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Python library for implementing GraphQL servers using schema-first approach.


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Ariadne is a Python library for implementing GraphQL servers.

  • Schema-first: Ariadne enables Python developers to use schema-first approach to the API implementation. This is the leading approach used by the GraphQL community and supported by dozens of frontend and backend developer tools, examples, and learning resources. Ariadne makes all of this immediately available to you and other members of your team.
  • Simple: Ariadne offers small, consistent and easy to memorize API that lets developers focus on business problems, not the boilerplate.
  • Open: Ariadne was designed to be modular and open for customization. If you are missing or unhappy with something, extend or easily swap with your own.

Documentation is available here.


  • Simple, quick to learn and easy to memorize API.
  • Compatibility with GraphQL.js version 15.5.1.
  • Queries, mutations and input types.
  • Asynchronous resolvers and query execution.
  • Subscriptions.
  • Custom scalars, enums and schema directives.
  • Unions and interfaces.
  • File uploads.
  • Defining schema using SDL strings.
  • Loading schema from .graphql, .gql, and .graphqls files.
  • WSGI middleware for implementing GraphQL in existing sites.
  • Apollo Tracing and OpenTracing extensions for API monitoring.
  • Opt-in automatic resolvers mapping between camelCase and snake_case, and a @convert_kwargs_to_snake_case function decorator for converting camelCase kwargs to snake_case.
  • Built-in simple synchronous dev server for quick GraphQL experimentation and GraphQL Playground.
  • Support for Apollo GraphQL extension for Visual Studio Code.
  • GraphQL syntax validation via gql() helper function. Also provides colorization if Apollo GraphQL extension is installed.
  • No global state or object registry, support for multiple GraphQL APIs in same codebase with explicit type reuse.
  • Support for Apollo Federation.


Ariadne can be installed with pip:

pip install ariadne

Ariadne requires Python 3.7 or higher.


The following example creates an API defining Person type and single query field people returning a list of two persons. It also starts a local dev server with GraphQL Playground available on the address.

Start by installing uvicorn, an ASGI server we will use to serve the API:

pip install uvicorn

Then create an file for your example application:

from ariadne import ObjectType, QueryType, gql, make_executable_schema
from ariadne.asgi import GraphQL

# Define types using Schema Definition Language (
# Wrapping string in gql function provides validation and better error traceback
type_defs = gql("""
    type Query {
        people: [Person!]!

    type Person {
        firstName: String
        lastName: String
        age: Int
        fullName: String

# Map resolver functions to Query fields using QueryType
query = QueryType()

# Resolvers are simple python functions
def resolve_people(*_):
    return [
        {"firstName": "John", "lastName": "Doe", "age": 21},
        {"firstName": "Bob", "lastName": "Boberson", "age": 24},

# Map resolver functions to custom type fields using ObjectType
person = ObjectType("Person")

def resolve_person_fullname(person, *_):
    return "%s %s" % (person["firstName"], person["lastName"])

# Create executable GraphQL schema
schema = make_executable_schema(type_defs, query, person)

# Create an ASGI app using the schema, running in debug mode
app = GraphQL(schema, debug=True)

Finally run the server:

uvicorn example:app

For more guides and examples, please see the documentation.


We are welcoming contributions to Ariadne! If you've found a bug or issue, feel free to use GitHub issues. If you have any questions or feedback, don't hesitate to catch us on GitHub discussions.

For guidance and instructions, please see

Website and the docs have their own GitHub repository: mirumee/ariadne-website

Also make sure you follow @AriadneGraphQL on Twitter for latest updates, news and random musings!

Crafted with ❤️ by Mirumee Software