext

BrowserContexts provide a way to operate multiple independent browser sessions.

If a page opens another page, e.g. with a window.open call, the popup will belong to the parent page's browser context.

Playwright allows creation of "incognito" browser contexts with browser.newContext() method. "Incognito" browser contexts don't write any browsing data to disk.

// Create a new incognito browser context
const context = await browser.newContext();
// Create a new page inside context.
const page = await context.newPage();
await page.goto('https://example.com');
// Dispose context once it's no longer needed.
await context.close();

event: 'close'

Emitted when Browser context gets closed. This might happen because of one of the following:

  • Browser context is closed.
  • Browser application is closed or crashed.
  • The browser.close method was called.

browserContext.clearCookies()

Clears context bookies.

browserContext.clearPermissions()

Clears all permission overrides for the browser context.

const context = await browser.newContext();
context.setPermissions('https://example.com', ['clipboard-read']);
// do stuff ..
context.clearPermissions();

browserContext.close()

Closes the browser context. All the targets that belong to the browser context will be closed.

NOTE only incognito browser contexts can be closed.

browserContext.cookies([...urls])

If no URLs are specified, this method returns all cookies. If URLs are specified, only cookies that affect those URLs are returned.

NOTE the default browser context cannot be closed.

browserContext.newPage()

Creates a new page in the browser context.

browserContext.pages()

  • returns: <Promise<Array<Page>>> Promise which resolves to an array of all open pages. Non visible pages, such as "background_page", will not be listed here. You can find them using target.page().

An array of all pages inside the browser context.

browserContext.setCookies(cookies)

  • cookies <Array<Object>>
    • name <string> required
    • value <string> required
    • url <string> either url or domain / path are required
    • domain <string> either url or domain / path are required
    • path <string> either url or domain / path are required
    • expires <number> Unix time in seconds.
    • httpOnly <boolean>
    • secure <boolean>
    • sameSite <"Strict"|"Lax"|"None">
  • returns: <Promise>
await browserContext.setCookies([cookieObject1, cookieObject2]);

browserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout)

  • timeout <number> Maximum navigation time in milliseconds

This setting will change the default maximum navigation time for the following methods and related shortcuts:

NOTE page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout and page.setDefaultTimeout take priority over browserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout.

browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout)

  • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds

This setting will change the default maximum time for all the methods accepting timeout option.

NOTE page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout, page.setDefaultTimeout and browserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout take priority over browserContext.setDefaultTimeout.

browserContext.setGeolocation(geolocation)

  • geolocation <Object>
    • latitude <number> Latitude between -90 and 90.
    • longitude <number> Longitude between -180 and 180.
    • accuracy <number> Optional non-negative accuracy value.
  • returns: <Promise>

Sets the page's geolocation. Passing null or undefined emulates position unavailable.

await browserContext.setGeolocation({latitude: 59.95, longitude: 30.31667});

NOTE Consider using browserContext.setPermissions to grant permissions for the page to read its geolocation.

browserContext.setPermissions(origin, permissions[])

  • origin <string> The origin to grant permissions to, e.g. "https://example.com".
  • permissions <Array<string>> An array of permissions to grant. All permissions that are not listed here will be automatically denied. Permissions can be one of the following values:
    • 'geolocation'
    • 'midi'
    • 'midi-sysex' (system-exclusive midi)
    • 'notifications'
    • 'push'
    • 'camera'
    • 'microphone'
    • 'background-sync'
    • 'ambient-light-sensor'
    • 'accelerometer'
    • 'gyroscope'
    • 'magnetometer'
    • 'accessibility-events'
    • 'clipboard-read'
    • 'clipboard-write'
    • 'payment-handler'
  • returns: <Promise>
const context = await browser.newContext();
await context.setPermissions('https://html5demos.com', ['geolocation']);

class: Page

Page provides methods to interact with a single tab in a Browser, or an extension background page in Chromium. One Browser instance might have multiple Page instances.

This example creates a page, navigates it to a URL, and then saves a screenshot:

const { webkit } = require('playwright');  // Or 'chromium' or 'firefox'.

(async () => {
  const browser = await webkit.launch();
  const context = await browser.newContext();
  const page = await context.newPage();
  await page.goto('https://example.com');
  await page.screenshot({path: 'screenshot.png'});
  await browser.close();
})();

The Page class emits various events (described below) which can be handled using any of Node's native EventEmitter methods, such as on, once or removeListener.

This example logs a message for a single page load event:

page.once('load', () => console.log('Page loaded!'));

To unsubscribe from events use the removeListener method:

function logRequest(interceptedRequest) {
  console.log('A request was made:', interceptedRequest.url());
}
page.on('request', logRequest);
// Sometime later...
page.removeListener('request', logRequest);

event: 'close'

Emitted when the page closes.

event: 'console'

Emitted when JavaScript within the page calls one of console API methods, e.g. console.log or console.dir. Also emitted if the page throws an error or a warning.

The arguments passed into console.log appear as arguments on the event handler.

An example of handling console event:

page.on('console', msg => {
  for (let i = 0; i < msg.args().length; ++i)
    console.log(`${i}: ${msg.args()[i]}`);
});
page.evaluate(() => console.log('hello', 5, {foo: 'bar'}));

event: 'dialog'

Emitted when a JavaScript dialog appears, such as alert, prompt, confirm or beforeunload. Playwright can respond to the dialog via Dialog's accept or dismiss methods.

event: 'domcontentloaded'

Emitted when the JavaScript DOMContentLoaded event is dispatched.

event: 'filechooser'

Emitted when a file chooser is supposed to appear, such as after clicking the <input type=file>. Playwright can respond to it via setting the input files using elementHandle.setInputFiles.

page.on('filechooser', async ({element, multiple}) => {
  await element.setInputFiles('/tmp/myfile.pdf');
});

event: 'frameattached'

Emitted when a frame is attached.

event: 'framedetached'

Emitted when a frame is detached.

event: 'framenavigated'

Emitted when a frame is navigated to a new url.

event: 'load'

Emitted when the JavaScript load event is dispatched.

event: 'pageerror'

  • <Error> The exception message

Emitted when an uncaught exception happens within the page.

event: 'popup'

  • <Page> Page corresponding to "popup" window

Emitted when the page opens a new tab or window.

const [popup] = await Promise.all([
  new Promise(resolve => page.once('popup', resolve)),
  page.click('a[target=_blank]'),
]);
const [popup] = await Promise.all([
  new Promise(resolve => page.once('popup', resolve)),
  page.evaluate(() => window.open('https://example.com')),
]);

event: 'request'

Emitted when a page issues a request. The request object is read-only. In order to intercept and mutate requests, see page.route().

event: 'requestfailed'

Emitted when a request fails, for example by timing out.

NOTE HTTP Error responses, such as 404 or 503, are still successful responses from HTTP standpoint, so request will complete with 'requestfinished' event and not with 'requestfailed'.

event: 'requestfinished'

Emitted when a request finishes successfully.

event: 'response'

Emitted when a response is received.

event: 'workercreated'

Emitted when a dedicated WebWorker is spawned by the page.

event: 'workerdestroyed'

Emitted when a dedicated WebWorker is terminated.

page.$(selector)

The method runs document.querySelector within the page. If no element matches the selector, the return value resolves to null.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().$(selector).

page.$$(selector)

The method runs document.querySelectorAll within the page. If no elements match the selector, the return value resolves to [].

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().$$(selector).

page.$$eval(selector, pageFunction[, ...args])

This method runs Array.from(document.querySelectorAll(selector)) within the page and passes it as the first argument to pageFunction.

If pageFunction returns a Promise, then page.$$eval would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

Examples:

const divsCounts = await page.$$eval('div', divs => divs.length);

page.$eval(selector, pageFunction[, ...args])

This method runs document.querySelector within the page and passes it as the first argument to pageFunction. If there's no element matching selector, the method throws an error.

If pageFunction returns a Promise, then page.$eval would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

Examples:

const searchValue = await page.$eval('#search', el => el.value);
const preloadHref = await page.$eval('link[rel=preload]', el => el.href);
const html = await page.$eval('.main-container', e => e.outerHTML);

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().$eval(selector, pageFunction).

page.$wait(selector[, options])

  • selector <string> A selector of an element to wait for
  • options <Object>
  • returns: <Promise<?ElementHandle>> Promise which resolves when element specified by selector string is added to DOM. Resolves to null if waiting for hidden: true and selector is not found in DOM.

Wait for the selector to appear in page. If at the moment of calling the method the selector already exists, the method will return immediately. If the selector doesn't appear after the timeout milliseconds of waiting, the function will throw.

This method works across navigations:

const handle = await page.$wait(selector);
await handle.click();

This is a shortcut to page.waitForSelector(selector[, options]).

page.accessibility

page.addScriptTag(options)

  • options <Object>
    • url <string> URL of a script to be added.
    • path <string> Path to the JavaScript file to be injected into frame. If path is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to current working directory.
    • content <string> Raw JavaScript content to be injected into frame.
    • type <string> Script type. Use 'module' in order to load a Javascript ES6 module. See script for more details.
  • returns: <Promise<ElementHandle>> which resolves to the added tag when the script's onload fires or when the script content was injected into frame.

Adds a <script> tag into the page with the desired url or content.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().addScriptTag(options).

page.addStyleTag(options)

  • options <Object>
    • url <string> URL of the <link> tag.
    • path <string> Path to the CSS file to be injected into frame. If path is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to current working directory.
    • content <string> Raw CSS content to be injected into frame.
  • returns: <Promise<ElementHandle>> which resolves to the added tag when the stylesheet's onload fires or when the CSS content was injected into frame.

Adds a <link rel="stylesheet"> tag into the page with the desired url or a <style type="text/css"> tag with the content.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().addStyleTag(options).

page.authenticate(credentials)

Provide credentials for HTTP authentication.

To disable authentication, pass null.

page.check(selector, [options])

  • selector <string> A selector to search for checkbox or radio button to check. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be checked.
  • options <Object>
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • waitForInteractable <boolean> Whether to wait for element to become static (not moving) and receive pointer events at the click point. Defaults to true.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element matching selector is successfully checked. The Promise will be rejected if there is no element matching selector.

This method fetches an element with selector, if element is not already checked, it scrolls it into view if needed, and then uses page.click to click in the center of the element. If there's no element matching selector, the method throws an error.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().check(selector[, options]).

page.click(selector[, options])

  • selector <string> A selector to search for element to click. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be clicked.
  • options <Object>
    • button <"left"|"right"|"middle"> Defaults to left.
    • clickCount <number> defaults to 1. See UIEvent.detail.
    • delay <number> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • relativePoint <Object> A point to click relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, clicks to some visible point of the element.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the click, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • waitForInteractable <boolean> Whether to wait for element to become static (not moving) and receive pointer events at the click point. Defaults to true.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element matching selector is successfully clicked. The Promise will be rejected if there is no element matching selector.

This method fetches an element with selector, scrolls it into view if needed, and then uses page.mouse to click in the center of the element. If there's no element matching selector, the method throws an error.

Bear in mind that if click() triggers a navigation event and there's a separate page.waitForNavigation() promise to be resolved, you may end up with a race condition that yields unexpected results. The correct pattern for click and wait for navigation is the following:

const [response] = await Promise.all([
  page.waitForNavigation(waitOptions),
  page.click(selector, clickOptions),
]);

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().click(selector[, options]).

page.close([options])

By default, page.close() does not run beforeunload handlers.

NOTE if runBeforeUnload is passed as true, a beforeunload dialog might be summoned and should be handled manually via page's 'dialog' event.

page.content()

Gets the full HTML contents of the page, including the doctype.

page.context()

Get the browser context that the page belongs to.

page.coverage

  • returns: <?[any]>

Browser-specific Coverage implementation, only available for Chromium atm. See ChromiumCoverage for more details.

page.dblclick(selector[, options])

  • selector <string> A selector to search for element to double click. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be double clicked.
  • options <Object>
    • button <"left"|"right"|"middle"> Defaults to left.
    • delay <number> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • relativePoint <Object> A point to double click relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, double clicks to some visible point of the element.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the double click, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • waitForInteractable <boolean> Whether to wait for element to become static (not moving) and receive pointer events at the click point. Defaults to true.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element matching selector is successfully double clicked. The Promise will be rejected if there is no element matching selector.

This method fetches an element with selector, scrolls it into view if needed, and then uses page.mouse to double click in the center of the element. If there's no element matching selector, the method throws an error.

Bear in mind that if the first click of the dblclick() triggers a navigation event, there will be an exception.

NOTE page.dblclick() dispatches two click events and a single dblclick event.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().dblclick(selector[, options]).

page.emulateMedia(options)

  • options <Object>
    • media <"screen"|"print"> Changes the CSS media type of the page. The only allowed values are 'screen', 'print' and null. Passing null disables CSS media emulation.
    • colorScheme <"dark"|"light"|"no-preference"> Emulates 'prefers-colors-scheme' media feature, supported values are 'light', 'dark', 'no-preference'.
  • returns: <Promise>
await page.evaluate(() => matchMedia('screen').matches));
// → true
await page.evaluate(() => matchMedia('print').matches));
// → true

await page.emulateMedia({ media: 'print' });
await page.evaluate(() => matchMedia('screen').matches));
// → false
await page.evaluate(() => matchMedia('print').matches));
// → true

await page.emulateMedia({});
await page.evaluate(() => matchMedia('screen').matches));
// → true
await page.evaluate(() => matchMedia('print').matches));
// → true
await page.emulateMedia({ colorScheme: 'dark' }] });
await page.evaluate(() => matchMedia('(prefers-color-scheme: dark)').matches));
// → true
await page.evaluate(() => matchMedia('(prefers-color-scheme: light)').matches));
// → false
await page.evaluate(() => matchMedia('(prefers-color-scheme: no-preference)').matches));
// → false

page.evaluate(pageFunction[, ...args])

If the function passed to the page.evaluate returns a Promise, then page.evaluate would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

If the function passed to the page.evaluate returns a non-Serializable value, then page.evaluate resolves to undefined. DevTools Protocol also supports transferring some additional values that are not serializable by JSON: -0, NaN, Infinity, -Infinity, and bigint literals.

