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Minetest World Format 22...29
This applies to a world format carrying the block serialization version
22...27, used at least in
- ... (22...23)
- 0.4.0 (23)
- 24 was never released as stable and existed for ~2 days
- 27 was added in 0.4.15-dev
- 29 was added in 5.5.0-dev
The block serialization version does not fully specify every aspect of this
format; if compliance with this format is to be checked, it needs to be
done by detecting if the files and data indeed follows it.
Everything is contained in a directory, the name of which is freeform, but
often serves as the name of the world.
Currently the authentication and ban data is stored on a per-world basis.
It can be copied over from an old world to a newly created world.
|-- auth.txt ----- Authentication data
|-- auth.sqlite -- Authentication data (SQLite alternative)
|-- env_meta.txt - Environment metadata
|-- ipban.txt ---- Banned ips/users
|-- map_meta.txt - Map metadata
|-- map.sqlite --- Map data
|-- players ------ Player directory
| |-- player1 -- Player file
| '-- Foo ------ Player file
`-- ----- World metadata
Contains authentication data, player per line.
<name>:<password hash>:<privilege1,...>
Legacy format (until 0.4.12) of password hash is <name><password> SHA1'd,
in the base64 encoding.
Format (since 0.4.13) of password hash is #1#<salt>#<verifier>, with the
parts inside <> encoded in the base64 encoding.
<verifier> is an RFC 2945 compatible SRP verifier,
of the given salt, password, and the player's name lowercased,
using the 2048-bit group specified in RFC 5054 and the SHA-256 hash function.
Example lines:
- Player "celeron55", no password, privileges "interact" and "shout":
- Player "Foo", password "bar", privilege "shout", with a legacy password hash:
- Player "Foo", password "bar", privilege "shout", with a 0.4.13 pw hash:
- Player "bar", no password, no privileges:
Contains authentification data as an SQLite database. This replaces auth.txt
above when auth_backend is set to "sqlite3" in .
This database contains two tables "auth" and "user_privileges":
`name` VARCHAR(32) UNIQUE,
`password` VARCHAR(512),
`last_login` INTEGER
CREATE TABLE `user_privileges` (
`privilege` VARCHAR(32),
PRIMARY KEY (id, privilege)
The "name" and "password" fields of the auth table are the same as the auth.txt
fields (with modern password hash). The "last_login" field is the last login
time as a unix time stamp.
The "user_privileges" table contains one entry per privilege and player.
A player with "interact" and "shout" privileges will have two entries, one
with privilege="interact" and the second with privilege="shout".
Simple global environment variables.
Example content (added indentation):
game_time = 73471
time_of_day = 19118
Banned IP addresses and usernames.
Example content (added indentation):
Simple global map variables.
Example content (added indentation):
seed = 7980462765762429666
Map data.
See Map File Format below.
player1, Foo
Player data.
Filename can be anything.
See Player File Format below.
World metadata.
Example content (added indentation and - explanations):
gameid = mesetint - name of the game
enable_damage = true - whether damage is enabled or not
creative_mode = false - whether creative mode is enabled or not
backend = sqlite3 - which DB backend to use for blocks (sqlite3, dummy, leveldb, redis, postgresql)
player_backend = sqlite3 - which DB backend to use for player data
readonly_backend = sqlite3 - optionally readonly seed DB (DB file _must_ be located in "readonly" subfolder)
auth_backend = files - which DB backend to use for authentication data
mod_storage_backend = sqlite3 - which DB backend to use for mod storage
server_announce = false - whether the server is publicly announced or not
load_mod_<mod> = false - whether <mod> is to be loaded in this world
For load_mod_<mod>, the possible values are:
* `false` - Do not load the mod.
* `true` - Load the mod from wherever it is found (may cause conflicts if the same mod appears also in some other place).
* `mods/modpack/moddir` - Relative path to the mod
* Must be one of the following:
* `mods/`: mods in the user path's mods folder (ex `/home/user/.minetest/mods`)
* `share/`: mods in the share's mods folder (ex: `/usr/share/minetest/mods`)
* `/path/to/env`: you can use absolute paths to mods inside folders specified with the `MINETEST_MOD_PATH` env variable.
* Other locations and absolute paths are not supported
* Note that `moddir` is the directory name, not the mod name specified in mod.conf.
PostgreSQL backend specific settings:
pgsql_connection = host= port=5432 user=mt_user password=mt_password dbname=minetest
pgsql_player_connection = (same parameters as above)
pgsql_readonly_connection = (same parameters as above)
pgsql_auth_connection = (same parameters as above)
pgsql_mod_storage_connection = (same parameters as above)
Redis backend specific settings:
redis_address = - Redis server address
redis_hash = foo - Database hash
redis_port = 6379 - (optional) connection port
redis_password = hunter2 - (optional) server password
Player File Format
- Should be pretty self-explanatory.
