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+ Version 3, 29 June 2007
+ Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. <>
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+the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
+Public License instead of this License. But first, please read
@@ -0,0 +1,142 @@
+ BootDuet
+ Boot sector program for Intel's Developer's UEFI Emulation (DUET)
+1. Limitations of BootDuet
+We can think of the following present limitations for BootDuet.
+- BootDuet isn't able to find its own partition on the disk. That would
+ require scanning both MBR and GPT partitions. This couldn't be done on the
+ same boot program that scans the FAT file system.
+ Traditionally the boot program on the Master Boot Record passes in the
+ register SI a pointer to the MBR partition entry which is being booted and
+ that's how MS-DOS/Windows/etc boot programs know their own partition.
+ However, this BootDuet will probably find more use in GPT partitioned disks
+ and therefore we couldn't rely on this.
+ We therefore rely on another mechanism of MS-DOS/FAT partitions: the hidden
+ sectors field in the BPB. This is the number of sectors before the boot
+ sector of the partition, and is exactly the start LBA of the partition.
+- BootDuet can't handle a root directory with more than 32 KiB whether in
+ FAT12, FAT16 or FAT32. It won't do anything useful or even reasonable in
+ that case.
+- BootDuet can't handle FAT12 partitions on 64-bit LBA. That's because the
+ code for FAT12 partitions is more complex and so is the code for 64-bit LBA.
+ I couldn't squeeze it into 448 bytes.
+- The 64-bit LBA version of BootDuet does no validation of the boot sector and
+ will fail silently on some error conditions which the 32-bit LBA version
+ would detect. That's also because the 64-bit LBA code is larger.
+2. Prepare a boot partition
+The boot partition must only be large enough to contain EFILDR and EFIVAR.BIN,
+together they are less than a megabyte.
+A very small partition should use 12-bit FAT file system, a bigger one should
+use 16-bit FAT and only a partition larger than 512 MiB should use 32-bit FAT
+While some tools allow the use of FAT16 or FAT32 on small partitions, other
+tools actually distinguish between FAT12 and FAT32 with base on the number of
+BootDuet requires the Hidden Sectors field of the Boot Parameter Block (BPB)
+structure to be filled in, as mentioned in the previous section, and this is
+typically not filled in by default by format programs.
+If your partition starts at an LBA of, say, 390074368, then this is exactly
+what you must use for the Hidden Sectors field.
+If you're using Linux and dosfstools for formating this partition, and your
+partition is /dev/sda20, then you can use a command such as:
+ # mkfs.msdos -h 390074368 /dev/sda20
+If your partition is already formated, then you must fill in this value by
+hand. You can do that with any of many different tools. For me, on Linux, it
+would be practical to use the following command:
+ # echo 00: 00 10 40 17 | xxd -r | dd of=/dev/sda20 bs=1 seek=28
+Where xxd is a tool for hexdumps that comes with vim and 00 10 40 17 is a
+little endian dump for the hex number 17401000 which is 390074368.
+If you absolutely must use 64-bit LBA (remember, it does no validation of the
+boot sector), then you would have to fill in the high 32-bit part of your
+start LBA for the partition, because the Hidden Sectors field only is 32 bit.
+In that case, assuming your partition is already formated, and it starts at
+LBA 39007436800, then, you would have to convert this number to hex, which is
+915064000, byte reverse and pad it to 8 bytes as 00 40 06 15 09 00 00 00, and
+then something like:
+ # echo 00: 00 40 06 15 | xxd -r | dd of=/dev/sda20 bs=1 seek=28
+ # echo 00: 09 00 00 00 | xxd -r | dd of=/dev/sda20 bs=1 seek=506
+3. Compile BootDuet
+On Linux, to compile the 32-bit LBA binaries, just use make. The makefile is a
+GNU makefile and we assume that some version of gcc and binutils is installed.
+ # make
+If additionally you want to build the 64-bit LBA binaries, then use:
+ # make lba64
+4. Install BootDuet on the boot sector
+When installing BootDuet on the boot sector of a FAT formated partition, care
+must be taken not to overwrite the Boot Parameter Block (BPB) and Extended BPB
+(EBPB). Also, the EBPB is slightly larger for FAT32 partitions, so be careful
+about which command you pick to copy&paste.
+One way to install BootDuet on Linux is using the dd tool.
+For FAT12, do:
+ # dd if=bd12.bin of=/dev/sda20 bs=1 skip=62 seek=62 count=448
+For FAT16, do:
+ # dd if=bd16.bin of=/dev/sda20 bs=1 skip=62 seek=62 count=448
+For FAT32, do:
+ # dd if=bd32.bin of=/dev/sda20 bs=1 skip=90 seek=90 count=420
+For 64-bit LBA versions, you must take four bytes from that count, as those
+will be the high 32-bits of the start LBA of your boot partition (as mentioned
+in the previous section).
+For FAT12, with 64-bit LBA, do:
+ # dd if=bd12_64.bin of=/dev/sda20 bs=1 skip=62 seek=62 count=444
+For FAT16, with 64-bit LBA, do:
+ # dd if=bd16_64.bin of=/dev/sda20 bs=1 skip=62 seek=62 count=444
+For FAT32, with 64-bit LBA, do:
+ # dd if=bd32_64.bin of=/dev/sda20 bs=1 skip=90 seek=90 count=416
+5. Copy the files you need
+Finally (or before if you prefer) you can copy the files you need to the boot
+partition, this will be at least the boot loader program.