Passing arguments to pageFunction:

const result = await page.evaluate(x => {
  return Promise.resolve(8 * x);
}, 7);
console.log(result); // prints "56"

A string can also be passed in instead of a function:

console.log(await page.evaluate('1 + 2')); // prints "3"
const x = 10;
console.log(await page.evaluate(`1 + ${x}`)); // prints "11"

ElementHandle instances can be passed as arguments to the page.evaluate:

const bodyHandle = await page.$('body');
const html = await page.evaluate(body => body.innerHTML, bodyHandle);
await bodyHandle.dispose();

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().evaluate(pageFunction, ...args).

page.evaluateHandle(pageFunction[, ...args])

  • pageFunction <function|string> Function to be evaluated in the page context
  • ...args <...Serializable|JSHandle> Arguments to pass to pageFunction
  • returns: <Promise<JSHandle>> Promise which resolves to the return value of pageFunction as in-page object (JSHandle)

The only difference between page.evaluate and page.evaluateHandle is that page.evaluateHandle returns in-page object (JSHandle).

If the function passed to the page.evaluateHandle returns a Promise, then page.evaluateHandle would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

A string can also be passed in instead of a function:

const aHandle = await page.evaluateHandle('document'); // Handle for the 'document'

JSHandle instances can be passed as arguments to the page.evaluateHandle:

const aHandle = await page.evaluateHandle(() => document.body);
const resultHandle = await page.evaluateHandle(body => body.innerHTML, aHandle);
console.log(await resultHandle.jsonValue());
await resultHandle.dispose();

page.evaluateOnNewDocument(pageFunction[, ...args])

Adds a function which would be invoked in one of the following scenarios:

  • whenever the page is navigated
  • whenever the child frame is attached or navigated. In this case, the function is invoked in the context of the newly attached frame

The function is invoked after the document was created but before any of its scripts were run. This is useful to amend the JavaScript environment, e.g. to seed Math.random.

An example of overriding the navigator.languages property before the page loads:

// preload.js

// overwrite the `languages` property to use a custom getter
Object.defineProperty(navigator, "languages", {
  get: function() {
    return ["en-US", "en", "bn"];
  }
});

// In your playwright script, assuming the preload.js file is in same folder of our script
const preloadFile = fs.readFileSync('./preload.js', 'utf8');
await page.evaluateOnNewDocument(preloadFile);

page.exposeFunction(name, playwrightFunction)

  • name <string> Name of the function on the window object
  • playwrightFunction <function> Callback function which will be called in Playwright's context.
  • returns: <Promise>

The method adds a function called name on the page's window object. When called, the function executes playwrightFunction in node.js and returns a Promise which resolves to the return value of playwrightFunction.

If the playwrightFunction returns a Promise, it will be awaited.

NOTE Functions installed via page.exposeFunction survive navigations.

An example of adding an md5 function into the page:

const { firefox } = require('playwright');  // Or 'chromium' or 'webkit'.
const crypto = require('crypto');

(async () => {
  const browser = await firefox.launch();
  const page = await browser.newPage();
  page.on('console', msg => console.log(msg.text()));
  await page.exposeFunction('md5', text =>
    crypto.createHash('md5').update(text).digest('hex')
  );
  await page.evaluate(async () => {
    // use window.md5 to compute hashes
    const myString = 'PLAYWRIGHT';
    const myHash = await window.md5(myString);
    console.log(`md5 of ${myString} is ${myHash}`);
  });
  await browser.close();
})();

An example of adding a window.readfile function into the page:

const { chromium } = require('playwright');  // Or 'firefox' or 'webkit'.
const fs = require('fs');

(async () => {
  const browser = await chromium.launch();
  const page = await browser.newPage();
  page.on('console', msg => console.log(msg.text()));
  await page.exposeFunction('readfile', async filePath => {
    return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
      fs.readFile(filePath, 'utf8', (err, text) => {
        if (err)
          reject(err);
        else
          resolve(text);
      });
    });
  });
  await page.evaluate(async () => {
    // use window.readfile to read contents of a file
    const content = await window.readfile('/etc/hosts');
    console.log(content);
  });
  await browser.close();
})();

page.fill(selector, value, options)

  • selector <string> A selector to query page for.
  • value <string> Value to fill for the <input>, <textarea> or [contenteditable] element.
  • options <Object>
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element matching selector is successfully filled. The promise will be rejected if there is no element matching selector.

This method focuses the element and triggers an input event after filling. If there's no text <input>, <textarea> or [contenteditable] element matching selector, the method throws an error.

NOTE Pass empty string as a value to clear the input field.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().fill()

page.focus(selector, options)

  • selector <string> A selector of an element to focus. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be focused.
  • options <Object>
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element matching selector is successfully focused. The promise will be rejected if there is no element matching selector.

This method fetches an element with selector and focuses it. If there's no element matching selector, the method throws an error.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().focus(selector).

page.frames()

  • returns: <Array<Frame>> An array of all frames attached to the page.

page.goBack([options])

  • options <Object> Navigation parameters which might have the following properties:
    • timeout <number> Maximum navigation time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout), browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout), page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
    • waitUntil <"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2"|Array<"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2">> When to consider navigation succeeded, defaults to load. Given an array of event strings, navigation is considered to be successful after all events have been fired. Events can be either:
      • 'load' - consider navigation to be finished when the load event is fired.
      • 'domcontentloaded' - consider navigation to be finished when the DOMContentLoaded event is fired.
      • 'networkidle0' - consider navigation to be finished when there are no more than 0 network connections for at least 500 ms.
      • 'networkidle2' - consider navigation to be finished when there are no more than 2 network connections for at least 500 ms.
  • returns: <Promise<?Response>> Promise which resolves to the main resource response. In case of multiple redirects, the navigation will resolve with the response of the last redirect. If can not go back, resolves to null.

Navigate to the previous page in history.

page.goForward([options])

  • options <Object> Navigation parameters which might have the following properties:
    • timeout <number> Maximum navigation time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout), browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout), page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
    • waitUntil <"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2"|Array<"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2">> When to consider navigation succeeded, defaults to load. Given an array of event strings, navigation is considered to be successful after all events have been fired. Events can be either:
      • 'load' - consider navigation to be finished when the load event is fired.
      • 'domcontentloaded' - consider navigation to be finished when the DOMContentLoaded event is fired.
      • 'networkidle0' - consider navigation to be finished when there are no more than 0 network connections for at least 500 ms.
      • 'networkidle2' - consider navigation to be finished when there are no more than 2 network connections for at least 500 ms.
  • returns: <Promise<?Response>> Promise which resolves to the main resource response. In case of multiple redirects, the navigation will resolve with the response of the last redirect. If can not go forward, resolves to null.

Navigate to the next page in history.

page.goto(url[, options])

  • url <string> URL to navigate page to. The url should include scheme, e.g. https://.
  • options <Object> Navigation parameters which might have the following properties:
    • timeout <number> Maximum navigation time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout), browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout), page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
    • waitUntil <"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2"|Array<"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2">> When to consider navigation succeeded, defaults to load. Given an array of event strings, navigation is considered to be successful after all events have been fired. Events can be either:
      • 'load' - consider navigation to be finished when the load event is fired.
      • 'domcontentloaded' - consider navigation to be finished when the DOMContentLoaded event is fired.
      • 'networkidle0' - consider navigation to be finished when there are no more than 0 network connections for at least 500 ms.
      • 'networkidle2' - consider navigation to be finished when there are no more than 2 network connections for at least 500 ms.
    • referer <string> Referer header value. If provided it will take preference over the referer header value set by page.setExtraHTTPHeaders().
  • returns: <Promise<?Response>> Promise which resolves to the main resource response. In case of multiple redirects, the navigation will resolve with the response of the last redirect.

page.goto will throw an error if:

  • there's an SSL error (e.g. in case of self-signed certificates).
  • target URL is invalid.
  • the timeout is exceeded during navigation.
  • the remote server does not respond or is unreachable.
  • the main resource failed to load.

page.goto will not throw an error when any valid HTTP status code is returned by the remote server, including 404 "Not Found" and 500 "Internal Server Error". The status code for such responses can be retrieved by calling response.status().

NOTE page.goto either throws an error or returns a main resource response. The only exceptions are navigation to about:blank or navigation to the same URL with a different hash, which would succeed and return null.

NOTE Headless mode doesn't support navigation to a PDF document. See the upstream issue.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().goto(url, options)

page.hover(selector[, options])

  • selector <string> A selector to search for element to hover. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be hovered.
  • options <Object>
    • relativePoint <Object> A point to hover relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, hovers over some visible point of the element.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the hover, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • waitForInteractable <boolean> Whether to wait for element to become static (not moving) and receive pointer events at the click point. Defaults to true.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element matching selector is successfully hovered. Promise gets rejected if there's no element matching selector.

This method fetches an element with selector, scrolls it into view if needed, and then uses page.mouse to hover over the center of the element. If there's no element matching selector, the method throws an error.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().hover(selector).

page.isClosed()

Indicates that the page has been closed.

page.keyboard

page.mainFrame()

  • returns: <Frame> The page's main frame.

Page is guaranteed to have a main frame which persists during navigations.

page.mouse

page.opener()

  • returns: <Promise<?Page>> Promise which resolves to the opener for popup pages and null for others. If the opener has been closed already the promise may resolve to null.

page.pdf([options])

  • options <Object> Options object which might have the following properties:
    • path <string> The file path to save the PDF to. If path is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to current working directory. If no path is provided, the PDF won't be saved to the disk.
    • scale <number> Scale of the webpage rendering. Defaults to 1. Scale amount must be between 0.1 and 2.
    • displayHeaderFooter <boolean> Display header and footer. Defaults to false.
    • headerTemplate <string> HTML template for the print header. Should be valid HTML markup with following classes used to inject printing values into them:
      • 'date' formatted print date
      • 'title' document title
      • 'url' document location
      • 'pageNumber' current page number
      • 'totalPages' total pages in the document
    • footerTemplate <string> HTML template for the print footer. Should use the same format as the headerTemplate.
    • printBackground <boolean> Print background graphics. Defaults to false.
    • landscape <boolean> Paper orientation. Defaults to false.
    • pageRanges <string> Paper ranges to print, e.g., '1-5, 8, 11-13'. Defaults to the empty string, which means print all pages.
    • format <string> Paper format. If set, takes priority over width or height options. Defaults to 'Letter'.
    • width <string|number> Paper width, accepts values labeled with units.
    • height <string|number> Paper height, accepts values labeled with units.
    • margin <Object> Paper margins, defaults to none.
      • top <string|number> Top margin, accepts values labeled with units.
      • right <string|number> Right margin, accepts values labeled with units.
      • bottom <string|number> Bottom margin, accepts values labeled with units.
      • left <string|number> Left margin, accepts values labeled with units.
    • preferCSSPageSize <boolean> Give any CSS @page size declared in the page priority over what is declared in width and height or format options. Defaults to false, which will scale the content to fit the paper size.
  • returns: <Promise<Buffer>> Promise which resolves with PDF buffer.

NOTE Generating a pdf is currently only supported in Chromium headless.

page.pdf() generates a pdf of the page with print css media. To generate a pdf with screen media, call page.emulateMedia({ type: 'screen' }) before calling page.pdf():

NOTE By default, page.pdf() generates a pdf with modified colors for printing. Use the -webkit-print-color-adjust property to force rendering of exact colors.

// Generates a PDF with 'screen' media type.
await page.emulateMedia({type: 'screen'});
await page.pdf({path: 'page.pdf'});

The width, height, and margin options accept values labeled with units. Unlabeled values are treated as pixels.

A few examples:

  • page.pdf({width: 100}) - prints with width set to 100 pixels
  • page.pdf({width: '100px'}) - prints with width set to 100 pixels
  • page.pdf({width: '10cm'}) - prints with width set to 10 centimeters.

All possible units are:

  • px - pixel
  • in - inch
  • cm - centimeter
  • mm - millimeter

The format options are:

  • Letter: 8.5in x 11in
  • Legal: 8.5in x 14in
  • Tabloid: 11in x 17in
  • Ledger: 17in x 11in
  • A0: 33.1in x 46.8in
  • A1: 23.4in x 33.1in
  • A2: 16.54in x 23.4in
  • A3: 11.7in x 16.54in
  • A4: 8.27in x 11.7in
  • A5: 5.83in x 8.27in
  • A6: 4.13in x 5.83in

NOTE headerTemplate and footerTemplate markup have the following limitations:

  1. Script tags inside templates are not evaluated.
  2. Page styles are not visible inside templates.

page.reload([options])

  • options <Object> Navigation parameters which might have the following properties:
    • timeout <number> Maximum navigation time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout), browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout), page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
    • waitUntil <"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2"|Array<"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2">> When to consider navigation succeeded, defaults to load. Given an array of event strings, navigation is considered to be successful after all events have been fired. Events can be either:
      • 'load' - consider navigation to be finished when the load event is fired.
      • 'domcontentloaded' - consider navigation to be finished when the DOMContentLoaded event is fired.
      • 'networkidle0' - consider navigation to be finished when there are no more than 0 network connections for at least 500 ms.
      • 'networkidle2' - consider navigation to be finished when there are no more than 2 network connections for at least 500 ms.
  • returns: <Promise<Response>> Promise which resolves to the main resource response. In case of multiple redirects, the navigation will resolve with the response of the last redirect.

page.route(url, handler)

Routing activates the request interception and enables request.abort, request.continue and request.respond methods on the request. This provides the capability to modify network requests that are made by a page.

