Hopfield networks in Go
Switch branches/tags
Nothing to show
Clone or download
Fetching latest commit…
Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time.
Failed to load latest commit information.



GoDoc License Travis CI Go Report Card codecov

This project provides an implementation of Hopfield network in Go. It implements both Hebbian and Storkey training algorithms. The goal is to provide a simple API to build Hopfield networks in Go.

Get started

Get the source code:

$ go get -u github.com/milosgajdos83/gopfield

Make sure you've got all the dependencies (go get -u should retrieve them, but this project might use a specific version of gonum so make sure you run the following command):

$ make dep

Run the tests:

$ make test


You can see an example program below. It first creates a Hopfield network pattern based on arbitrary data. The data is encoded into binary values of +1/-1 (see the documentation) using Encode function. It is then stored in the network and then restored.

package main

import (


func main() {
	pattern := hopfield.Encode([]float64{0.2, -12.4, 0.0, 3.4})
	// Create new Hopfield Network and set its size to the length of pattern
	n, err := hopfield.NewNetwork(pattern.Len(), "hebbian")
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "\nERROR: %s\n", err)
	fmt.Printf("Storing: \n%v\n\n", pattern)
	// store patterns in Hopfield network
	if err := n.Store([]*hopfield.Pattern{pattern}); err != nil {
		fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "\nERROR: %s\n", err)

	// restore image from Hopfield network
	res, err := n.Restore(pattern, "async", 10)
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "\nERROR: %s\n", err)
	fmt.Printf("Restored: \n%v\n", res)

If you run this program, you will see the pattern being reconstructed correctly:

$ go run main.go
⎡ 1⎤
⎣ 1⎦

⎡ 1⎤
⎣ 1⎦

You can find a more elaborate example in the examples directory of the project. There is a mnist example which tries to reconstruct a corrupted image loaded from the patterns subdirectory which contains two MNIST images: 0 and 4. These are stored in the Hopfield neural network. The mnist program then picks image 4 and adds some random noise to it. Finallys, it tries to reconstruct the original image from the network. See below how to use the example program:

First you need to build it:

$ make examples

If the build succeeds, you will find the built binary in _build directory of the project root. You can find out the cli options it provides:

$  _build/mnist -h

Example run:

$ _build/mnist -mode "async" -iters 1 -datadir ./examples/mnist/patterns/ -output out.png -training "storkey"

This will generate two files in directory: noisy.png and out.png.

noisy.png image displays the file that was attempted to be reconstructed from the network:

Corrupted image 4

out.png image shows the reconstucted image:

Reconstructed image 4