- Note: position is in nodes * 10
Example content (added indentation):
hp = 11
name = celeron55
pitch = 39.77
position = (-5231.97,15,1961.41)
version = 1
yaw = 101.37
List main 32
Item default:torch 13
Item default:pick_steel 1 50112
Item experimental:tnt
Item default:cobble 99
Item default:pick_stone 1 13104
Item default:shovel_steel 1 51838
Item default:dirt 61
Item default:rail 78
Item default:coal_lump 3
Item default:cobble 99
Item default:leaves 22
Item default:gravel 52
Item default:axe_steel 1 2045
Item default:cobble 98
Item default:sand 61
Item default:water_source 94
Item default:glass 2
Item default:mossycobble
Item default:pick_steel 1 64428
Item animalmaterials:bone
Item default:sword_steel
Item default:sapling
Item default:sword_stone 1 10647
Item default:dirt 99
List craft 9
List craftpreview 1
List craftresult 1
Map File Format
Minetest maps consist of MapBlocks, chunks of 16x16x16 nodes.
In addition to the bulk node data, MapBlocks stored on disk also contain
other things.
We need a bit of history in here. Initially Minetest stored maps in a
format called the "sectors" format. It was a directory/file structure like
For example, the MapBlock at (0,1,-2) was this file:
Eventually Minetest outgrow this directory structure, as filesystems were
struggling under the amount of files and directories.
Large servers seriously needed a new format, and thus the base of the
current format was invented, suggested by celeron55 and implemented by
SQLite3 was slammed in, and blocks files were directly inserted as blobs
in a single table, indexed by integer primary keys, oddly mangled from
Today we know that SQLite3 allows multiple primary keys (which would allow
storing coordinates separately), but the format has been kept unchanged for
that part. So, this is where it has come.
So here goes
map.sqlite is an sqlite3 database, containing a single table, called
"blocks". It looks like this:
The key
"pos" is created from the three coordinates of a MapBlock using this
algorithm, defined here in Python:
def getBlockAsInteger(p):
return int64(p[2]*16777216 + p[1]*4096 + p[0])
def int64(u):
while u >= 2**63:
u -= 2**64
while u <= -2**63:
u += 2**64
return u
It can be converted the other way by using this code:
def getIntegerAsBlock(i):
x = unsignedToSigned(i % 4096, 2048)
i = int((i - x) / 4096)
y = unsignedToSigned(i % 4096, 2048)
i = int((i - y) / 4096)
z = unsignedToSigned(i % 4096, 2048)
return x,y,z
def unsignedToSigned(i, max_positive):
if i < max_positive:
return i
return i - 2*max_positive
The blob
The blob is the data that would have otherwise gone into the file.
See below for description.
MapBlock serialization format
NOTE: Byte order is MSB first (big-endian).
NOTE: Zlib data is in such a format that Python's zlib at least can
directly decompress.
NOTE: Since version 29 zstd is used instead of zlib. In addition the entire
block is first serialized and then compressed (except the version byte).
u8 version
- map format version number, see serialization.h for the latest number
u8 flags
- Flag bitmasks:
- 0x01: is_underground: Should be set to 0 if there will be no light
obstructions above the block. If/when sunlight of a block is updated
and there is no block above it, this value is checked for determining
whether sunlight comes from the top.
- 0x02: day_night_differs: Whether the lighting of the block is different
on day and night. Only blocks that have this bit set are updated when
day transforms to night.
- 0x04: lighting_expired: Not used in version 27 and above. If true,
lighting is invalid and should be updated. If you can't calculate
lighting in your generator properly, you could try setting this 1 to
everything and setting the uppermost block in every sector as
is_underground=0. I am quite sure it doesn't work properly, though.
- 0x08: generated: True if the block has been generated. If false, block
is mostly filled with CONTENT_IGNORE and is likely to contain eg. parts
of trees of neighboring blocks.
u16 lighting_complete
- Added in version 27.
- This contains 12 flags, each of them corresponds to a direction.
- Indicates if the light is correct at the sides of a map block.
Lighting may not be correct if the light changed, but a neighbor
block was not loaded at that time.
If these flags are false, Minetest will automatically recompute light
when both this block and its required neighbor are loaded.
- The bit order is:
nothing, nothing, nothing, nothing,
night X-, night Y-, night Z-, night Z+, night Y+, night X+,
day X-, day Y-, day Z-, day Z+, day Y+, day X+.
Where 'day' is for the day light bank, 'night' is for the night
light bank.
The 'nothing' bits should be always set, as they will be used
to indicate if direct sunlight spreading is finished.
- Example: if the block at (0, 0, 0) has
lighting_complete = 0b1111111111111110,
then Minetest will correct lighting in the day light bank when
the block at (1, 0, 0) is also loaded.
if map format version >= 29:
u32 timestamp
- Timestamp when last saved, as seconds from starting the game.