Once request interception is enabled, every request matching the url pattern will stall unless it's continued, responded or aborted. An example of a naïve request interceptor that aborts all image requests:

const page = await browser.newPage();
await page.route('**/*.{png,jpg,jpeg}', request => request.abort());
// await page.route(/\.(png|jpeg|jpg)$/, request => request.abort()); // <-- same thing
await page.goto('https://example.com');
await browser.close();

or the same snippet using a regex pattern instead:

const page = await browser.newPage();
await page.route(/(\.png$)|(\.jpg$)/, request => request.abort());
await page.goto('https://example.com');
await browser.close();

NOTE Enabling request interception disables page caching.

page.screenshot([options])

  • options <Object> Options object which might have the following properties:
    • path <string> The file path to save the image to. The screenshot type will be inferred from file extension. If path is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to current working directory. If no path is provided, the image won't be saved to the disk.
    • type <"png"|"jpeg"> Specify screenshot type, defaults to 'png'.
    • quality <number> The quality of the image, between 0-100. Not applicable to png images.
    • fullPage <boolean> When true, takes a screenshot of the full scrollable page. Defaults to false.
    • clip <Object> An object which specifies clipping region of the page. Should have the following fields:
      • x <number> x-coordinate of top-left corner of clip area
      • y <number> y-coordinate of top-left corner of clip area
      • width <number> width of clipping area
      • height <number> height of clipping area
    • omitBackground <boolean> Hides default white background and allows capturing screenshots with transparency. Defaults to false.
  • returns: <Promise<Buffer>> Promise which resolves to buffer with the captured screenshot.

NOTE Screenshots take at least 1/6 second on OS X. See https://crbug.com/741689 for discussion.

page.select(selector, value, options)

  • selector <string> A selector to query frame for.
  • value <string|ElementHandle|Array<string>|Object|Array<ElementHandle>|Array<Object>> Options to select. If the <select> has the multiple attribute, all matching options are selected, otherwise only the first option matching one of the passed options is selected. String values are equivalent to {value:'string'}. Option is considered matching if all specified properties match.
    • value <string> Matches by option.value.
    • label <string> Matches by option.label.
    • index <number> Matches by the index.
  • options <Object>
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise<Array<string>>> An array of option values that have been successfully selected.

Triggers a change and input event once all the provided options have been selected. If there's no <select> element matching selector, the method throws an error.

// single selection matching the value
page.select('select#colors', 'blue');

// single selection matching both the value and the label
page.select('select#colors', { value: 'blue', label: 'Blue' });

// multiple selection
page.select('select#colors', 'red', 'green', 'blue');

// multiple selection for blue, red and second option
page.select('select#colors', { value: 'blue' }, { index: 2 }, 'red');

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().select()

page.setCacheEnabled([enabled])

  • enabled <boolean> sets the enabled state of the cache.
  • returns: <Promise>

Toggles ignoring cache for each request based on the enabled state. By default, caching is enabled.

page.setContent(html[, options])

  • html <string> HTML markup to assign to the page.
  • options <Object> Parameters which might have the following properties:
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds for resources to load, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout), browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout), page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
    • waitUntil <"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2"|Array<"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2">> When to consider setting markup succeeded, defaults to load. Given an array of event strings, setting content is considered to be successful after all events have been fired. Events can be either:
      • 'load' - consider setting content to be finished when the load event is fired.
      • 'domcontentloaded' - consider setting content to be finished when the DOMContentLoaded event is fired.
      • 'networkidle0' - consider setting content to be finished when there are no more than 0 network connections for at least 500 ms.
      • 'networkidle2' - consider setting content to be finished when there are no more than 2 network connections for at least 500 ms.
  • returns: <Promise>

page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout)

  • timeout <number> Maximum navigation time in milliseconds

This setting will change the default maximum navigation time for the following methods and related shortcuts:

NOTE page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout takes priority over page.setDefaultTimeout, browserContext.setDefaultTimeout and browserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout.

page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout)

  • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds

This setting will change the default maximum time for all the methods accepting timeout option.

NOTE page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout takes priority over page.setDefaultTimeout.

page.setExtraHTTPHeaders(headers)

  • headers <Object> An object containing additional HTTP headers to be sent with every request. All header values must be strings.
  • returns: <Promise>

The extra HTTP headers will be sent with every request the page initiates.

NOTE page.setExtraHTTPHeaders does not guarantee the order of headers in the outgoing requests.

page.setOfflineMode(enabled)

  • enabled <boolean> When true, enables offline mode for the page.
  • returns: <Promise>

page.setViewportSize(viewportSize)

  • viewportSize <Object>
    • width <number> page width in pixels. required
    • height <number> page height in pixels. required
  • returns: <Promise>

In the case of multiple pages in a single browser, each page can have its own viewport size. However, browser.newContext(options) allows to set viewport size (and more) for all pages in the context at once.

page.setViewportSize will resize the page. A lot of websites don't expect phones to change size, so you should set the viewport size before navigating to the page.

const page = await browser.newPage();
await page.setViewportSize({
  width: 640,
  height: 480,
});
await page.goto('https://example.com');

page.title()

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().title().

page.tripleclick(selector[, options])

  • selector <string> A selector to search for element to triple click. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be triple clicked.
  • options <Object>
    • button <"left"|"right"|"middle"> Defaults to left.
    • delay <number> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • relativePoint <Object> A point to triple click relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, triple clicks to some visible point of the element.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the triple click, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • waitForInteractable <boolean> Whether to wait for element to become static (not moving) and receive pointer events at the click point. Defaults to true.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element matching selector is successfully triple clicked. The Promise will be rejected if there is no element matching selector.

This method fetches an element with selector, scrolls it into view if needed, and then uses page.mouse to triple click in the center of the element. If there's no element matching selector, the method throws an error.

Bear in mind that if the first or second click of the tripleclick() triggers a navigation event, there will be an exception.

NOTE page.tripleclick() dispatches three click events and a single dblclick event.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().tripleclick(selector[, options]).

page.type(selector, text[, options])

  • selector <string> A selector of an element to type into. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used.
  • text <string> A text to type into a focused element.
  • options <Object>
    • delay <number> Time to wait between key presses in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise>

Sends a keydown, keypress/input, and keyup event for each character in the text.

To press a special key, like Control or ArrowDown, use keyboard.press.

await page.type('#mytextarea', 'Hello'); // Types instantly
await page.type('#mytextarea', 'World', {delay: 100}); // Types slower, like a user

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().type(selector, text[, options]).

page.uncheck(selector, [options])

  • selector <string> A selector to search for uncheckbox to check. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be checked.
  • options <Object>
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • waitForInteractable <boolean> Whether to wait for element to become static (not moving) and receive pointer events at the click point. Defaults to true.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element matching selector is successfully unchecked. The Promise will be rejected if there is no element matching selector.

This method fetches an element with selector, if element is not already unchecked, it scrolls it into view if needed, and then uses page.click to click in the center of the element. If there's no element matching selector, the method throws an error.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().uncheck(selector[, options]).

page.url()

This is a shortcut for page.mainFrame().url()

page.viewportSize()

  • returns: <?Object>
    • width <number> page width in pixels.
    • height <number> page height in pixels.

page.waitFor(selectorOrFunctionOrTimeout[, options[, ...args]])

  • selectorOrFunctionOrTimeout <string|number|function> A selector, predicate or timeout to wait for
  • options <Object> Optional waiting parameters
    • visibility <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any). Defaults to any.
    • polling <number|"raf"|"mutation"> An interval at which the pageFunction is executed, defaults to raf. If polling is a number, then it is treated as an interval in milliseconds at which the function would be executed. If polling is a string, then it can be one of the following values:
      • 'raf' - to constantly execute pageFunction in requestAnimationFrame callback. This is the tightest polling mode which is suitable to observe styling changes.
      • 'mutation' - to execute pageFunction on every DOM mutation.
    • timeout <number> maximum time to wait for in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • ...args <...Serializable|JSHandle> Arguments to pass to pageFunction
  • returns: <Promise<JSHandle>> Promise which resolves to a JSHandle of the success value

This method behaves differently with respect to the type of the first parameter:

  • if selectorOrFunctionOrTimeout is a string, then the first argument is treated as a selector or xpath, depending on whether or not it starts with '//', and the method is a shortcut for page.waitForSelector
  • if selectorOrFunctionOrTimeout is a function, then the first argument is treated as a predicate to wait for and the method is a shortcut for page.waitForFunction().
  • if selectorOrFunctionOrTimeout is a number, then the first argument is treated as a timeout in milliseconds and the method returns a promise which resolves after the timeout
  • otherwise, an exception is thrown
// wait for selector
await page.waitFor('.foo');
// wait for 1 second
await page.waitFor(1000);
// wait for predicate
await page.waitFor(() => !!document.querySelector('.foo'));

To pass arguments from node.js to the predicate of page.waitFor function:

const selector = '.foo';
await page.waitFor(selector => !!document.querySelector(selector), {}, selector);

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().waitFor(selectorOrFunctionOrTimeout[, options[, ...args]]).

page.waitForEvent(event[, optionsOrPredicate])

  • event <string> Event name, same one would pass into page.on(event).
  • optionsOrPredicate <Function|Object> Either a predicate that receives an event or an options object.
    • predicate <Function> receives the event data and resolves to truthy value when the waiting should resolve.
    • polling <number|"raf"|"mutation"> An interval at which the pageFunction is executed, defaults to raf. If polling is a number, then it is treated as an interval in milliseconds at which the function would be executed. If polling is a string, then it can be one of the following values:
      • 'raf' - to constantly execute pageFunction in requestAnimationFrame callback. This is the tightest polling mode which is suitable to observe styling changes.
      • 'mutation' - to execute pageFunction on every DOM mutation.
    • timeout <number> maximum time to wait for in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise<[any]>> Promise which resolves to the event data value.

Waits for event to fire and passes its value into the predicate function. Resolves when the predicate returns truthy value.

page.waitForFunction(pageFunction[, options[, ...args]])

  • pageFunction <function|string> Function to be evaluated in browser context
  • options <Object> Optional waiting parameters
    • polling <number|"raf"|"mutation"> An interval at which the pageFunction is executed, defaults to raf. If polling is a number, then it is treated as an interval in milliseconds at which the function would be executed. If polling is a string, then it can be one of the following values:
      • 'raf' - to constantly execute pageFunction in requestAnimationFrame callback. This is the tightest polling mode which is suitable to observe styling changes.
      • 'mutation' - to execute pageFunction on every DOM mutation.
    • timeout <number> maximum time to wait for in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) method.
  • ...args <...Serializable|JSHandle> Arguments to pass to pageFunction
  • returns: <Promise<JSHandle>> Promise which resolves when the pageFunction returns a truthy value. It resolves to a JSHandle of the truthy value.

The waitForFunction can be used to observe viewport size change:

const { webkit } = require('playwright');  // Or 'chromium' or 'firefox'.

(async () => {
  const browser = await webkit.launch();
  const page = await browser.newPage();
  const watchDog = page.waitForFunction('window.innerWidth < 100');
  await page.setViewportSize({width: 50, height: 50});
  await watchDog;
  await browser.close();
})();

To pass arguments from node.js to the predicate of page.waitForFunction function:

const selector = '.foo';
await page.waitForFunction(selector => !!document.querySelector(selector), {}, selector);

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().waitForFunction(pageFunction[, options[, ...args]]).

page.waitForLoadState([options])

  • options <Object> Navigation parameters which might have the following properties:
    • timeout <number> Maximum navigation time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout), browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout), page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
    • waitUntil <"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2"|Array<"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2">> When to consider navigation succeeded, defaults to load. Given an array of event strings, navigation is considered to be successful after all events have been fired. Events can be either:
      • 'load' - consider navigation to be finished when the load event is fired.
      • 'domcontentloaded' - consider navigation to be finished when the DOMContentLoaded event is fired.
      • 'networkidle0' - consider navigation to be finished when there are no more than 0 network connections for at least 500 ms.
      • 'networkidle2' - consider navigation to be finished when there are no more than 2 network connections for at least 500 ms.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the load state has been achieved.

This resolves when the page reaches a required load state, load by default. The navigation can be in progress when it is called. If navigation is already at a required state, resolves immediately.

await page.click('button'); // Click triggers navigation.
await page.waitForLoadState(); // The promise resolves after navigation has finished.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().waitForLoadState([options]).

page.waitForNavigation([options])

  • options <Object> Navigation parameters which might have the following properties:
    • timeout <number> Maximum navigation time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout), browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout), page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
    • url <string|RegExp|Function> A glob pattern, regex pattern or predicate receiving URL to match while waiting for the navigation.
    • waitUntil <"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2"|Array<"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2">> When to consider navigation succeeded, defaults to load. Given an array of event strings, navigation is considered to be successful after all events have been fired. Events can be either:
      • 'load' - consider navigation to be finished when the load event is fired.
      • 'domcontentloaded' - consider navigation to be finished when the DOMContentLoaded event is fired.
      • 'networkidle0' - consider navigation to be finished when there are no more than 0 network connections for at least 500 ms.
      • 'networkidle2' - consider navigation to be finished when there are no more than 2 network connections for at least 500 ms.
  • returns: <Promise<?Response>> Promise which resolves to the main resource response. In case of multiple redirects, the navigation will resolve with the response of the last redirect. In case of navigation to a different anchor or navigation due to History API usage, the navigation will resolve with null.

This resolves when the page navigates to a new URL or reloads. It is useful for when you run code which will indirectly cause the page to navigate. Consider this example:

const [response] = await Promise.all([
  page.waitForNavigation(), // The promise resolves after navigation has finished
  page.click('a.my-link'), // Clicking the link will indirectly cause a navigation
]);

NOTE Usage of the History API to change the URL is considered a navigation.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().waitForNavigation(options).

page.waitForRequest(urlOrPredicate[, options])

  • urlOrPredicate <?string|RegExp|Function> Optional. Request URL string, regex or predicate receiving Request object.
  • options <Object> Optional waiting parameters
    • timeout <number> Maximum wait time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable the timeout. The default value can be changed by using the page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) method.
  • returns: <Promise<Request>> Promise which resolves to the matched request.
const firstRequest = await page.waitForRequest('http://example.com/resource');
const finalRequest = await page.waitForRequest(request => request.url() === 'http://example.com' && request.method() === 'GET');
return firstRequest.url();
await page.waitForRequest(request => request.url().searchParams.get('foo') === 'bar' && request.url().searchParams.get('foo2') === 'bar2');

page.waitForResponse(urlOrPredicate[, options])

const firstResponse = await page.waitForResponse('https://example.com/resource');
const finalResponse = await page.waitForResponse(response => response.url() === 'https://example.com' && response.status() === 200);
return finalResponse.ok();

page.waitForSelector(selector[, options])

  • selector <string> A selector of an element to wait for
  • options <Object>
  • returns: <Promise<?ElementHandle>> Promise which resolves when element specified by selector string is added to DOM. Resolves to null if waiting for hidden: true and selector is not found in DOM.

