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Utilities for using plain JavaScript dicts and lists as immutable data structures, with structural equality and memory-efficient updates using structural sharing.

JS and JSON have half-decent generic data structures, barring a few flaws:

  1. Updates always mutate in-place.
  2. No value equality, only reference equality.
  3. Only strings and symbols as dict keys.
  4. No sets, or no custom equality for ES2015 sets.
  5. No ordered dicts.
  6. Poor algorithmic complexity on list shift/unshift/splice.

Emerge addresses (1) and (2). It provides functions to "update" dicts and lists by creating new versions that share as much structure as possible with old versions. This is known as #structural sharing. It conserves memory and allows to use identity (#is) on sibling values as a fast substitute for "proper" value equality (#equal), which Emerge also provides.

Inspired by Clojure's ideas and the clojure.core data utils.

FP-friendly: only plain JS dicts and lists, no classes, no OO, bring your own data. Faster than all alternatives that I measured. Very lightweight (≈8 KiB un-minified), dependency-free. Written as one file with simple ES2015 exports. A good module bundler and minifier should drop out any functions you don't use.

Compatible with native JS modules.



Why not ImmutableJS or something similar?

  1. Plain data. Emerge uses plain dicts and lists.
  • Uniform interface to data: read at path, set at path, merge. Just a few functions that work on all structures.
  • Easy to explore in a REPL.
  • No need for interop calls.
  • Complete compatibility with JSON.
  1. Size. At the time of writing, ImmutableJS is ≈ 57 KiB minified, unacceptable. Emerge is just a handful of KiB minified.

  2. Performance. Emerge is probably about as efficient as this kind of stuff gets.

Why not SeamlessImmutable?

SI is a popular library for merging and patching dicts and lists. Like Emerge, it sticks with plain JS data structures, and provides similar functions to Emerge.

At the time of writing, Emerge is way faster, more memory-efficient, and smaller than SI.


Node / Webpack

npm i -E emerge

Example usage:

import * as e from 'emerge'

e.put({one: 10}, 'two', 20)
// {one: 10, two: 20}

e.patch({one: 10}, {two: 20})
// {one: 10, two: 20}

e.remove({one: 10, two: 20}, 'two')
// {one: 10}

/* Structural sharing */

const prev = {one: [10], two: [20]}

// Patched version, keeping as much old structure as possible,
// even in the face of redundant overrides
const next = e.patch(prev, {one: [10], two: 20})
// {one: [10], two: 20}

// Unchanged values retain their references ===  // true

Native Browser Modules

Emerge can be used as a native JS module in a browser:

import * as e from './node_modules/emerge/emerge.mjs'

Can use a CDN:

import * as e from ''


All examples on this page imply an import:

import * as e from 'emerge'

put(prev, key, value)

Similar to clojure.core/assoc.

Returns a data structure with value set at the given key. Works on dicts and lists. Also accepts null and undefined, treating them as {}. Rejects other operands.

Uses #structural sharing, may return the original input.

/* Dicts */

e.put({}, 'one', 10)
// {one: 10}

e.put({one: 10}, 'two', 20)
// {one: 10, two: 20}

/* Lists */

e.put([], 0, 'one')
// ['one']

e.put(['one'], 10, 'two')
// ['one', 'two']

/* Structural sharing */

const prev = {one: [10], two: [20]}

e.put(prev, 'two', [20]) === prev
e.put(prev, 'two', 20).one ===

When putting into a list, the key must be an integer index within bounds, otherwise this produces an exception.

putIn(prev, path, value)

Similar to clojure.core/assoc-in. Like #put, but updates at a nested path rather than one key. Uses #structural sharing, may return the original input.

When path is []:

  • If prev is a primitive, returns value as-is, even if value is not a data structure.
  • If prev is a structure, performs a put-style deduplication, updating prev with the contents of value while preserving as many references as possible.

Otherwise, uses exactly the same rules as put:

  • Works for nested dicts and lists.
  • Creates nested dicts as needed.
  • Accepts null and undefined, treating them as {}.
  • When called with a non-empty path, rejects inputs other than null, undefined, a list, or a dict.
/* Dicts */

e.putIn({}, ['one'], 10)
// {one: 10}

e.putIn({one: 10}, ['one', 'two'], 20)
// {one: {two: 20}}

e.putIn(undefined, ['one'], 10)
// {one: 10}

/* Lists */

e.putIn([], [0], 'one')
// ['one']

e.putIn(['one', 'two'], [10], 'three')
// ['one', 'three']

/* Mixed */

e.putIn({one: [{two: 20}]}, ['one', 0, 'three'], 30)
// {one: [{two: 20, three: 30}]}

/* Structural sharing */

const prev = {one: [10], two: [20]}

e.putIn(prev, [], {one: [10], two: [20]}) === prev
e.putIn(prev, ['one'], [10]) === prev
e.putIn(prev, ['two'], 20).one ===

putBy(prev, key, fun, ...args)

where fun: ƒ(prevValue, ...args)

Similar to #put, but takes a function and calls it with the previous value at the given key, passing the additional arguments, to produce the new value. Can be combined with other Emerge functions like #patch for great effect.

