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Form framework for BackboneJS with nested forms, editable lists and validation

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backbone-forms

A form framework for Backbone.JS applications.

The following default editors are included:

  • Text
  • Number
  • Password
  • TextArea
  • Checkbox
  • Checkboxes
  • Hidden
  • Select
  • Radio
  • Object
  • NestedModel

In addition there is a separate file with editors that depend on jQuery UI:

  • Date
  • DateTime
  • List (Editable and sortable. Can use any of the other editors for each item)

Installation

Requires BackboneJS and jQuery.

Include backbone-forms.js and backbone-forms.css:

<link href="backbone-forms/backbone-forms.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"/> 
<script src="backbone-forms/src/backbone-forms.js"></script>

Optionally, you can include the extra editors, for example those that require jQuery UI:

<script src="backbone-forms/src/jquery-ui-editors.js"></script>

If you use BackboneJS with node.js, you can just require('backbone-forms'); in your index file.

Usage

Example form

You can create something like the form above with the following steps:

Define a 'schema' attribute on your Backbone models. The schema keys should match the attributes that get set on the model. Note that type defaults to Text.

var User = Backbone.Model.extend({
    schema: {
        email:      { dataType: 'email', validators: ['required', validateEmail] },
        start:      { type: 'DateTime' },
        contact:    { type: 'Object', subSchema: {
                        name: {},
                        phone: {}
                    }}
        address:    { type: 'NestedModel', model: Address },
        notes:      { type: 'List' }
    }
});

Create the form in your Views:

var formView = Backbone.View.extend({
    render: function() {
        var form = new Backbone.Form({
            model: users.get(userId)
        }).render();

        $(this.el).append(form.el);

        return this;
    }
});

Once the user is done with the form, call commit() to apply the updated values to the model. If there are validation errors they will be returned:

var errors = form.commit();

To update a field after the form has been rendered, use setValue:

model.bind('change:name', function(model, name) {
    form.fields.name.setValue(name);
});

Usage without models

You can create a form without tying it to a model. For example, to create a form for a simple object of data:

var form = new Backbone.Form({
    data: { id: 123, name: 'Rod Kimble', password: 'cool beans' }, //Data to populate the form with
    schema: {
        id:         { type: 'Number' },
        name:       {},
        password:   { type: 'Password' }
    }
}).render();

Then instead of form.commit(), do:

var data = form.getValue(); //Returns object with new form values

Schema definition

Main attributes

For each field definition in the schema you can use the following optional attributes:

type

  • The editor to use in the field
  • Can be a string for any editor that has been added to Backbone.Form.editors, such as the built-in editors. E.g.: { type: 'TextArea' }
  • Or can be a constructor function, e.g. for a custom editor: { type: MyEditor }
  • If not defined, defaults to 'Text'

title

  • Defines the text that appears in a form field's <label>
  • If not defined, defaults to a formatted version of the camelCased field key. E.g. firstName becomes First Name. This behaviour can be changed by assigning your own function to Backbone.Form.helpers.keyToTitle.

validators

  • A list of validators, where each validator is one of the following:
    • A string. This should be the name of a function in Backbone.forms.validators. The only provided validator is "required", but you can add any other validators you use regularly here.
    • A regular expression. This should either be a compiled regular expression, or an object of the form {'RegExp': 'string-to-make-into-regex'}. The validator function generated will use RegExp.test on the value and return an error message if there is a problem.
    • A function. This function will be passed the value of the form, and should return a truth-y value if there is an error. This would normally be a string describing the error.

Editor-specific attributes

If the schema type is one of the following, some extra schema attributes are required:

Text

Creates a normal text input.

dataType

  • Changes the type="text" attribute. Used for HTML5 form inputs such as url, `tel, email. When viewing on a mobile device e.g. iOS, this will change the type of keyboard that is opened. For example, tel opens a numeric keypad.

Select

Creates and populates a <select> element.

options

  • Options to populate the <select>
  • Can be either:
    • String of HTML <option>`s
    • Array of strings/numbers
    • Array of objects in the form { val: 123, label: 'Text' }
    • A Backbone collection
    • A function that calls back with one of the above

Examples:

var schema = {
    country: { 'Select', options: new CountryCollection() }
};

var schema = {
    users: { 'Select', options: function(callback) {
        users = db.getUsers();

        callback(users);
    }}
}

Backbone collection notes

If using a Backbone collection as the option attribute, models in the collection must implement a toString() method. This populates the label of the <option>. The ID of the model populates the value attribute.

If there are no models in the collection, it will be fetch()ed.

Radio

Creates and populates a list of radio inputs. Behaves the same way and has the same options as a Select.

Checkboxes

Creates and populates a list of checkbox inputs. Behaves the same way and has the same options as a Select. To set defaults for this editor, use an array of values.