Wait for the selector to appear in page. If at the moment of calling the method the selector already exists, the method will return immediately. If the selector doesn't appear after the timeout milliseconds of waiting, the function will throw.

This method works across navigations:

const { chromium } = require('playwright');  // Or 'firefox' or 'webkit'.

(async () => {
  const browser = await chromium.launch();
  const page = await browser.newPage();
  let currentURL;
  page
    .waitForSelector('img')
    .then(() => console.log('First URL with image: ' + currentURL));
  for (currentURL of ['https://example.com', 'https://google.com', 'https://bbc.com']) {
    await page.goto(currentURL);
  }
  await browser.close();
})();

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().waitForSelector(selector[, options]).

page.workers()

NOTE This does not contain ServiceWorkers

class: Frame

At every point of time, page exposes its current frame tree via the page.mainFrame() and frame.childFrames() methods.

Frame object's lifecycle is controlled by three events, dispatched on the page object:

  • 'frameattached' - fired when the frame gets attached to the page. A Frame can be attached to the page only once.
  • 'framenavigated' - fired when the frame commits navigation to a different URL.
  • 'framedetached' - fired when the frame gets detached from the page. A Frame can be detached from the page only once.

An example of dumping frame tree:

const { firefox } = require('playwright');  // Or 'chromium' or 'webkit'.

(async () => {
  const browser = await firefox.launch();
  const page = await browser.newPage();
  await page.goto('https://www.google.com/chrome/browser/canary.html');
  dumpFrameTree(page.mainFrame(), '');
  await browser.close();

  function dumpFrameTree(frame, indent) {
    console.log(indent + frame.url());
    for (const child of frame.childFrames()) {
      dumpFrameTree(child, indent + '  ');
    }
  }
})();

An example of getting text from an iframe element:

  const frame = page.frames().find(frame => frame.name() === 'myframe');
  const text = await frame.$eval('.selector', element => element.textContent);
  console.log(text);

frame.$(selector)

  • selector <string> A selector to query frame for
  • returns: <Promise<?ElementHandle>> Promise which resolves to ElementHandle pointing to the frame element.

The method queries frame for the selector. If there's no such element within the frame, the method will resolve to null.

frame.$$(selector)

  • selector <string> A selector to query frame for
  • returns: <Promise<Array<ElementHandle>>> Promise which resolves to ElementHandles pointing to the frame elements.

The method runs document.querySelectorAll within the frame. If no elements match the selector, the return value resolves to [].

frame.$$eval(selector, pageFunction[, ...args])

This method runs Array.from(document.querySelectorAll(selector)) within the frame and passes it as the first argument to pageFunction.

If pageFunction returns a Promise, then frame.$$eval would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

Examples:

const divsCounts = await frame.$$eval('div', divs => divs.length);

frame.$eval(selector, pageFunction[, ...args])

This method runs document.querySelector within the frame and passes it as the first argument to pageFunction. If there's no element matching selector, the method throws an error.

If pageFunction returns a Promise, then frame.$eval would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

Examples:

const searchValue = await frame.$eval('#search', el => el.value);
const preloadHref = await frame.$eval('link[rel=preload]', el => el.href);
const html = await frame.$eval('.main-container', e => e.outerHTML);

frame.$wait(selector[, options])

  • selector <string> A selector of an element to wait for
  • options <Object>
  • returns: <Promise<?ElementHandle>> Promise which resolves when element specified by selector string is added to DOM. Resolves to null if waiting for hidden: true and selector is not found in DOM.

Wait for the selector to appear in page. If at the moment of calling the method the selector already exists, the method will return immediately. If the selector doesn't appear after the timeout milliseconds of waiting, the function will throw.

This method works across navigations:

const handle = await page.$wait(selector);
await handle.click();

This is a shortcut to frame.waitForSelector(selector[, options]).

frame.addScriptTag(options)

  • options <Object>
    • url <string> URL of a script to be added.
    • path <string> Path to the JavaScript file to be injected into frame. If path is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to current working directory.
    • content <string> Raw JavaScript content to be injected into frame.
    • type <string> Script type. Use 'module' in order to load a Javascript ES6 module. See script for more details.
  • returns: <Promise<ElementHandle>> which resolves to the added tag when the script's onload fires or when the script content was injected into frame.

Adds a <script> tag into the page with the desired url or content.

frame.addStyleTag(options)

  • options <Object>
    • url <string> URL of the <link> tag.
    • path <string> Path to the CSS file to be injected into frame. If path is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to current working directory.
    • content <string> Raw CSS content to be injected into frame.
  • returns: <Promise<ElementHandle>> which resolves to the added tag when the stylesheet's onload fires or when the CSS content was injected into frame.

Adds a <link rel="stylesheet"> tag into the page with the desired url or a <style type="text/css"> tag with the content.

frame.check(selector, [options])

  • selector <string> A selector to search for checkbox to check. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be checked.
  • options <Object>
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • waitForInteractable <boolean> Whether to wait for element to become static (not moving) and receive pointer events at the click point. Defaults to true.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element matching selector is successfully checked. The Promise will be rejected if there is no element matching selector.

This method fetches an element with selector, if element is not already checked, it scrolls it into view if needed, and then uses frame.click to click in the center of the element. If there's no element matching selector, the method throws an error.

frame.childFrames()

frame.click(selector[, options])

  • selector <string> A selector to search for element to click. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be clicked.
  • options <Object>
    • button <"left"|"right"|"middle"> Defaults to left.
    • clickCount <number> defaults to 1. See UIEvent.detail.
    • delay <number> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • relativePoint <Object> A point to click relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, clicks to some visible point of the element.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the click, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • waitForInteractable <boolean> Whether to wait for element to become static (not moving) and receive pointer events at the click point. Defaults to true.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element matching selector is successfully clicked. The Promise will be rejected if there is no element matching selector.

This method fetches an element with selector, scrolls it into view if needed, and then uses page.mouse to click in the center of the element. If there's no element matching selector, the method throws an error.

Bear in mind that if click() triggers a navigation event and there's a separate page.waitForNavigation() promise to be resolved, you may end up with a race condition that yields unexpected results. The correct pattern for click and wait for navigation is the following:

const [response] = await Promise.all([
  page.waitForNavigation(waitOptions),
  frame.click(selector, clickOptions),
]);

frame.content()

Gets the full HTML contents of the frame, including the doctype.

frame.dblclick(selector[, options])

  • selector <string> A selector to search for element to double click. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be double clicked.
  • options <Object>
    • button <"left"|"right"|"middle"> Defaults to left.
    • delay <number> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • relativePoint <Object> A point to double click relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, double clicks to some visible point of the element.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the double click, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • waitForInteractable <boolean> Whether to wait for element to become static (not moving) and receive pointer events at the click point. Defaults to true.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element matching selector is successfully double clicked. The Promise will be rejected if there is no element matching selector.

This method fetches an element with selector, scrolls it into view if needed, and then uses page.mouse to double click in the center of the element. If there's no element matching selector, the method throws an error.

Bear in mind that if the first click of the dblclick() triggers a navigation event, there will be an exception.

NOTE frame.dblclick() dispatches two click events and a single dblclick event.

frame.evaluate(pageFunction[, ...args])

If the function passed to the frame.evaluate returns a Promise, then frame.evaluate would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

If the function passed to the frame.evaluate returns a non-Serializable value, then frame.evaluate resolves to undefined. DevTools Protocol also supports transferring some additional values that are not serializable by JSON: -0, NaN, Infinity, -Infinity, and bigint literals.

const result = await frame.evaluate(() => {
  return Promise.resolve(8 * 7);
});
console.log(result); // prints "56"

A string can also be passed in instead of a function.

console.log(await frame.evaluate('1 + 2')); // prints "3"

ElementHandle instances can be passed as arguments to the frame.evaluate:

const bodyHandle = await frame.$('body');
const html = await frame.evaluate(body => body.innerHTML, bodyHandle);
await bodyHandle.dispose();

frame.evaluateHandle(pageFunction[, ...args])

  • pageFunction <function|string> Function to be evaluated in the page context
  • ...args <...Serializable|JSHandle> Arguments to pass to pageFunction
  • returns: <Promise<JSHandle>> Promise which resolves to the return value of pageFunction as in-page object (JSHandle)

The only difference between frame.evaluate and frame.evaluateHandle is that frame.evaluateHandle returns in-page object (JSHandle).

If the function, passed to the frame.evaluateHandle, returns a Promise, then frame.evaluateHandle would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

const aWindowHandle = await frame.evaluateHandle(() => Promise.resolve(window));
aWindowHandle; // Handle for the window object.

A string can also be passed in instead of a function.

const aHandle = await frame.evaluateHandle('document'); // Handle for the 'document'.

JSHandle instances can be passed as arguments to the frame.evaluateHandle:

const aHandle = await frame.evaluateHandle(() => document.body);
const resultHandle = await frame.evaluateHandle(body => body.innerHTML, aHandle);
console.log(await resultHandle.jsonValue());
await resultHandle.dispose();

frame.fill(selector, value, options)

  • selector <string> A selector to query page for.
  • value <string> Value to fill for the <input>, <textarea> or [contenteditable] element.
  • options <Object>
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element matching selector is successfully filled. The promise will be rejected if there is no element matching selector.

This method focuses the element and triggers an input event after filling. If there's no text <input>, <textarea> or [contenteditable] element matching selector, the method throws an error.

frame.focus(selector, options)

  • selector <string> A selector of an element to focus. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be focused.
  • options <Object>
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element matching selector is successfully focused. The promise will be rejected if there is no element matching selector.

This method fetches an element with selector and focuses it. If there's no element matching selector, the method throws an error.

frame.frameElement()

  • returns: <Promise<ElementHandle>> Promise that resolves with a frame or iframe element handle which corresponds to this frame.

This is an inverse of elementHandle.contentFrame(). Note that returned handle actually belongs to the parent frame.

This method throws an error if the frame has been detached before frameElement() returns.

const frameElement = await frame.frameElement();
const contentFrame = await frameElement.contentFrame();
console.log(frame === contentFrame);  // -> true

frame.goto(url[, options])

  • url <string> URL to navigate frame to. The url should include scheme, e.g. https://.
  • options <Object> Navigation parameters which might have the following properties:
    • timeout <number> Maximum navigation time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout), browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout), page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
    • waitUntil <"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2"|Array<"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2">> When to consider navigation succeeded, defaults to load. Given an array of event strings, navigation is considered to be successful after all events have been fired. Events can be either:
      • 'load' - consider navigation to be finished when the load event is fired.
      • 'domcontentloaded' - consider navigation to be finished when the DOMContentLoaded event is fired.
      • 'networkidle0' - consider navigation to be finished when there are no more than 0 network connections for at least 500 ms.
      • 'networkidle2' - consider navigation to be finished when there are no more than 2 network connections for at least 500 ms.
    • referer <string> Referer header value. If provided it will take preference over the referer header value set by page.setExtraHTTPHeaders().
  • returns: <Promise<?Response>> Promise which resolves to the main resource response. In case of multiple redirects, the navigation will resolve with the response of the last redirect.

frame.goto will throw an error if:

  • there's an SSL error (e.g. in case of self-signed certificates).
  • target URL is invalid.
  • the timeout is exceeded during navigation.
  • the remote server does not respond or is unreachable.
  • the main resource failed to load.

frame.goto will not throw an error when any valid HTTP status code is returned by the remote server, including 404 "Not Found" and 500 "Internal Server Error". The status code for such responses can be retrieved by calling response.status().

NOTE frame.goto either throws an error or returns a main resource response. The only exceptions are navigation to about:blank or navigation to the same URL with a different hash, which would succeed and return null.

NOTE Headless mode doesn't support navigation to a PDF document. See the upstream issue.

frame.hover(selector[, options])

  • selector <string> A selector to search for element to hover. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be hovered.
  • options <Object>
    • relativePoint <Object> A point to hover relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, hovers over some visible point of the element.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the hover, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • waitForInteractable <boolean> Whether to wait for element to become static (not moving) and receive pointer events at the click point. Defaults to true.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element matching selector is successfully hovered. Promise gets rejected if there's no element matching selector.

This method fetches an element with selector, scrolls it into view if needed, and then uses page.mouse to hover over the center of the element. If there's no element matching selector, the method throws an error.

frame.isDetached()

Returns true if the frame has been detached, or false otherwise.

frame.name()

Returns frame's name attribute as specified in the tag.

If the name is empty, returns the id attribute instead.

NOTE This value is calculated once when the frame is created, and will not update if the attribute is changed later.

frame.parentFrame()

  • returns: <?Frame> Parent frame, if any. Detached frames and main frames return null.

frame.select(selector, value, options)

  • selector <string> A selector to query frame for.
  • value <string|ElementHandle|Array<string>|Object|Array<ElementHandle>|Array<Object>> Options to select. If the <select> has the multiple attribute, all matching options are selected, otherwise only the first option matching one of the passed options is selected. String values are equivalent to {value:'string'}. Option is considered matching if all specified properties match.
    • value <string> Matches by option.value.
    • label <string> Matches by option.label.
    • index <number> Matches by the index.
  • options <Object>
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise<Array<string>>> An array of option values that have been successfully selected.

