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Communication protocol

With low-power digital radio modulation technologies, such as LoRa, the packet size is usually quite small: 255 bytes in the case of LoRa. Data, including full telemetry and images, gathered by the tracker does not simply fit to a single packet, so additional coordination is needed to reliably receive the full set of data spanning multiple packets. Additionally, the type of data a packet contains must be made identifiable, since there are multiple types of data transmitted by the tracker.

In order to achieve reliable and easy-to-use radio communication between the node (transmitter) and the gateway (receiver), libert implements a TCP-like protocol, called comm protocol, that can be used over any packet-based transmission medium. The only requirement for the protocol to work is that the system responsible for packet transfer must detect transmission errors, so that packets containing erroneously received data can be discarded.

The protocol provides:

  • Multiplexing for concurrent streams using stream IDs

  • Identification of data type with port numbers

  • Ordered transmission and reassembly of out-of-order packets using packet sequence numbers

  • Detection and retransmission of lost packets using positive acknowledgements

  • Option to automatically retransmit all data if acknowledgements are not received, increasing possibility of successful reception of data

The comm protocol implementation requires the following features, from the underlying abstraction of the device used for communications:

  • data transmission call: a synchronous (blocking) and thread-safe call that transmits a single packet of raw data

  • data reception callback: an asynchronous notification for a received packet, including the packet data and its length

  • the maximum size of a packet in bytes

These features are implemented by the comm transceiver API.

Packet structure

The protocol works basically with any packet length, considering that it adds a header of 4 bytes to each packet.

  • TODO: Draw packet structure (find a good tool?)

The packet header includes all information necessary to implement features for reliable packet transfer:

  • ID (1 byte): Comm protocol packet identifier byte 0x95 to signal that this is a valid comm protocol packet

  • SI (4 bits): Stream ID for multiplexing concurrent data transfer streams

  • PN (4 bits): Port number to identify data application and purpose

  • SQ (1 byte): Packet sequence number to guarantee ordered reception of packets and reassembly in case of data transfer errors

  • FL (1 byte): 1-bit flags to signal the following conditions:

    • SS: Start of stream

    • ES: End of stream

    • RA: Request for acknowledgements (bit set in a packet sent by the transmitter)

    • DA: Delivery of acknowledgements

    • AE: Whether stream has acknowledgements enabled

    • RP: Whether the packet is a retransmitted packet

There is no support for source and destination addresses, which is a design choice in order to save a couple of bytes in the packet header size. For addresses to work properly, it would be necessary to use some sort of time-division multiplexing (TDM) to allow multiple devices to transmit on the same frequency without interfering each other. This could be a feature for a future version of the protocol, if there is need to communicate with multiple objects — which could be useful in case of static IoT nodes, such as weather stations.

Data streams

A data stream is a continuous stream of bytes, much like a TCP-stream. The combination of packet stream ID and port is used to identify a unique stream of data, so that there can be a total of 16 concurrent streams per port. Stream IDs are picked sequentially and reused after closing a stream. The port number can be freely chosen for a stream to represent the type of data transferred in the stream. Special flags are used to signal the first (SS flag) and the last packet (ES flag) of a data stream.

Data transmission

Transmitted data is automatically split in packets, so that full packet length is used for all packets except for the last one, unless the stream is flushed before closing the stream. The transmitter will store a queue of all transmitted packets (limited by the queue size), so that it can retransmit packets not received correctly by a receiver. The mechanism of requesting retransmissions is handled using acknowledgements, which is documented below.

Data reception

Each packet is assigned an 8-bit sequence number by the transmitter so that a receiver is able to identify packets and their correct order. This makes it possible to detect missing packets. When the receiver detects a missing packet (based on the sequence numbers), following packets that are received will be queued by the receiver until the receiver is able to request retransmissions for the missing packets and drain the queue. If the queue is full, new packets will simply be discarded and the receiver waits for a packet that requests acknowledgements, so that it can request retransmissions of missing packets.

If reliable transmission is not required, acknowledgements can be turned off by leaving the flag AE unset. In this case, the receiver will simply concatenate any data it receives, even if it detects missing packets.

