Skip to content


Switch branches/tags

Name already in use

A tag already exists with the provided branch name. Many Git commands accept both tag and branch names, so creating this branch may cause unexpected behavior. Are you sure you want to create this branch?

Latest commit


Git stats


Failed to load latest commit information.
Latest commit message
Commit time


This repository is a collection of tutorial code referred to from the Mirage website, example code for using specific devices like filesystems and networks, and higher-level applications like DHCP, DNS, and Web servers.

  • tutorial/ contains the tutorial content.
  • device-usage/ contains examples showing specific devices.
  • applications/ contains the higher-level examples, which may use several different devices.


  • Install latest OPAM (at least 2.0.0), following instructions at

  • Install the mirage package with OPAM, updating your package first if necessary:

    $ opam update -u
    $ opam install mirage
    $ eval `opam config env`
  • Please ensure that your Mirage command-line version is at least 3.7.0 before proceeding:
    $ mirage --version

Trivial example

You can check that your build environment is working and get a feel for the normal workflow by trying to compile the noop application.

    $ cd tutorials/noop
    $ mirage configure -t unix # initial setup for UNIX backend
    $ make depend # install dependencies
    $ make # build the program
    $ ./noop # run the program

Note that in the general case, you may need to specify more options at the mirage configure stage. You can find out about them with mirage configure --help. For example, you may need to specify what networking method should be used, with, e.g., --net socket or --net direct at the mirage configure stage.

Configure, Build, Run

Each unikernel lives in its own directory, and can be configured, built, and run from that location. For example:

    $ cd applications/static_website_tls
    $ mirage configure -t unix # initial setup for UNIX backend
    $ make depend # install dependencies
    $ make # build the program
    $ ./https # run the program

If you want to clean up mirage's artifacts after building, mirage clean will do the trick:

    $ cd applications/static_website_tls
    $ mirage clean

There is also a top-level Makefile at the root of this repository with convenience functions for configuring, building, and running all of the examples in one step.

    $ make all                   ## equivalent to ...
    $ make configure build
    $ make clean


The Makefile simply invokes sample-specific sample/Makefile. Each of those invokes the mirage command-line tool to configure, build and run the sample, passing flags and environment as directed. The mirage command-line tool assumes that the OPAM package manager is present and is used to manage installation of an OCaml dependencies.

The mirage command-line tool supports four commands, each of which either uses in the current directory or supports passing a directly.

To configure a unikernel before building:

    $ mirage configure -t [hvt|virtio|qubes|macosx|unix|xen|genode|muen|spt]

The boot target is selected via the -t flag. The default target is unix. Depending on what devices are present in, there may be additional configuration options for the unikernel. To list the options,

Note: the option hvt needs mirage ≥ 3.2.0 - which you can get via opam 2

    $ mirage help configure

and see the section labeled UNIKERNEL PARAMETERS.

To install dependencies

After running mirage configure:

    $ make depend

to install the list of dependencies discovered in the mirage configure phase.

To build a unikernel:

    $ make

The output will be created next to the file used.

To run a unikernel:

The mechanics of running the generated artifact will be dependent on the backend used. For details, see solo5's readme for hvt, virtio, etc., the qubes-test-mirage repository's readme for Qubes, or the MirageOS website instructions on booting Xen unikernels.

For the Macosx and Unix backends, running as a normal process should suffice.

For summaries by backend that assume the hello example, see below:


    $ cd hello
    $ mirage configure -t unix
    $ make depend
    $ make
    $ ./hello


    $ cd hello
    $ mirage configure -t xen
    $ make depend
    $ make
    $ sudo xl create xen.xl -c


    $ cd hello
    $ mirage configure -t hvt
    $ make depend
    $ make
    $ solo5-hvt hello.hvt


    $ cd hello
    $ mirage configure -t virtio
    $ make depend
    $ make
    $ solo5-virtio-run ./https.virtio


    $ cd hello
    $ mirage configure -t macosx
    $ make depend
    $ make
    $ ./hello


Some specific setup in the QubesOS manager is necessary to be able to easily run MirageOS unikernels -- please see the qubes-test-mirage readme for details.

    $ cd hello
    $ mirage configure -t qubes
    $ make depend
    $ make
    $ ~/test-unikernel hello.xen unikernel-test-vm

To clean up after building a unikernel:

    $ make clean