Triggers a change and input event once all the provided options have been selected. If there's no <select> element matching selector, the method throws an error.

// single selection matching the value
frame.select('select#colors', 'blue');

// single selection matching both the value and the label
frame.select('select#colors', { value: 'blue', label: 'Blue' });

// multiple selection
frame.select('select#colors', 'red', 'green', 'blue');

// multiple selection matching blue, red and second option
frame.select('select#colors', { value: 'blue' }, { index: 2 }, 'red');

frame.setContent(html[, options])

  • html <string> HTML markup to assign to the page.
  • options <Object> Parameters which might have the following properties:
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds for resources to load, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout), browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout), page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
    • waitUntil <"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2"|Array<"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2">> When to consider setting markup succeeded, defaults to load. Given an array of event strings, setting content is considered to be successful after all events have been fired. Events can be either:
      • 'load' - consider setting content to be finished when the load event is fired.
      • 'domcontentloaded' - consider setting content to be finished when the DOMContentLoaded event is fired.
      • 'networkidle0' - consider setting content to be finished when there are no more than 0 network connections for at least 500 ms.
      • 'networkidle2' - consider setting content to be finished when there are no more than 2 network connections for at least 500 ms.
  • returns: <Promise>

frame.title()

frame.tripleclick(selector[, options])

  • selector <string> A selector to search for element to triple click. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be triple clicked.
  • options <Object>
    • button <"left"|"right"|"middle"> Defaults to left.
    • delay <number> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • relativePoint <Object> A point to triple click relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, triple clicks to some visible point of the element.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the triple click, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • waitForInteractable <boolean> Whether to wait for element to become static (not moving) and receive pointer events at the click point. Defaults to true.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element matching selector is successfully triple clicked. The Promise will be rejected if there is no element matching selector.

This method fetches an element with selector, scrolls it into view if needed, and then uses page.mouse to triple click in the center of the element. If there's no element matching selector, the method throws an error.

Bear in mind that if the first or second click of the tripleclick() triggers a navigation event, there will be an exception.

NOTE frame.tripleclick() dispatches three click events and a single dblclick event.

frame.type(selector, text[, options])

  • selector <string> A selector of an element to type into. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used.
  • text <string> A text to type into a focused element.
  • options <Object>
    • delay <number> Time to wait between key presses in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise>

Sends a keydown, keypress/input, and keyup event for each character in the text.

To press a special key, like Control or ArrowDown, use keyboard.press.

await frame.type('#mytextarea', 'Hello'); // Types instantly
await frame.type('#mytextarea', 'World', {delay: 100}); // Types slower, like a user

frame.uncheck(selector, [options])

  • selector <string> A selector to search for uncheckbox to check. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be checked.
  • options <Object>
    • waitFor <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"|"nowait"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any) or do not wait at all (nowait). Defaults to visible.
    • waitForInteractable <boolean> Whether to wait for element to become static (not moving) and receive pointer events at the click point. Defaults to true.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element matching selector is successfully unchecked. The Promise will be rejected if there is no element matching selector.

This method fetches an element with selector, if element is not already unchecked, it scrolls it into view if needed, and then uses frame.click to click in the center of the element. If there's no element matching selector, the method throws an error.

frame.url()

Returns frame's url.

frame.waitFor(selectorOrFunctionOrTimeout[, options[, ...args]])

  • selectorOrFunctionOrTimeout <string|number|function> A selector, predicate or timeout to wait for
  • options <Object> Optional waiting parameters
    • visibility <"visible"|"hidden"|"any"> Wait for element to become visible (visible), hidden (hidden), present in dom (any). Defaults to any.
    • polling <number|"raf"|"mutation"> An interval at which the pageFunction is executed, defaults to raf. If polling is a number, then it is treated as an interval in milliseconds at which the function would be executed. If polling is a string, then it can be one of the following values:
      • 'raf' - to constantly execute pageFunction in requestAnimationFrame callback. This is the tightest polling mode which is suitable to observe styling changes.
      • 'mutation' - to execute pageFunction on every DOM mutation.
    • timeout <number> maximum time to wait for in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • ...args <...Serializable|JSHandle> Arguments to pass to pageFunction
  • returns: <Promise<JSHandle>> Promise which resolves to a JSHandle of the success value

This method behaves differently with respect to the type of the first parameter:

  • if selectorOrFunctionOrTimeout is a string, then the first argument is treated as a selector or xpath, depending on whether or not it starts with '//', and the method is a shortcut for frame.waitForSelector
  • if selectorOrFunctionOrTimeout is a function, then the first argument is treated as a predicate to wait for and the method is a shortcut for frame.waitForFunction().
  • if selectorOrFunctionOrTimeout is a number, then the first argument is treated as a timeout in milliseconds and the method returns a promise which resolves after the timeout
  • otherwise, an exception is thrown
// wait for selector
await page.waitFor('.foo');
// wait for 1 second
await page.waitFor(1000);
// wait for predicate
await page.waitFor(() => !!document.querySelector('.foo'));

To pass arguments from node.js to the predicate of page.waitFor function:

const selector = '.foo';
await page.waitFor(selector => !!document.querySelector(selector), {}, selector);

frame.waitForFunction(pageFunction[, options[, ...args]])

  • pageFunction <function|string> Function to be evaluated in browser context
  • options <Object> Optional waiting parameters
    • polling <number|"raf"|"mutation"> An interval at which the pageFunction is executed, defaults to raf. If polling is a number, then it is treated as an interval in milliseconds at which the function would be executed. If polling is a string, then it can be one of the following values:
      • 'raf' - to constantly execute pageFunction in requestAnimationFrame callback. This is the tightest polling mode which is suitable to observe styling changes.
      • 'mutation' - to execute pageFunction on every DOM mutation.
    • timeout <number> maximum time to wait for in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • ...args <...Serializable|JSHandle> Arguments to pass to pageFunction
  • returns: <Promise<JSHandle>> Promise which resolves when the pageFunction returns a truthy value. It resolves to a JSHandle of the truthy value.

The waitForFunction can be used to observe viewport size change:

const { firefox } = require('playwright');  // Or 'chromium' or 'webkit'.

(async () => {
  const browser = await firefox.launch();
  const page = await browser.newPage();
  const watchDog = page.mainFrame().waitForFunction('window.innerWidth < 100');
  page.setViewportSize({width: 50, height: 50});
  await watchDog;
  await browser.close();
})();

To pass arguments from node.js to the predicate of page.waitForFunction function:

const selector = '.foo';
await page.waitForFunction(selector => !!document.querySelector(selector), {}, selector);

frame.waitForLoadState([options])

  • options <Object> Navigation parameters which might have the following properties:
    • timeout <number> Maximum navigation time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout), browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout), page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
    • waitUntil <"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2"|Array<"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2">> When to consider navigation succeeded, defaults to load. Given an array of event strings, navigation is considered to be successful after all events have been fired. Events can be either:
      • 'load' - consider navigation to be finished when the load event is fired.
      • 'domcontentloaded' - consider navigation to be finished when the DOMContentLoaded event is fired.
      • 'networkidle0' - consider navigation to be finished when there are no more than 0 network connections for at least 500 ms.
      • 'networkidle2' - consider navigation to be finished when there are no more than 2 network connections for at least 500 ms.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the load state has been achieved.

This resolves when the page reaches a required load state, load by default. The navigation can be in progress when it is called. If navigation is already at a required state, resolves immediately.

await frame.click('button'); // Click triggers navigation.
await frame.waitForLoadState(); // The promise resolves after navigation has finished.

frame.waitForNavigation([options])

  • options <Object> Navigation parameters which might have the following properties:
    • timeout <number> Maximum navigation time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout), browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout), page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
    • url <string|RegExp|Function> URL string, URL regex pattern or predicate receiving URL to match while waiting for the navigation.
    • waitUntil <"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2"|Array<"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle0"|"networkidle2">> When to consider navigation succeeded, defaults to load. Given an array of event strings, navigation is considered to be successful after all events have been fired. Events can be either:
      • 'load' - consider navigation to be finished when the load event is fired.
      • 'domcontentloaded' - consider navigation to be finished when the DOMContentLoaded event is fired.
      • 'networkidle0' - consider navigation to be finished when there are no more than 0 network connections for at least 500 ms.
      • 'networkidle2' - consider navigation to be finished when there are no more than 2 network connections for at least 500 ms.
  • returns: <Promise<?Response>> Promise which resolves to the main resource response. In case of multiple redirects, the navigation will resolve with the response of the last redirect. In case of navigation to a different anchor or navigation due to History API usage, the navigation will resolve with null.

This resolves when the frame navigates to a new URL. It is useful for when you run code which will indirectly cause the frame to navigate. Consider this example:

const [response] = await Promise.all([
  frame.waitForNavigation(), // The navigation promise resolves after navigation has finished
  frame.click('a.my-link'), // Clicking the link will indirectly cause a navigation
]);

NOTE Usage of the History API to change the URL is considered a navigation.

frame.waitForSelector(selector[, options])

  • selector <string> A selector of an element to wait for
  • options <Object>
  • returns: <Promise<?ElementHandle>> Promise which resolves when element specified by selector string is added to DOM. Resolves to null if waiting for hidden: true and selector is not found in DOM.

Wait for the selector to appear in page. If at the moment of calling the method the selector already exists, the method will return immediately. If the selector doesn't appear after the timeout milliseconds of waiting, the function will throw.

This method works across navigations:

const { webkit } = require('playwright');  // Or 'chromium' or 'firefox'.

(async () => {
  const browser = await webkit.launch();
  const page = await browser.newPage();
  let currentURL;
  page.mainFrame()
    .waitForSelector('img')
    .then(() => console.log('First URL with image: ' + currentURL));
  for (currentURL of ['https://example.com', 'https://google.com', 'https://bbc.com']) {
    await page.goto(currentURL);
  }
  await browser.close();
})();

class: ElementHandle

ElementHandle represents an in-page DOM element. ElementHandles can be created with the page.$ method.

const { chromium } = require('playwright');  // Or 'firefox' or 'webkit'.

(async () => {
  const browser = await chromium.launch();
  const page = await browser.newPage();
  await page.goto('https://example.com');
  const hrefElement = await page.$('a');
  await hrefElement.click();
  // ...
})();

ElementHandle prevents DOM element from garbage collection unless the handle is disposed. ElementHandles are auto-disposed when their origin frame gets navigated.

ElementHandle instances can be used as arguments in page.$eval() and page.evaluate() methods.

elementHandle.$(selector)

The method runs element.querySelector within the page. If no element matches the selector, the return value resolves to null.

elementHandle.$$(selector)

The method runs element.querySelectorAll within the page. If no elements match the selector, the return value resolves to [].

elementHandle.$$eval(selector, pageFunction[, ...args])

This method runs document.querySelectorAll within the element and passes it as the first argument to pageFunction. If there's no element matching selector, the method throws an error.

If pageFunction returns a Promise, then frame.$$eval would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

Examples:

<div class="feed">
  <div class="tweet">Hello!</div>
  <div class="tweet">Hi!</div>
</div>
const feedHandle = await page.$('.feed');
expect(await feedHandle.$$eval('.tweet', nodes => nodes.map(n => n.innerText))).toEqual(['Hello!', 'Hi!']);

elementHandle.$eval(selector, pageFunction[, ...args])

This method runs document.querySelector within the element and passes it as the first argument to pageFunction. If there's no element matching selector, the method throws an error.

If pageFunction returns a Promise, then frame.$eval would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

Examples:

const tweetHandle = await page.$('.tweet');
expect(await tweetHandle.$eval('.like', node => node.innerText)).toBe('100');
expect(await tweetHandle.$eval('.retweets', node => node.innerText)).toBe('10');

elementHandle.boundingBox()

  • returns: <Promise<?Object>>
    • x <number> the x coordinate of the element in pixels.
    • y <number> the y coordinate of the element in pixels.
    • width <number> the width of the element in pixels.
    • height <number> the height of the element in pixels.

This method returns the bounding box of the element (relative to the main frame), or null if the element is not visible.

elementHandle.check([options])

  • options <Object>
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element is successfully checked. Promise gets rejected if the operation fails.

If element is not already checked, it scrolls it into view if needed, and then uses elementHandle.click to click in the center of the element.

elementHandle.click([options])

  • options <Object>
    • button <"left"|"right"|"middle"> Defaults to left.
    • clickCount <number> defaults to 1. See UIEvent.detail.
    • delay <number> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • relativePoint <Object> A point to click relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, clicks to some visible point of the element.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the click, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.
    • waitForInteractable <boolean> Whether to wait for element to become static (not moving) and receive pointer events at the click point. Defaults to true.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element is successfully clicked. Promise gets rejected if the element is detached from DOM.

This method scrolls element into view if needed, and then uses page.mouse to click in the center of the element. If the element is detached from DOM, the method throws an error.

elementHandle.contentFrame()

  • returns: <Promise<?Frame>> Resolves to the content frame for element handles referencing iframe nodes, or null otherwise

elementHandle.dblclick([options])

  • options <Object>
    • button <"left"|"right"|"middle"> Defaults to left.
    • delay <number> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • relativePoint <Object> A point to double click relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, double clicks to some visible point of the element.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the double click, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.
    • waitForInteractable <boolean> Whether to wait for element to become static (not moving) and receive pointer events at the click point. Defaults to true.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element is successfully double clicked. Promise gets rejected if the element is detached from DOM.

This method scrolls element into view if needed, and then uses page.mouse to click in the center of the element. If the element is detached from DOM, the method throws an error.

Bear in mind that if the first click of the dblclick() triggers a navigation event, there will be an exception.

NOTE elementHandle.dblclick() dispatches two click events and a single dblclick event.

elementHandle.fill(value)

  • value <string> Value to set for the <input>, <textarea> or [contenteditable] element.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element is successfully filled.