- 0xffffffff = invalid/unknown timestamp, nothing should be done with the time
difference when loaded
u8 name_id_mapping_version
- Should be zero for map format version 29.
u16 num_name_id_mappings
foreach num_name_id_mappings
u16 id
u16 name_len
u8[name_len] name
if map format version < 29:
-- Nothing right here, timestamp and node id mappings are serialized later
u8 content_width
- Number of bytes in the content (param0) fields of nodes
if map format version <= 23:
- Always 1
if map format version >= 24:
- Always 2
u8 params_width
- Number of bytes used for parameters per node
- Always 2
node data (zlib-compressed if version < 29):
if content_width == 1:
- content:
u8[4096]: param0 fields
u8[4096]: param1 fields
u8[4096]: param2 fields
if content_width == 2:
- content:
u16[4096]: param0 fields
u8[4096]: param1 fields
u8[4096]: param2 fields
- The location of a node in each of those arrays is (z*16*16 + y*16 + x).
node metadata list (zlib-compressed if version < 29):
- content:
if map format version <= 22:
u16 version (=1)
u16 count of metadata
foreach count:
u16 type_id
u16 content_size
u8[content_size] content of metadata. Format depends on type_id, see below.
if map format version >= 23:
u8 version -- Note: type was u16 for map format version <= 22
-- = 1 for map format version < 28
-- = 2 since map format version 28
u16 count of metadata
foreach count:
u32 num_vars
foreach num_vars:
u16 key_len
u8[key_len] key
u32 val_len
u8[val_len] value
u8 is_private -- only for version >= 2. 0 = not private, 1 = private
serialized inventory
- Node timers
if map format version == 23:
u8 unused version (always 0)
if map format version == 24: (NOTE: Not released as stable)
u8 nodetimer_version
if nodetimer_version == 0:
(nothing else)
if nodetimer_version == 1:
u16 num_of_timers
foreach num_of_timers:
u16 timer position (z*16*16 + y*16 + x)
s32 timeout*1000
s32 elapsed*1000
if map format version >= 25:
-- Nothing right here, node timers are serialized later
u8 static object version:
- Always 0
u16 static_object_count
foreach static_object_count:
u8 type (object type-id)
s32 pos_x_nodes * 10000
s32 pos_y_nodes * 10000
s32 pos_z_nodes * 10000
u16 data_size
u8[data_size] data
if map format version < 29:
u32 timestamp
- Same meaning as the timestamp further up
u8 name-id-mapping version
- Always 0
u16 num_name_id_mappings
foreach num_name_id_mappings
u16 id
u16 name_len
u8[name_len] name
- Node timers
if map format version >= 25:
u8 length of the data of a single timer (always 2+4+4=10)
u16 num_of_timers
foreach num_of_timers:
u16 timer position (z*16*16 + y*16 + x)
s32 timeout*1000
s32 elapsed*1000
Format of nodes
A node is composed of the u8 fields param0, param1 and param2.
if map format version <= 23:
The content id of a node is determined as so:
- If param0 < 0x80,
content_id = param0
- Otherwise
content_id = (param0<<4) + (param2>>4)
if map format version >= 24:
The content id of a node is param0.
The purpose of param1 and param2 depend on the definition of the node.
The name-id-mapping
The mapping maps node content ids to node names.
Node metadata format for map format versions <= 22
The node metadata are serialized depending on the type_id field.
1: Generic metadata
serialized inventory
u32 len
u8[len] text
u16 len
u8[len] owner
u16 len
u8[len] infotext
u16 len
u8[len] inventory drawspec
u8 allow_text_input (bool)
u8 removal_disabled (bool)
u8 enforce_owner (bool)
u32 num_vars
foreach num_vars
u16 len
u8[len] name
u32 len
u8[len] value
14: Sign metadata
u16 text_len
u8[text_len] text
15: Chest metadata
serialized inventory
16: Furnace metadata
17: Locked Chest metadata
u16 len
u8[len] owner
serialized inventory
Static objects
Static objects are persistent freely moving objects in the world.
Object types:
1: Test object
7: LuaEntity
7: LuaEntity:
u8 compatibility_byte (always 1)
u16 len
u8[len] entity name
u32 len
u8[len] static data
s16 hp
s32 velocity.x * 10000
s32 velocity.y * 10000
s32 velocity.z * 10000
s32 yaw * 1000
u8 version2 (=1)
s32 pitch * 1000
s32 roll * 1000
Itemstring format
eg. 'default:dirt 5'
eg. 'default:pick_wood 21323'
eg. '"default:apple" 2'
eg. 'default:apple'
- The wear value in tools is 0...65535
- There are also a number of older formats that you might stumble upon:
eg. 'node "default:dirt" 5'
eg. 'NodeItem default:dirt 5'
eg. 'ToolItem WPick 21323'
Inventory serialization format
- The inventory serialization format is line-based
- The newline character used is "\n"
- The end condition of a serialized inventory is always "EndInventory\n"
- All the slots in a list must always be serialized.
Example (format does not include "---"):
List foo 4
Item default:sapling
Item default:sword_stone 1 10647
Item default:dirt 99
List bar 9