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Origin Isolation and Deprecating document.domain

Authors: Daniel Vogelheim, Mike West


The primary security boundary of the World Wide Web is the origin. The same-origin policy guarantees that one web page cannot access (modify, or extract data from) another page, unless those pages are hosted on the same origin. Several pages within an origin can fully cooperate as a single website, but pages from different origins are isolated and cannot interfere with each other.

The same origin policy is not just a proven and effective security boundary, it is also intuitively understood by even novice users.

Unfortunately, the details are substantially more complex. One particular complexity revolves around the Spectre family of attacks and the document.domain accessor:

Modern browsers isolate different sites from each other, by separating execution into different operating system processes. Pages that need to cooperate need to be assigned to the same process. Pages that do not cooperate can be assigned to different processes.

A Problem and a Solution

The Spectre attacks undermine this model, since they allow near-arbitrary memory reads within the same process. We have a high-level security boundary based on origins - the same-origin policy - and a low-level security boundary based on the operating system processes. Spectre exposes a misalignment between them: The browser wants to enforce the same-origin policy, but if Spectre can be used to read data from anywhere in the same process, then this will evade the same-origin policy if different origins are assigned to the same process. In practical terms, a script on an arbitrary domain could use Spectre to read confidential data - like login passwords - from another origin that happens to be assigned to the same process.

In other words, the problem is that the user-visible high-level security boundaries and the low-level, system security boundaries are misaligned. The solution is to align them, so that process isolation follows the origin boundary.

This would appear to be easily done, since process isolation is invisible to the APIs and therefore browsers are free to change their allocation strategies at will. Except for one particular "trick":

Setting the document.domain accessor allows pages (within a site, e.g. and access to each other. To implement this access, the data from those origins needs to be in the same process. A example use case that we have observed are pages that host video content in an iframe, where the iframe is served from a different origin than the main page. By setting document.domain to their common domain suffix, these can give each other access and e.g. the page can directly control the player. To accomodate this usage, browsers will allocate those two pages to the same process.

Setting document.domain has been deprecated for a long time, but continues to be supported by browsers. This forces process allocation to be by site, not by origin, because a page might use document.domain to get cross-origin access - within the site - later on. Measurements indicate that enabling cross-origin access by setting document.domain happens on around 0.5% of page views So 99% of pages do not even use this feature. But because they might want to set document.domain later on, browsers have to allocate processes by site.

In other words: > 99% of page views pay for a feature - in terms of reduced security - that they don't make any use of.

A Proposal

The Origin-Agent-Cluster http header (spec) allows a page to request being isolated by origin (instead of site). If set true (Origin-Agent-Cluster: ?1), the browser is asked to isolate pages by origin. If false, by site. (Agent Cluster is spec speak for isolation groups. Since the low-level isolation is not visible at the API layer, specifications only cursorily touches the subject.) As a side effect, writing to the document.domain accessor is ignored.

Currently, absence of the Origin-Agent-Cluster header defaults to false, meaning that an absent header forces clustering by site, rather than by origin, and setting document.domain continues to work. The proposal here is to change this default.

In detail:

  • The Origin-Agent-Cluster: header will, when present, continue to work as it currently does. What will change is the default when the header is absent.
  • We'll implement a console warning when a page assigns to document.domain but does not set an Origin-Agent-Cluster: ?0 header.
  • We'll build a feature flag that allows developers to opt-into the new default behavior locally in order to track down issues on their own sites.
  • Then we wait.
  • After developers have had some time to adjust, change the flag's default value.
  • More waiting. Then remove the flag. Now the transition is complete, and the only way to relax the same-origin policy through document.domain is to send an Origin-Agent-Cluster: ?0 header.
  • (Chrome-specific:) We expect to have an admin-setting for this flag, which would likely remain long-term.


Who needs to set Origin-Agent-Cluster header?

Any page that wishes to set document.domain will need to opt-into the ability to do so by sending Origin-Agent-Cluster: ?0. This includes both top-level documents that wish to synchronously script each other, as well as frames that wish to opt into the same relaxed security posture.

What should developers use instead?

window.postMessage() provides an explicit communication channel for cross-origin collaboration.

This isn't a perfect match for some use cases which require user activation to flow from one frame to another (consider a video player in a cross-origin <iframe>), but is the right general purpose mechanism to point developers towards. Delegation of capability that user activation enables might be possible in the future via a mechanism like the one described in mustaqahmed/capability-delegation.

Do we know anything useful about the ~0.4% usage noted above?

In the 2020-12-01 HTTP Archive corpus, we see 7038 unique pages (of 7,849,064: 0.09%) whose behavior was influenced by document.domain.

HTTP Archive Data

Raw data produced by the following query is available in CSV format at

  url, NET.REG_DOMAIN(url) as host
    SELECT * FROM httparchive.pages.2020_12_01_desktop
    SELECT * FROM httparchive.pages.2020_12_01_mobile
  # DocumentDomainEnabledCrossOriginAccess
  JSON_EXTRACT(payload, '$._blinkFeatureFirstUsed.Features.2544') IS NOT NULL
  # DocumentDomainBlockedCrossOriginAccess
  OR JSON_EXTRACT(payload, '$._blinkFeatureFirstUsed.Features.2543') IS NOT NULL
  host ASC

Skimming through the data, a few examples seem worth poking at:

  • Alibaba runs storefronts at * domains (i.e. that rely on document.domain to communicate with a messenger widget from 836 such pages show up in this run of the corpus. (e.g. has a similar setup with ~123 subdomains, as do (e.g. with 90 subdomains, (e.g. with 92 subdomains, and a few others ( => 77, => 77, => 71, and so on).

  • has ~110 subdomains that rely on document.domain to communicate login status with frames like

  • has 90 subdomains using a messaging widget

  • loads a media player from It doesn't look essential; the page continues to work after setting document.domain to something else in the console.

  • depends on it more directly, from a frame. It appears that it's doing viewport checks which IntersectionOberver might better address?

  • has a lazy-load script that seems to do viewport checks; IntersectionObserver or loading=lazy might be better fits.

Does disabling document.domain suffice to enable origin-level process isolation?

No. As noted above, document.domain is one (large!) blocker among several. This is one step along the road to enabling isolation by default. The origin-isolation explainer points to additional steps that will be essential to splitting sites into distinct agent clusters. Disabling document.domain is necessary, but not sufficient.

What about the document-domain Feature Policy?

Web developers are able to opt-out of document.domain usage today via the document-domain Feature Policy. Some recent changes to Permission/Feature Policy's inheritance rules make this difficult to use as a deprecation mechanism, however. Had Document Policy existed when we introduced the feature, it would have been a better option. As-is, we should likely remove that policy from Feature Policy and Permissions Policy in favor of the document-based mechanism we now have available.


`document.domain` intentionally weakens the only security boundary we have. Perhaps we can dump it?







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