This method focuses the element and triggers an input event after filling. If element is not a text <input>, <textarea> or [contenteditable] element, the method throws an error.

elementHandle.focus()

Calls focus on the element.

elementHandle.hover([options])

  • options <Object>
    • relativePoint <Object> A point to hover relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, hovers over some visible point of the element.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the hover, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.
    • waitForInteractable <boolean> Whether to wait for element to become static (not moving) and receive pointer events at the click point. Defaults to true.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element is successfully hovered.

This method scrolls element into view if needed, and then uses page.mouse to hover over the center of the element. If the element is detached from DOM, the method throws an error.

elementHandle.ownerFrame()

  • returns: <Promise<Frame>> Returns the frame containing the given element.

elementHandle.press(key[, options])

  • key <string> Name of key to press, such as ArrowLeft. See USKeyboardLayout for a list of all key names.
  • options <Object>
    • text <string> If specified, generates an input event with this text.
    • delay <number> Time to wait between keydown and keyup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
  • returns: <Promise>

Focuses the element, and then uses keyboard.down and keyboard.up.

If key is a single character and no modifier keys besides Shift are being held down, a keypress/input event will also be generated. The text option can be specified to force an input event to be generated.

NOTE Modifier keys DO effect elementHandle.press. Holding down Shift will type the text in upper case.

elementHandle.screenshot([options])

  • options <Object> Screenshot options.
    • path <string> The file path to save the image to. The screenshot type will be inferred from file extension. If path is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to current working directory. If no path is provided, the image won't be saved to the disk.
    • type <"png"|"jpeg"> Specify screenshot type, defaults to 'png'.
    • quality <number> The quality of the image, between 0-100. Not applicable to png images.
    • omitBackground <boolean> Hides default white background and allows capturing screenshots with transparency. Defaults to false.
  • returns: <Promise<|Buffer>> Promise which resolves to buffer with the captured screenshot.

This method scrolls element into view if needed, and then uses page.screenshot to take a screenshot of the element. If the element is detached from DOM, the method throws an error.

elementHandle.scrollIntoViewIfNeeded()

  • returns: <Promise> Resolves after the element has been scrolled into view.

This method tries to scroll element into view, unless it is completely visible as defined by IntersectionObserver's ratio.

Throws when elementHandle does not point to an element connected to a Document or a ShadowRoot.

NOTE If javascript is disabled, element is scrolled into view even when already completely visible.

elementHandle.select(...values)

  • ...values <...string|ElementHandle|Object> Options to select. If the <select> has the multiple attribute, all matching options are selected, otherwise only the first option matching one of the passed options is selected. String values are equivalent to {value:'string'}. Option is considered matching if all specified properties match.
    • value <string> Matches by option.value.
    • label <string> Matches by option.label.
    • index <number> Matches by the index.
  • returns: <Promise<Array<string>>> An array of option values that have been successfully selected.

Triggers a change and input event once all the provided options have been selected. If element is not a <select> element, the method throws an error.

// single selection matching the value
handle.select('blue');

// single selection matching both the value and the label
handle.select({ value: 'blue', label: 'Blue' });

// multiple selection
handle.select('red', 'green', 'blue');

// multiple selection for blue, red and second option
handle.select({ value: 'blue' }, { index: 2 }, 'red');

elementHandle.setInputFiles(...files)

This method expects elementHandle to point to an input element.

elementHandle.toString()

elementHandle.tripleclick([options])

  • options <Object>
    • button <"left"|"right"|"middle"> Defaults to left.
    • delay <number> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • relativePoint <Object> A point to triple click relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, triple clicks to some visible point of the element.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the triple click, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.
    • waitForInteractable <boolean> Whether to wait for element to become static (not moving) and receive pointer events at the click point. Defaults to true.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element is successfully triple clicked. Promise gets rejected if the element is detached from DOM.

This method scrolls element into view if needed, and then uses page.mouse to click in the center of the element. If the element is detached from DOM, the method throws an error.

Bear in mind that if the first or second click of the tripleclick() triggers a navigation event, there will be an exception.

NOTE elementHandle.tripleclick() dispatches three click events and a single dblclick event.

elementHandle.type(text[, options])

  • text <string> A text to type into a focused element.
  • options <Object>
    • delay <number> Time to wait between key presses in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
  • returns: <Promise>

Focuses the element, and then sends a keydown, keypress/input, and keyup event for each character in the text.

To press a special key, like Control or ArrowDown, use elementHandle.press.

await elementHandle.type('Hello'); // Types instantly
await elementHandle.type('World', {delay: 100}); // Types slower, like a user

An example of typing into a text field and then submitting the form:

const elementHandle = await page.$('input');
await elementHandle.type('some text');
await elementHandle.press('Enter');

elementHandle.uncheck([options])

  • options <Object>
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element is successfully unchecked. Promise gets rejected if the operation fails.

If element is not already unchecked, it scrolls it into view if needed, and then uses elementHandle.click to click in the center of the element.

class: JSHandle

JSHandle represents an in-page JavaScript object. JSHandles can be created with the page.evaluateHandle method.

const windowHandle = await page.evaluateHandle(() => window);
// ...

JSHandle prevents the referenced JavaScript object being garbage collected unless the handle is disposed. JSHandles are auto-disposed when their origin frame gets navigated or the parent context gets destroyed.

JSHandle instances can be used as arguments in page.$eval(), page.evaluate() and page.evaluateHandle methods.

jsHandle.asElement()

Returns either null or the object handle itself, if the object handle is an instance of ElementHandle.

jsHandle.dispose()

  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the object handle is successfully disposed.

The jsHandle.dispose method stops referencing the element handle.

jsHandle.evaluate(pageFunction[, ...args])

This method passes this handle as the first argument to pageFunction.

If pageFunction returns a Promise, then handle.evaluate would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

Examples:

const tweetHandle = await page.$('.tweet .retweets');
expect(await tweetHandle.evaluate(node => node.innerText)).toBe('10');

jsHandle.evaluateHandle(pageFunction[, ...args])

This method passes this handle as the first argument to pageFunction.

The only difference between jsHandle.evaluate and jsHandle.evaluateHandle is that jsHandle.evaluateHandle returns in-page object (JSHandle).

If the function passed to the jsHandle.evaluateHandle returns a Promise, then jsHandle.evaluateHandle would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

See Page.evaluateHandle for more details.

jsHandle.getProperties()

The method returns a map with property names as keys and JSHandle instances for the property values.

const handle = await page.evaluateHandle(() => ({window, document}));
const properties = await handle.getProperties();
const windowHandle = properties.get('window');
const documentHandle = properties.get('document');
await handle.dispose();

jsHandle.getProperty(propertyName)

Fetches a single property from the referenced object.

jsHandle.jsonValue()

Returns a JSON representation of the object. If the object has a toJSON function, it will not be called.

NOTE The method will return an empty JSON object if the referenced object is not stringifiable. It will throw an error if the object has circular references.

class: ConsoleMessage

ConsoleMessage objects are dispatched by page via the 'console' event.

consoleMessage.args()

consoleMessage.location()

  • returns: <Object>
    • url <string> URL of the resource if known or undefined otherwise.
    • lineNumber <number> 0-based line number in the resource if known or undefined otherwise.
    • columnNumber <number> 0-based column number in the resource if known or undefined otherwise.

consoleMessage.text()

consoleMessage.type()

One of the following values: 'log', 'debug', 'info', 'error', 'warning', 'dir', 'dirxml', 'table', 'trace', 'clear', 'startGroup', 'startGroupCollapsed', 'endGroup', 'assert', 'profile', 'profileEnd', 'count', 'timeEnd'.

class: Dialog

Dialog objects are dispatched by page via the 'dialog' event.

An example of using Dialog class:

const { chromium } = require('playwright');  // Or 'firefox' or 'webkit'.

(async () => {
  const browser = await chromium.launch();
  const page = await browser.newPage();
  page.on('dialog', async dialog => {
    console.log(dialog.message());
    await dialog.dismiss();
    await browser.close();
  });
  page.evaluate(() => alert('1'));
})();

dialog.accept([promptText])

  • promptText <string> A text to enter in prompt. Does not cause any effects if the dialog's type is not prompt.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the dialog has been accepted.

dialog.defaultValue()

  • returns: <string> If dialog is prompt, returns default prompt value. Otherwise, returns empty string.

dialog.dismiss()

  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the dialog has been dismissed.

dialog.message()

  • returns: <string> A message displayed in the dialog.

dialog.type()

  • returns: <string> Dialog's type, can be one of alert, beforeunload, confirm or prompt.

class: Keyboard

Keyboard provides an api for managing a virtual keyboard. The high level api is keyboard.type, which takes raw characters and generates proper keydown, keypress/input, and keyup events on your page.

For finer control, you can use keyboard.down, keyboard.up, and keyboard.sendCharacters to manually fire events as if they were generated from a real keyboard.

An example of holding down Shift in order to select and delete some text:

await page.keyboard.type('Hello World!');
await page.keyboard.press('ArrowLeft');

await page.keyboard.down('Shift');
for (let i = 0; i < ' World'.length; i++)
  await page.keyboard.press('ArrowLeft');
await page.keyboard.up('Shift');

await page.keyboard.press('Backspace');
// Result text will end up saying 'Hello!'

An example of pressing A

await page.keyboard.down('Shift');
await page.keyboard.press('KeyA');
await page.keyboard.up('Shift');

NOTE On MacOS, keyboard shortcuts like ⌘ A -> Select All do not work. See #1313

keyboard.down(key[, options])

  • key <string> Name of key to press, such as ArrowLeft. See USKeyboardLayout for a list of all key names.
  • options <Object>
    • text <string> If specified, generates an input event with this text.
  • returns: <Promise>

Dispatches a keydown event.

If key is a single character and no modifier keys besides Shift are being held down, a keypress/input event will also generated. The text option can be specified to force an input event to be generated.

If key is a modifier key, Shift, Meta, Control, or Alt, subsequent key presses will be sent with that modifier active. To release the modifier key, use keyboard.up.

After the key is pressed once, subsequent calls to keyboard.down will have repeat set to true. To release the key, use keyboard.up.

NOTE Modifier keys DO influence keyboard.down. Holding down Shift will type the text in upper case.

keyboard.press(key[, options])

  • key <string> Name of key to press, such as ArrowLeft. See USKeyboardLayout for a list of all key names.
  • options <Object>
    • text <string> If specified, generates an input event with this text.
    • delay <number> Time to wait between keydown and keyup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
  • returns: <Promise>

If key is a single character and no modifier keys besides Shift are being held down, a keypress/input event will also generated. The text option can be specified to force an input event to be generated.

NOTE Modifier keys DO effect keyboard.press. Holding down Shift will type the text in upper case.

Shortcut for keyboard.down and keyboard.up.

keyboard.sendCharacters(text)

  • text <string> Characters to send into the page.
  • returns: <Promise>

Dispatches a keypress and input event. This does not send a keydown or keyup event.

page.keyboard.sendCharacters('嗨');

NOTE Modifier keys DO NOT effect keyboard.sendCharacters. Holding down Shift will not type the text in upper case.

keyboard.type(text[, options])

  • text <string> A text to type into a focused element.
  • options <Object>
    • delay <number> Time to wait between key presses in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
  • returns: <Promise>

Sends a keydown, keypress/input, and keyup event for each character in the text.

To press a special key, like Control or ArrowDown, use keyboard.press.

await page.keyboard.type('Hello'); // Types instantly
await page.keyboard.type('World', {delay: 100}); // Types slower, like a user

NOTE Modifier keys DO NOT effect keyboard.type. Holding down Shift will not type the text in upper case.

keyboard.up(key)

Dispatches a keyup event.

class: Mouse

The Mouse class operates in main-frame CSS pixels relative to the top-left corner of the viewport.

Every page object has its own Mouse, accessible with page.mouse.

// Using ‘page.mouse’ to trace a 100x100 square.
await page.mouse.move(0, 0);
await page.mouse.down();
await page.mouse.move(0, 100);
await page.mouse.move(100, 100);
await page.mouse.move(100, 0);
await page.mouse.move(0, 0);
await page.mouse.up();

mouse.click(x, y[, options])

  • x <number>
  • y <number>
  • options <Object>
    • button <"left"|"right"|"middle"> Defaults to left.
    • clickCount <number> defaults to 1. See UIEvent.detail.
    • delay <number> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">>
    • relativePoint <Object> Optional relative point
  • returns: <Promise>

Shortcut for mouse.move, mouse.down and mouse.up.

mouse.dblclick(x, y[, options])

  • x <number>
  • y <number>
  • options <Object>
    • button <"left"|"right"|"middle"> Defaults to left.
    • delay <number> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">>
    • relativePoint <Object> Optional relative point
  • returns: <Promise>

Shortcut for mouse.move, mouse.down, mouse.up, mouse.down and mouse.up.

mouse.down([options])

Dispatches a mousedown event.

mouse.move(x, y[, options])

Dispatches a mousemove event.

mouse.tripleclick(x, y[, options])

  • x <number>
  • y <number>
  • options <Object>
    • button <"left"|"right"|"middle"> Defaults to left.
    • delay <number> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">>
    • relativePoint <Object> Optional relative point
  • returns: <Promise>

Shortcut for mouse.move, mouse.down, mouse.up, mouse.down, mouse.up, mouse.down and mouse.up.

mouse.up([options])

Dispatches a mouseup event.

class: Request

Whenever the page sends a request, such as for a network resource, the following events are emitted by playwright's page:

  • 'request' emitted when the request is issued by the page.
  • 'response' emitted when/if the response is received for the request.
  • 'requestfinished' emitted when the response body is downloaded and the request is complete.

If request fails at some point, then instead of 'requestfinished' event (and possibly instead of 'response' event), the 'requestfailed' event is emitted.

NOTE HTTP Error responses, such as 404 or 503, are still successful responses from HTTP standpoint, so request will complete with 'requestfinished' event.