Stream timeouts

The comm protocol keeps internally track of time passed while waiting for certain events to happen. Waiting for the following events may time out, which marks a stream failed so that it cannot be used anymore:

  • Transmitter waiting for acknowledgements, defaults to 1 second. Acknowledgements are re-requested two times before failing.

  • Transmitter waiting for new packet to be transmitted in a stream, timeout defaults to 20 seconds.

  • Receiver waiting for a packet to be received in a stream, timeout defaults to 20 seconds. The packet may also be a retransmitted packet.'

These timeouts allow data transfer operations to fail gracefully if there is a problem in communications.

Acknowledgements handling

An acknowledgement is a piece of data that the transmitter expects to receive from the receiver device as a confirmation of a successfully received packet. When acknowledgements are enable with the AE flag, the transmitter requires that every packet is acknowledged by the receiver. Acknowledgements are sent by the receiver in a packet that uses port 15 and has the DA flag set to indicate delivery of acknowledgements. The packet payload consists of one or multiple packet acknowledgement data structures.

The acknowledgement data structure contains information necessary to uniquely identify a packet:

  • SI (4 bits): Stream ID for multiplexing concurrent data transfer streams

  • PN (4 bits): Port number to identify data application and purpose

  • SQ (1 byte): Packet sequence number to guarantee ordered reception of packets and reassembly in case of data transfer errors

Transmission of acknowledgements and retransmitted packets has to be carefully coordinated between the transmitter and the receiver, because the transmission medium — the radio link — is half-duplex: data is transferred only in one direction at a time. This means that the receiver cannot simply send acknowledgements for received packets or ask for retransmissions, because the transmitter may not be listening for packets. In order to solve this problem, the transmitter is responsible for periodically requesting acknowledgements from the receiver. The RA (request for acknowledgements) flag in the packet header is used for this purpose. The frequency of acknowledgement requests (= the number of packets transmitted between ack requests) needs to be configured so that it is less than or equal to the size of the queue for received packets of the receiver. This ensures that the the receiver can store all successfully received packets in the queue without discarding any of them, so that the queue is never full.

Acknowledgements processing sequence

The following describes the sequence of packet transmissions for stream using acknowledgements:

N = Number of packets to transmit between acknowledgement requests

  1. Transmitter transmits N packets, where the last packet has RA flag enabled

  2. Transmitter switches comm device to receive mode and begins waiting an acknowledgement packet

  3. Receiver detects the RA flag and creates an acknowledgement packet based on sequence numbers of all packets it has received since it sent acknowledgements last time

  4. Receiver delays transmission of acknowledgements to let transmitter finish switching mode. This guard interval defaults to 50 milliseconds.

  5. Receiver transmits the acknowledgement packet and switches immediately back to receive mode

  6. Transmitter receives the acknowledgement packet and removes packets with matching sequence and stream numbers from its queue

  7. Transmitter delays transmission of next packet to let receiver finish switching mode (guard interval of 50 ms)

  8. Transmitter checks if there are packets left in the queue and retransmits them with RP flag set

  9. Transmitter continues sending new packets from the stream until the next N packets or end of stream is reached, which is when it requests acknowledgements again


  • Step 6: If the transmitter does not receive an acknowledgement packet for whatever reason (it could even be that the receiver did not receive the packet requesting acknowledgements!), it will retransmit the packet for acknowledgement request and wait for acknowledgements two times. If not acknowledgements are received after these retries, the stream will be marked failed and closed.

Passive mode

A receiver can be set to passive mode, which disables all packet transmissions for the receiver. In practice it means disabling of acknowledgements. This allows use of multiple receivers, where one of them can still send acknowledgements to the transmitter.

A passive receiver will attempt to collect all received packets, including retransmissions, to assemble a stream of correctly received data. In case of a missing packet (where no retransmissions could be received), a full packet of zeroes will be inserted in place of the packet instead of failing reception of a stream.

Transmit all data mode

In transmit all data mode, a transmitter will not mark a stream failed if no acknowledgements are received. Instead, in case of missing acknowledgements, all packets in the transmitter queue are first retransmitted once, after which the queue is cleared so that transmission can continue. This mode enables transmission of all data even if the transmitter is not able to receive acknowledgements, which is useful for in cases where a receiver hears the transmitted signal, but the transmitter cannot hear receiver’s acknowledgements, and when passive receivers are used, since they will not transmit acks anyway.

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