Object

The Object editor creates an embedded child form representing a Javascript object.

subSchema

  • A schema object which defines the field schema for each attribute in the object

Examples:

var schema = {
    address: { type: 'Object', subSchema: {
        street: {},
        zip: { type: 'Number' },
        country: { 'Select', options: countries }
    }}
};

NestedModel

Used to embed models within models. Similar to the Object editor, but adds validation of the child form (if it is defined on the model), and keeps your schema cleaner.

model

  • A reference to the constructor function for your nested model
  • The referenced model must have it's own schema attribute

Examples:

var schema = {
    address: { type: 'NestedModel', model: Address }
};

List

Creates a sortable and editable list of items, which can be any of the above schema types, e.g. Object, Number, Text etc. Currently requires jQuery UI for creating dialogs etc.

listType

  • Defines the editor that will be used for each item in the list.
  • Similar in use to the main 'type' schema attribute.
  • Defaults to 'Text'

itemToString

  • Optional, but recommended when using listType 'Object'
  • A function that returns a string representing how the object should be displayed in a list item.
  • When listType is 'NestedModel', the model's toString() method will be used, unless a specific itemToString() function is defined on the schema.

sortable

  • Optional. Set to false to disable drag and drop sorting

confirmDelete

  • Optional. Whether to prompt the user before removing an item. Defaults to false.

confirmDeleteMsg

  • Optional. Message to display to the user before deleting an item.

Examples:

var schema = {
    users: { type: 'List', listType: 'Object', itemToString: function(user) {
            return user.firstName + ' ' + user.lastName;
        }
    }
};

Events

The following events are fired when the user actions an item:

  • addItem
  • editItem
  • removeItem

Each event callback receives the relevant item value as an object, and a 'next' callback. To cancel the event and prevent the default action, do not run the callback.

This allows you to run asynchronous code, for example to check with the database that a username is available before adding a someone to the list:

var form = new Backbone.Form({ model: this.model }),
    list = form.fields.list.editor;

//Only add the item if the username is available
list.bind('addItem', function(item, next) {
    database.getUser(item.username, function(user) {
        if (user) {
            //Item will not be added to the list because we don't call next();
            alert('The username is already taken');
        }
        else {
            //Username available; add the item to the list:
            next();
        }
    });
});

Date

Creates a jQuery UI datepicker

DateTime

Creates a jQuery UI datepicker and time select field.

minsInterval

  • Optional. Controls the numbers in the minutes dropdown. Defaults to 15, so it is populated with 0, 15, 30, and 45 minutes;

Form options

model

The model to tie the form to. Calling form.commit() will update the model with new values.

data

If not using the model option, pass a native object through the data option. Then use form.getValue() to get the new values.

schema

The schema to use to create the form. Pass it in if you don't want to store the schema on the model, or to override the model schema.

fieldsets

An array of fieldsets descriptions. A fieldset is either a list of field names, or an object with legend and fields attributes. The legend will be inserted at the top of the fieldset inside a <legend> tag; the list of fields will be treated as fields is below.

fieldsets takes priority over fields.

fields

An array of field names (keys). Only the fields defined here will be added to the form. You can also use this to re-order the fields.

idPrefix

A string that will be prefixed to the form DOM element IDs. Useful if you will have multiple forms on the same page. E.g. idPrefix: 'user-' will result in IDs like 'user-name', 'user-email', etc.

Editors without forms

You can add editors by themselves, without being part of a form. For example:

var select = new Backbone.Form.editors.Select({
    model: user,
    key: 'country',
    options: getCountries()
}).render();

//When done, apply selection to model:
select.commit();

Custom Editors

Custom editors can be written. They must extend from Backbone.Form.editors.Base.

var CustomEditor = Backbone.Form.editors.Base.extend({

    tagName: 'input',

    initialize: function(options) {
        //Call parent constructor
        Backbone.Form.editors.Base.prototype.initialize.call(this, options);

        //Custom setup code.
        if (this.schema.customParam) this.doSomething();
    },

    render: function() {
        this.setValue(this.value);

        return this;
    },

    getValue: function() {
        return $(this.el).val();
    },

    setValue: function(value) {
        $(this.el).val(this.value);
    }

});

Notes:

  • The editor must implement a getValue() and setValue().
  • The original value is available through this.value.
  • The field schema can be accessed via this.schema. This allows you to pass in custom parameters.

Initial Data

If a form has a model attached to it, the initial values are taken from the model's defaults. Otherwise, you may pass default values using the schema.data.

Validation

Forms provide a validate method, which returns a dictionary of errors, or null. Validation is determined using the validators attribute on the schema (see above).

If you model provides a validate method, then this will be called when you call Form.validate. Forms are also validated when you call commit. See the Backbone documentation for more details on model validation.

Using nested attributes/fields

If you are using a schema with nested attributes (using the Object type), you may want to include only some of the nested fields in a form. This can be accomplished by using 'path' syntax as in the example below.

However, due to Backbone's lack of support for nested model attributes, getting and setting values will not work out of the box. For this to work as expected you must adapt your model's get() and set() methods to handle the path names, or simply use DeepModel which will handle paths for you automatically.

var Model = Backbone.DeepModel.extend({
    schema: {
        title: {},
        author: { type: 'Object', subSchema: {
            id: { type: 'Number' },
            name: { type: 'Object', subSchema: {
                first: {},
                last: {}
            }}
        }}
    }
});

var form = new Backbone.Form({
    model: new Model,
    fields: ['title', 'author.id', 'author.name.last']
}).render();

Known issues

  • List editor with listType NestedModel doesn't run validation
  • There may be CSS issues across browsers. You can customise your CSS by editing the backbone-forms.css file.

Help & discussion

Contributors

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