If request gets a 'redirect' response, the request is successfully finished with the 'requestfinished' event, and a new request is issued to a redirected url.

request.abort([errorCode])

  • errorCode <string> Optional error code. Defaults to failed, could be one of the following:
    • aborted - An operation was aborted (due to user action)
    • accessdenied - Permission to access a resource, other than the network, was denied
    • addressunreachable - The IP address is unreachable. This usually means that there is no route to the specified host or network.
    • blockedbyclient - The client chose to block the request.
    • blockedbyresponse - The request failed because the response was delivered along with requirements which are not met ('X-Frame-Options' and 'Content-Security-Policy' ancestor checks, for instance).
    • connectionaborted - A connection timed out as a result of not receiving an ACK for data sent.
    • connectionclosed - A connection was closed (corresponding to a TCP FIN).
    • connectionfailed - A connection attempt failed.
    • connectionrefused - A connection attempt was refused.
    • connectionreset - A connection was reset (corresponding to a TCP RST).
    • internetdisconnected - The Internet connection has been lost.
    • namenotresolved - The host name could not be resolved.
    • timedout - An operation timed out.
    • failed - A generic failure occurred.
  • returns: <Promise>

Aborts request. To use this, request interception should be enabled with page.route. Exception is immediately thrown if the request interception is not enabled.

request.continue([overrides])

  • overrides <Object> Optional request overwrites, which can be one of the following:
    • method <string> If set changes the request method (e.g. GET or POST)
    • postData <string> If set changes the post data of request
    • headers <Object> If set changes the request HTTP headers. Header values will be converted to a string.
  • returns: <Promise>

Continues request with optional request overrides. To use this, request interception should be enabled with page.route. Exception is immediately thrown if the request interception is not enabled.

await page.route('**/*', request => {
  // Override headers
  const headers = Object.assign({}, request.headers(), {
    foo: 'bar', // set "foo" header
    origin: undefined, // remove "origin" header
  });
  request.continue({headers});
});

request.failure()

  • returns: <?Object> Object describing request failure, if any
    • errorText <string> Human-readable error message, e.g. 'net::ERR_FAILED'.

The method returns null unless this request was failed, as reported by requestfailed event.

Example of logging all failed requests:

page.on('requestfailed', request => {
  console.log(request.url() + ' ' + request.failure().errorText);
});

request.frame()

  • returns: <?Frame> A Frame that initiated this request, or null if navigating to error pages.

request.fulfill(response)

  • response <Object> Response that will fulfill this request
    • status <number> Response status code, defaults to 200.
    • headers <Object> Optional response headers. Header values will be converted to a string.
    • contentType <string> If set, equals to setting Content-Type response header
    • body <string|Buffer> Optional response body
  • returns: <Promise>

Fulfills request with given response. To use this, request interception should be enabled with page.route. Exception is thrown if request interception is not enabled.

An example of fulfilling all requests with 404 responses:

await page.route('**/*', request => {
  request.respond({
    status: 404,
    contentType: 'text/plain',
    body: 'Not Found!'
  });
});

NOTE Mocking responses for dataURL requests is not supported. Calling request.respond for a dataURL request is a noop.

request.headers()

  • returns: <Object> An object with HTTP headers associated with the request. All header names are lower-case.

request.isNavigationRequest()

Whether this request is driving frame's navigation.

request.method()

  • returns: <string> Request's method (GET, POST, etc.)

request.postData()

  • returns: <string> Request's post body, if any.

request.redirectChain()

A redirectChain is a chain of requests initiated to fetch a resource.

  • If there are no redirects and the request was successful, the chain will be empty.
  • If a server responds with at least a single redirect, then the chain will contain all the requests that were redirected.

redirectChain is shared between all the requests of the same chain.

For example, if the website http://example.com has a single redirect to https://example.com, then the chain will contain one request:

const response = await page.goto('http://example.com');
const chain = response.request().redirectChain();
console.log(chain.length); // 1
console.log(chain[0].url()); // 'http://example.com'

If the website https://google.com has no redirects, then the chain will be empty:

const response = await page.goto('https://google.com');
const chain = response.request().redirectChain();
console.log(chain.length); // 0

request.resourceType()

Contains the request's resource type as it was perceived by the rendering engine. ResourceType will be one of the following: document, stylesheet, image, media, font, script, texttrack, xhr, fetch, eventsource, websocket, manifest, other.

request.response()

  • returns: <?Response> A matching Response object, or null if the response has not been received yet.

request.url()

  • returns: <string> URL of the request.

class: Response

Response class represents responses which are received by page.

response.buffer()

  • returns: <Promise<Buffer>> Promise which resolves to a buffer with response body.

response.frame()

  • returns: <?Frame> A Frame that initiated this response, or null if navigating to error pages.

response.headers()

  • returns: <Object> An object with HTTP headers associated with the response. All header names are lower-case.

response.json()

  • returns: <Promise<Object>> Promise which resolves to a JSON representation of response body.

This method will throw if the response body is not parsable via JSON.parse.

response.ok()

Contains a boolean stating whether the response was successful (status in the range 200-299) or not.

response.request()

response.status()

Contains the status code of the response (e.g., 200 for a success).

response.statusText()

Contains the status text of the response (e.g. usually an "OK" for a success).

response.text()

  • returns: <Promise<string>> Promise which resolves to a text representation of response body.

response.url()

Contains the URL of the response.

class: Selectors

Selectors can be used to install custom selector engines. See Working with selectors for more information.

selectors.register(engineFunction[, ...args])

  • engineFunction <function|string> Function that evaluates to a selector engine instance.
  • ...args <...Serializable> Arguments to pass to engineFunction.
  • returns: <Promise>

An example of registering selector engine that queries elements based on a tag name:

const { selectors, firefox } = require('playwright');  // Or 'chromium' or 'webkit'.

(async () => {
  // Must be a function that evaluates to a selector engine instance.
  const createTagNameEngine = () => ({
    // Selectors will be prefixed with "tag=".
    name: 'tag',

    // Creates a selector that matches given target when queried at the root.
    // Can return undefined if unable to create one.
    create(root, target) {
      return root.querySelector(target.tagName) === target ? target.tagName : undefined;
    },

    // Returns the first element matching given selector in the root's subtree.
    query(root, selector) {
      return root.querySelector(selector);
    },

    // Returns all elements matching given selector in the root's subtree.
    queryAll(root, selector) {
      return Array.from(root.querySelectorAll(selector));
    }
  });

  // Register the engine.
  await selectors.register(createTagNameEngine);

  const browser = await firefox.launch();
  const page = await browser.newPage();
  await page.goto('https://example.com');

  // Use the selector prefixed with its name.
  const button = await page.$('tag=button');
  // Combine it with other selector engines.
  await page.click('tag=div >> text="Click me"');
  // Can use it in any methods supporting selectors.
  const buttonCount = await page.$$eval('tag=button', buttons => buttons.length);

  await browser.close();
})();

class: TimeoutError

TimeoutError is emitted whenever certain operations are terminated due to timeout, e.g. page.waitForSelector(selector[, options]) or browserType.launch([options]).

class: Accessibility

The Accessibility class provides methods for inspecting Chromium's accessibility tree. The accessibility tree is used by assistive technology such as screen readers or switches.

Accessibility is a very platform-specific thing. On different platforms, there are different screen readers that might have wildly different output.

Blink - Chromium's rendering engine - has a concept of "accessibility tree", which is then translated into different platform-specific APIs. Accessibility namespace gives users access to the Blink Accessibility Tree.

Most of the accessibility tree gets filtered out when converting from Blink AX Tree to Platform-specific AX-Tree or by assistive technologies themselves. By default, Playwright tries to approximate this filtering, exposing only the "interesting" nodes of the tree.

accessibility.snapshot([options])

  • options <Object>
    • interestingOnly <boolean> Prune uninteresting nodes from the tree. Defaults to true.
    • root <ElementHandle> The root DOM element for the snapshot. Defaults to the whole page.
  • returns: <Promise<Object>> An AXNode object with the following properties:
    • role <string> The role.
    • name <string> A human readable name for the node.
    • value <string|number> The current value of the node.
    • description <string> An additional human readable description of the node.
    • keyshortcuts <string> Keyboard shortcuts associated with this node.
    • roledescription <string> A human readable alternative to the role.
    • valuetext <string> A description of the current value.
    • disabled <boolean> Whether the node is disabled.
    • expanded <boolean> Whether the node is expanded or collapsed.
    • focused <boolean> Whether the node is focused.
    • modal <boolean> Whether the node is modal.
    • multiline <boolean> Whether the node text input supports multiline.
    • multiselectable <boolean> Whether more than one child can be selected.
    • readonly <boolean> Whether the node is read only.
    • required <boolean> Whether the node is required.
    • selected <boolean> Whether the node is selected in its parent node.
    • checked <boolean|"mixed"> Whether the checkbox is checked, or "mixed".
    • pressed <boolean|"mixed"> Whether the toggle button is checked, or "mixed".
    • level <number> The level of a heading.
    • valuemin <number> The minimum value in a node.
    • valuemax <number> The maximum value in a node.
    • autocomplete <string> What kind of autocomplete is supported by a control.
    • haspopup <string> What kind of popup is currently being shown for a node.
    • invalid <string> Whether and in what way this node's value is invalid.
    • orientation <string> Whether the node is oriented horizontally or vertically.
    • children <Array<Object>> Child AXNodes of this node, if any.

Captures the current state of the accessibility tree. The returned object represents the root accessible node of the page.

NOTE The Chromium accessibility tree contains nodes that go unused on most platforms and by most screen readers. Playwright will discard them as well for an easier to process tree, unless interestingOnly is set to false.

An example of dumping the entire accessibility tree:

const snapshot = await page.accessibility.snapshot();
console.log(snapshot);

An example of logging the focused node's name:

const snapshot = await page.accessibility.snapshot();
const node = findFocusedNode(snapshot);
console.log(node && node.name);

function findFocusedNode(node) {
  if (node.focused)
    return node;
  for (const child of node.children || []) {
    const foundNode = findFocusedNode(child);
    return foundNode;
  }
  return null;
}

class: Worker

The Worker class represents a WebWorker. The events workercreated and workerdestroyed are emitted on the page object to signal the worker lifecycle.

page.on('workercreated', worker => console.log('Worker created: ' + worker.url()));
page.on('workerdestroyed', worker => console.log('Worker destroyed: ' + worker.url()));

console.log('Current workers:');
for (const worker of page.workers())
  console.log('  ' + worker.url());

worker.evaluate(pageFunction[, ...args])

If the function passed to the worker.evaluate returns a Promise, then worker.evaluate would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

If the function passed to the worker.evaluate returns a non-Serializable value, then worker.evaluate resolves to undefined. DevTools Protocol also supports transferring some additional values that are not serializable by JSON: -0, NaN, Infinity, -Infinity, and bigint literals.

worker.evaluateHandle(pageFunction[, ...args])

  • pageFunction <function|string> Function to be evaluated in the page context
  • ...args <...Serializable|JSHandle> Arguments to pass to pageFunction
  • returns: <Promise<JSHandle>> Promise which resolves to the return value of pageFunction as in-page object (JSHandle)

The only difference between worker.evaluate and worker.evaluateHandle is that worker.evaluateHandle returns in-page object (JSHandle).

If the function passed to the worker.evaluateHandle returns a Promise, then worker.evaluateHandle would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

worker.url()

class: BrowserServer

event: 'close'

Emitted when the browser server closes.

browserServer.close()

Closes the browser gracefully and makes sure the process is terminated.

browserServer.kill()

Kills the browser process.

browserServer.process()

  • returns: <?ChildProcess> Spawned browser application process.

browserServer.wsEndpoint()

  • returns: <string> Browser websocket url.

Browser websocket endpoint which can be used as an argument to browserType.connect(options) to establish connection to the browser.

class: BrowserType

BrowserType provides methods to launch a specific browser instance or connect to an existing one. The following is a typical example of using Playwright to drive automation:

const { chromium } = require('playwright');  // Or 'firefox' or 'webkit'.

(async () => {
  const browser = await chromium.launch();
  const page = await browser.newPage();
  await page.goto('https://example.com');
  // other actions...
  await browser.close();
})();

browserType.connect(options)

  • options <Object>
    • wsEndpoint <?string> A browser websocket endpoint to connect to.
    • slowMo <number> Slows down Playwright operations by the specified amount of milliseconds. Useful so that you can see what is going on.
  • returns: <Promise<Browser>>

This methods attaches Playwright to an existing browser instance.

browserType.devices

Returns a list of devices to be used with browser.newContext(options) and browser.newPage(options). Actual list of devices can be found in src/deviceDescriptors.ts.

const { webkit } = require('playwright');
const iPhone = webkit.devices['iPhone 6'];

(async () => {
  const browser = await webkit.launch();
  const context = await browser.newContext({
    viewport: iPhone.viewport,
    userAgent: iPhone.userAgent
  });
  const page = await context.newPage();
  await page.goto('https://example.com');
  // other actions...
  await browser.close();
})();

browserType.downloadBrowserIfNeeded([progress])

  • progress <function> If download is initiated, this function is called with two parameters: downloadedBytes and totalBytes.
  • returns: <Promise> promise that resolves when browser is successfully downloaded.

Download browser binary if it is missing.

browserType.errors

Playwright methods might throw errors if they are unable to fulfill a request. For example, page.waitForSelector(selector[, options]) might fail if the selector doesn't match any nodes during the given timeframe.

For certain types of errors Playwright uses specific error classes. These classes are available via browserType.errors or playwright.errors.