+On Linux, and assuming you mounted your partition at /mnt, use:
+For FAT12:
+ # cp ./EfiLdr /mnt/EFILDR
+For FAT16:
+ # cp ./EfiLdr16 /mnt/EFILDR16
+For FAT32:
+ # cp ./EfiLdr20 /mnt/EFILDR20
+ Miguel Ramos, 2011
@@ -0,0 +1,126 @@
+ BootDuet
+ Boot sector program for Intel's Developer's UEFI Emulation (DUET)
+1. Introduction
+Intel has made available a toolkit for helping the development of device
+drivers and low level software or firmware which interface with each other
+according to the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface specification (UEFI).
+This toolkit is known as the EFI Development Kit (EDK).
+Among the components of the EDK is the DUET package, the Developer's UEFI
+Emulation. This component emulates a UEFI compliant firmware on a PC with an
+older BIOS firmware, thus simplifying the development of UEFI compliant
+software before UEFI firmware becomes generally available.
+Some (most?) parts of this toolkit are open source, and some have been
+extended by people outside Intel, and most of this development has been
+gravitating around the community web site tianocore, on SourceForge.
+Although the tianocore community has been very active adding new components to
+the EDK for a few years now, there appears to have been no focus on making it
+easier for a wider audience to start experimenting with UEFI and DUET.
+As of 2011, the EDK still requires the Windows DDK to compile on Windows and
+mingw on Linux, and DUET must be booted from a floppy disk or USB disk, it
+cannot be booted from a modern hard drive.
+While this is probably acceptable for programmers who earn their day
+developing device drivers and such low level software, these aren't the kinds
+of tools that application programmers and enthusiasts would want to have
+to use just for a sneak preview.
+The scope of this project is therefore simply to make it easier for a wider
+audience to compile and run DUET.
+The first task of this project is to create a new boot program which is able
+to load and execute DUET from a hard disk partition.
+For now, we build on the work of Keshav P R from India who has made available
+a pre-compiled version of DUET on github
+( and we concentrate on this boot
+program which is able to load and execute EFILDR.
+2. The original boot loader for DUET
+The original DUET code from Intel boots in several stages. The first stage is
+the sector that lies on the boot sector of the drive. There are two versions
+of this stage:
+ - Mbr.asm, for MBR-based disks,
+ - Gpt.asm, for GPT-based disks.
+The function of this stage is simply to load the first sector of the partition
+containing the remaining software and execute it.
+There appears to be nothing wrong with Gpt.asm, it will work on modern hard
+disks. Mbr.asm, however, uses a BIOS int 13h interface which is limited to
+the first 1023 cylinders of the disk.
+The next stage is the sector that lies on the first sector of the boot
+partition. There are three versions of this stage (which we will call
+collectively bootsect.asm):
+ - bootsect.asm, for FAT12 boot partitions,
+ - bs16.asm, for FAT16 boot partitions,
+ - bs32.asm, for FAT32 boot partitions.
+The function of this stage is to scan the boot partition looking for two
+files, one is the DUET loader program, EFILDR (on FAT12, EFILDR16 on FAT16 and
+EFILDR20 on FAT32), and the other is a file used for storing settings for the
+UEFI emulation, EFIVAR.BIN. This stage loads the first cluster of EFILDR and
+then executes it.
+All versions of this stage suffer from the 1023 cylinder limitation. bs32.asm
+suffers additionally from some design flaws, as it attempts to use elements of
+the FAT BPB which are not valid for a FAT32 file system.
+The next stage, or two stages, is the first 4096 bytes of EFILDR. Because the
+cluster size of the FAT partition may be as small as 512 bytes, only the first
+512 bytes of EFILDR are assumed to be loaded. There are six versions of this
+stage (which we will call collectively start.asm):
+ - start.asm, for FAT12 on IA32,
+ - start16.asm, for FAT16 on IA32,
+ - start32.asm, for FAT32 on IA32,
+ - start64.asm, for FAT12 on X64,
+ - st16_64.asm, for FAT16 on X64,
+ - st32_64.asm, for FAT32 on X64.
+The first 512 bytes of start.asm first loads the entire EFILDR and EFIVAR.BIN
+files and only then it passes control to the remainder of start.asm.
+The remainder has the function of switching to protected mode and then, in the
+case of X64, to long mode.
+The final stage of booting establishes interrupt handlers for processor
+exceptions and also has two versions:
+ - efi32.asm, for IA32,
+ - efi64.asm, for X64.
+Our first problem is to address the limitations of bootsect.asm and start.asm
+(or the first 512 bytes of start.asm) which can't be used on a hard disk.
+3. Our own boot program, BootDuet.S
+We replace both bootsect.asm and start.asm with our own boot program,
+BootDuet.S, which is designed to be installed on the boot sector of a FAT
+formatted partition.
+We use only Logical Block Addressing (LBA) and therefore this program does not
+have the 1023 cylinder limitation.
+It is possible to compile BootDuet.S with 64-bit LBA support, which allows it
+to be used with disks larger than 2TB.
+We managed to squeeze the FAT style chain loading of the entire EFILDR and
+EFIVAR.BIN files into this 448 byte (420 for FAT32) program.
+Because of that we are able to skip the first 512 bytes of start.asm, and jump
+directly into the part which switches to protected mode.
+See INSTALL for instruction regarding installation of BootDuet.
+ Miguel Ramos, 2011

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