An example of handling a timeout error:

const { webkit } = require('playwright');  // Or 'chromium' or 'firefox'.
try {
  await page.waitForSelector('.foo');
} catch (e) {
  if (e instanceof webkit.errors.TimeoutError) {
    // Do something if this is a timeout.
  }
}

browserType.executablePath()

  • returns: <string> A path where Playwright expects to find a bundled browser.

browserType.launch([options])

  • options <Object> Set of configurable options to set on the browser. Can have the following fields:
    • headless <boolean> Whether to run browser in headless mode. More details for Chromium and Firefox. Defaults to true unless the devtools option is true.
    • executablePath <string> Path to a browser executable to run instead of the bundled one. If executablePath is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to current working directory. BEWARE: Playwright is only guaranteed to work with the bundled Chromium, Firefox or WebKit, use at your own risk.
    • args <Array<string>> Additional arguments to pass to the browser instance. The list of Chromium flags can be found here.
    • ignoreDefaultArgs <boolean|Array<string>> If true, then do not use browserType.defaultArgs(). If an array is given, then filter out the given default arguments. Dangerous option; use with care. Defaults to false.
    • handleSIGINT <boolean> Close the browser process on Ctrl-C. Defaults to true.
    • handleSIGTERM <boolean> Close the browser process on SIGTERM. Defaults to true.
    • handleSIGHUP <boolean> Close the browser process on SIGHUP. Defaults to true.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds to wait for the browser instance to start. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout.
    • dumpio <boolean> Whether to pipe the browser process stdout and stderr into process.stdout and process.stderr. Defaults to false.
    • env <Object> Specify environment variables that will be visible to the browser. Defaults to process.env.
    • devtools <boolean> Chromium-only Whether to auto-open a Developer Tools panel for each tab. If this option is true, the headless option will be set false.
    • slowMo <number> Slows down Playwright operations by the specified amount of milliseconds. Useful so that you can see what is going on.
  • returns: <Promise<Browser>> Promise which resolves to browser instance.

You can use ignoreDefaultArgs to filter out --mute-audio from default arguments:

const browser = await chromium.launch({  // Or 'firefox' or 'webkit'.
  ignoreDefaultArgs: ['--mute-audio']
});

Chromium-only Playwright can also be used to control the Chrome browser, but it works best with the version of Chromium it is bundled with. There is no guarantee it will work with any other version. Use executablePath option with extreme caution.

If Google Chrome (rather than Chromium) is preferred, a Chrome Canary or Dev Channel build is suggested.

In browserType.launch([options]) above, any mention of Chromium also applies to Chrome.

See this article for a description of the differences between Chromium and Chrome. This article describes some differences for Linux users.

browserType.launchPersistent(userDataDir, [options])

  • userDataDir <string> Path to a User Data Directory, which stores browser session data like cookies and local storage. More details for Chromium and Firefox.
  • options <Object> Set of configurable options to set on the browser. Can have the following fields:
    • headless <boolean> Whether to run browser in headless mode. More details for Chromium and Firefox. Defaults to true unless the devtools option is true.
    • executablePath <string> Path to a browser executable to run instead of the bundled one. If executablePath is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to current working directory. BEWARE: Playwright is only guaranteed to work with the bundled Chromium, Firefox or WebKit, use at your own risk.
    • args <Array<string>> Additional arguments to pass to the browser instance. The list of Chromium flags can be found here.
    • ignoreDefaultArgs <boolean|Array<string>> If true, then do not use browserType.defaultArgs(). If an array is given, then filter out the given default arguments. Dangerous option; use with care. Defaults to false.
    • handleSIGINT <boolean> Close the browser process on Ctrl-C. Defaults to true.
    • handleSIGTERM <boolean> Close the browser process on SIGTERM. Defaults to true.
    • handleSIGHUP <boolean> Close the browser process on SIGHUP. Defaults to true.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds to wait for the browser instance to start. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout.
    • dumpio <boolean> Whether to pipe the browser process stdout and stderr into process.stdout and process.stderr. Defaults to false.
    • env <Object> Specify environment variables that will be visible to the browser. Defaults to process.env.
    • devtools <boolean> Chromium-only Whether to auto-open a Developer Tools panel for each tab. If this option is true, the headless option will be set false.
  • returns: <Promise<BrowserContext>> Promise which resolves to the browser app instance.

Launches browser instance that uses persistent storage located at userDataDir. If userDataDir is not specified, temporary folder is created for the persistent storage. That folder is deleted when browser closes.

browserType.launchServer([options])

  • options <Object> Set of configurable options to set on the browser. Can have the following fields:
    • headless <boolean> Whether to run browser in headless mode. More details for Chromium and Firefox. Defaults to true unless the devtools option is true.
    • port <number> Port to use for the web socket. Defaults to 0 that picks any available port.
    • executablePath <string> Path to a browser executable to run instead of the bundled one. If executablePath is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to current working directory. BEWARE: Playwright is only guaranteed to work with the bundled Chromium, Firefox or WebKit, use at your own risk.
    • args <Array<string>> Additional arguments to pass to the browser instance. The list of Chromium flags can be found here.
    • ignoreDefaultArgs <boolean|Array<string>> If true, then do not use browserType.defaultArgs(). If an array is given, then filter out the given default arguments. Dangerous option; use with care. Defaults to false.
    • handleSIGINT <boolean> Close the browser process on Ctrl-C. Defaults to true.
    • handleSIGTERM <boolean> Close the browser process on SIGTERM. Defaults to true.
    • handleSIGHUP <boolean> Close the browser process on SIGHUP. Defaults to true.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds to wait for the browser instance to start. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout.
    • dumpio <boolean> Whether to pipe the browser process stdout and stderr into process.stdout and process.stderr. Defaults to false.
    • env <Object> Specify environment variables that will be visible to the browser. Defaults to process.env.
    • devtools <boolean> Chromium-only Whether to auto-open a Developer Tools panel for each tab. If this option is true, the headless option will be set false.
  • returns: <Promise<BrowserServer>> Promise which resolves to the browser app instance.

Launches browser server that client can connect to. An example of launching a browser executable and connecting to it later:

const { chromium } = require('playwright');  // Or 'webkit' or 'firefox'.

(async () => {
  const browserServer = await chromium.launchServer();
  const wsEndpoint = browserServer.wsEndpoint();
  // Use web socket endpoint later to establish a connection.
  const browser = await chromium.connect({ wsEndpoint });
  // Close browser instance.
  await browserServer.close();
})();

browserType.name()

Returns browser name. For example: 'chromium', 'webkit' or 'firefox'.

class: ChromiumBrowser

Chromium-specific features including Tracing, service worker support, etc. You can use chromiumBrowser.startTracing and chromiumBrowser.stopTracing to create a trace file which can be opened in Chrome DevTools or timeline viewer.

await browser.startTracing(page, {path: 'trace.json'});
await page.goto('https://www.google.com');
await browser.stopTracing();

event: 'targetchanged'

Emitted when the url of a target changes.

NOTE This includes target changes in incognito browser contexts.

event: 'targetcreated'

Emitted when a target is created, for example when a new page is opened by window.open or browserContext.newPage.

NOTE This includes target creations in incognito browser contexts.

event: 'targetdestroyed'

Emitted when a target is destroyed, for example when a page is closed.

NOTE This includes target destructions in incognito browser contexts.

chromiumBrowser.browserTarget()

Returns browser target.

chromiumBrowser.pageTarget(page)

  • page <Page> Page to return target for.
  • returns: <Target> a target given page was created from.

chromiumBrowser.serviceWorker(target)

Attaches to the service worker target.

chromiumBrowser.startTracing(page, [options])

  • page <Page> Optional, if specified, tracing includes screenshots of the given page.
  • options <Object>
    • path <string> A path to write the trace file to.
    • screenshots <boolean> captures screenshots in the trace.
    • categories <Array<string>> specify custom categories to use instead of default.
  • returns: <Promise>

Only one trace can be active at a time per browser.

chromiumBrowser.stopTracing()

  • returns: <Promise<Buffer>> Promise which resolves to buffer with trace data.

chromiumBrowser.targets(context)

An array of all active targets inside the Browser. In case of multiple browser contexts, the method will return an array with all the targets in all browser contexts.

chromiumBrowser.waitForTarget(predicate[, options])

  • predicate <function(Target):boolean> A function to be run for every target
  • options <Object>
    • timeout <number> Maximum wait time in milliseconds. Pass 0 to disable the timeout. Defaults to 30 seconds.
  • returns: <Promise<Target>> Promise which resolves to the first target found that matches the predicate function.

This searches for a target in all browser contexts.

An example of finding a target for a page opened via window.open:

await page.evaluate(() => window.open('https://www.example.com/'));
const newWindowTarget = await browser.chromium.waitForTarget(target => target.url() === 'https://www.example.com/');

class: ChromiumCoverage

Coverage gathers information about parts of JavaScript and CSS that were used by the page.

An example of using JavaScript coverage to produce Istambul report for page load:

const { chromium } = require('.');
const v8toIstanbul = require('v8-to-istanbul');

(async() => {
  const browser = await chromium.launch();
  const page = await browser.newPage();
  await page.coverage.startJSCoverage();
  await page.goto('https://chromium.org');
  const coverage = await page.coverage.stopJSCoverage();
  for (const entry of coverage) {
    const converter = new v8toIstanbul('', 0, { source: entry.source });
    await converter.load();
    converter.applyCoverage(entry.functions);
    console.log(JSON.stringify(converter.toIstanbul()));
  }
  await browser.close();
})();

chromiumCoverage.startCSSCoverage([options])

  • options <Object> Set of configurable options for coverage
    • resetOnNavigation <boolean> Whether to reset coverage on every navigation. Defaults to true.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise that resolves when coverage is started

chromiumCoverage.startJSCoverage([options])

  • options <Object> Set of configurable options for coverage
    • resetOnNavigation <boolean> Whether to reset coverage on every navigation. Defaults to true.
    • reportAnonymousScripts <boolean> Whether anonymous scripts generated by the page should be reported. Defaults to false.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise that resolves when coverage is started

NOTE Anonymous scripts are ones that don't have an associated url. These are scripts that are dynamically created on the page using eval or new Function. If reportAnonymousScripts is set to true, anonymous scripts will have __playwright_evaluation_script__ as their URL.

chromiumCoverage.stopCSSCoverage()

  • returns: <Promise<Array<Object>>> Promise that resolves to the array of coverage reports for all stylesheets
    • url <string> StyleSheet URL
    • text <string> StyleSheet content
    • ranges <Array<Object>> StyleSheet ranges that were used. Ranges are sorted and non-overlapping.
      • start <number> A start offset in text, inclusive
      • end <number> An end offset in text, exclusive

NOTE CSS Coverage doesn't include dynamically injected style tags without sourceURLs.

chromiumCoverage.stopJSCoverage()

  • returns: <Promise<Array<Object>>> Promise that resolves to the array of coverage reports for all scripts

NOTE JavaScript Coverage doesn't include anonymous scripts by default. However, scripts with sourceURLs are reported.

class: ChromiumSession

The CDPSession instances are used to talk raw Chrome Devtools Protocol:

  • protocol methods can be called with session.send method.
  • protocol events can be subscribed to with session.on method.

Useful links:

const client = await chromium.pageTarget(page).createCDPSession();
await client.send('Animation.enable');
client.on('Animation.animationCreated', () => console.log('Animation created!'));
const response = await client.send('Animation.getPlaybackRate');
console.log('playback rate is ' + response.playbackRate);
await client.send('Animation.setPlaybackRate', {
  playbackRate: response.playbackRate / 2
});

chromiumSession.detach()

Detaches the cdpSession from the target. Once detached, the cdpSession object won't emit any events and can't be used to send messages.

chromiumSession.send(method[, params])

class: ChromiumTarget

chromiumTarget.context()

The browser context the target belongs to.

chromiumTarget.createCDPSession()

Creates a Chrome Devtools Protocol session attached to the target.

chromiumTarget.opener()

Get the target that opened this target. Top-level targets return null.

chromiumTarget.page()

If the target is not of type "page" or "background_page", returns null.

chromiumTarget.type()

  • returns: <"page"|"background_page"|"service_worker"|"shared_worker"|"other"|"browser">

Identifies what kind of target this is. Can be "page", "background_page", "service_worker", "shared_worker", "browser" or "other".

chromiumTarget.url()

class: FirefoxBrowser

Firefox browser instance does not expose Firefox-specific features.

class: WebKitBrowser

WebKit browser instance does not expose WebKit-specific features.

Working with selectors

Selector describes an element in the page. It can be used to obtain ElementHandle (see page.$() for example) or shortcut element operations to avoid intermediate handle (see page.click() for example).

Selector has the following format: engine=body [>> engine=body]*. Here engine is one of the supported selector engines (e.g. css or xpath), and body is a selector body in the format of the particular engine. When multiple engine=body clauses are present (separated by >>), next one is queried relative to the previous one's result.

For convenience, selectors in the wrong format are heuristically converted to the right format:

  • selector starting with // is assumed to be xpath=selector;
  • selector starting with " is assumed to be text=selector;
  • otherwise selector is assumed to be css=selector.
// queries 'div' css selector
const handle = await page.$('css=div');

// queries '//html/body/div' xpath selector
const handle = await page.$('xpath=//html/body/div');

// queries '"foo"' text selector
const handle = await page.$('text="foo"');

// queries 'span' css selector inside the result of '//html/body/div' xpath selector
const handle = await page.$('xpath=//html/body/div >> css=span');

// converted to 'css=div'
const handle = await page.$('div');

// converted to 'xpath=//html/body/div'
const handle = await page.$('//html/body/div');

// converted to 'text="foo"'
const handle = await page.$('"foo"');

// queries 'span' css selector inside the div handle
const handle = await divHandle.$('css=span');

Working with Chrome Extensions

Playwright can be used for testing Chrome Extensions.

NOTE Extensions in Chrome / Chromium currently only work in non-headless mode.

The following is code for getting a handle to the background page of an extension whose source is located in ./my-extension:

const { chromium } = require('playwright');

(async () => {
  const pathToExtension = require('path').join(__dirname, 'my-extension');
  const browser = await chromium.launch({
    headless: false,
    args: [
      `--disable-extensions-except=${pathToExtension}`,
      `--load-extension=${pathToExtension}`
    ]
  });
  const targets = await browser.targets();
  const backgroundPageTarget = targets.find(target => target.type() === 'background_page');
  const backgroundPage = await backgroundPageTarget.page();
  // Test the background page as you would any other page.
  await browser.close();
})();

NOTE It is not yet possible to test extension popups or content scripts.

You can’t perform that action at this time.