Uses #structural sharing, may return the original input.

e.putBy({one: {two: 20}}, 'one', e.patch, {three: 30})
// {one: {two: 20, three: 30}}

putInBy(prev, path, fun, ...args)

where fun: ƒ(prevValue, ...args)

Similar to #putIn and #putBy. Takes a function and calls it with the previous value at the given path, passing the additional arguments, to produce the new value. Can be combined with other Emerge functions like #patch for great effect. See putIn for the rules and examples.

Uses #structural sharing, may return the original input.

e.putInBy({one: {two: {three: 30}}}, ['one', 'two'], e.patch, {four: 4})
// {one: {two: {three: 30, four: 4}}}


Takes any number of dicts and combines their properties. Ignores null and undefined inputs. Always produces a dict. Rejects other non-dict inputs.

Uses #structural sharing, may return the original input.

// {}

e.patch({one: 10}, {two: 20}, {three: 30})
// {one: 10, two: 20, three: 30}

// Ignores null and undefined operands
e.patch({one: 10}, undefined)
// {one: 10}

// Combines only at the top level
e.patch({one: {two: 20}}, {one: {three: 30}})
// {one: {three: 30}}

/* Structural sharing */

const prev = {one: [10], two: [20]}

e.patch(prev) === prev
e.patch(prev, {}) === prev
e.patch(prev, {one: [10]}) === prev
e.patch(prev, {one: [10], two: [20]}) === prev
e.patch(prev, {two: 200}).one ===


Same as #patch, but combines dicts at any depth:

Uses #structural sharing, may return the original input.

e.merge({one: {two: 20}}, {one: {three: 30}})
// {one: {two: 20, three: 30}}

insert(list, index, value)

Returns a version of list with value inserted at the given index. Index must be a natural number within the list's bounds + 1, which allows to insert or append elements. Going outside these bounds or providing an invalid index produces an exception.

Accepts null and undefined, treating them as []. Rejects other operands.

Uses #structural sharing, but never returns the original input because it always adds a new element. To update an existing element, use #put.

e.insert(undefined, 0, 'one')
// ['one']

e.insert([], 0, 'one')
// ['one']

e.insert(['one'], 1, 'two')
// ['one', 'two']

e.insert(['one', 'two'], 0, 'three')
// ['three', 'one', 'two']

remove(value, key)

Returns a version of value with the element at key removed. Works on dicts and lists. Accepts null and undefined, treating them as {}. Rejects other operands.

When value is a list, key must be an integer. Non-natural numbers such as 1.1 or -1 are ok and are simply ignored without removing an element.

Uses #structural sharing, may return the original input.

/* Dicts */

e.remove({one: 10, two: 20}, 'two')
// {one: 10}

e.remove({one: 10, two: 20}, 'three')
// {one: 10, two: 20}

/* Lists */

e.remove(['one', 'two', 'three'], 0)
// ['two', 'three']

e.remove(['one', 'two', 'three'], 1)
// ['one', 'three']

e.remove(['one', 'two', 'three'], -1)
// ['one', 'two', 'three']

/* Structural sharing */

const prev = {one: [10], two: [20]}

e.remove(prev, 'three') === prev

removeIn(value, path)

Like #remove, but removes at a nested path rather than one key.

When path is [], returns undefined. Accepts null and undefined, treating them as {}. Rejects other operands.

Uses #structural sharing, may return the original input.

/* Dicts */

e.removeIn({one: 10, two: 20}, [])
// undefined

e.removeIn({one: 10, two: 20}, ['two'])
// {one: 10}

e.removeIn({one: 10, two: 20}, ['three'])
// {one: 10, two: 20}

/* Lists */

e.removeIn(['one', 'two', 'three'], [])
// undefined

e.removeIn(['one', 'two', 'three'], [0])
// ['two', 'three']

e.removeIn(['one', 'two', 'three'], [1])
// ['one', 'three']

e.removeIn(['one', 'two', 'three'], [-1])
// ['one', 'two', 'three']

/* Mixed */

e.removeIn({one: [10], two: [20]}, ['two', 0])
// {one: [10], two: []}

/* Structural sharing */

const prev = {one: [10], two: [20]}

e.removeIn(prev, ['three']) === prev

is(one, other)

SameValueZero as defined by the language spec. Same as ===, but considers NaN equal to NaN.

Note that implements SameValue, which treats -0 and +0 as distinct values. This is typically undesirable.

is should be preferred over === or Used internally in Emerge for all identity tests., NaN)  // true,  10)   // true,  '10') // false

equal(one, other)

True if the inputs are equal by value rather than by identity. Ignores prototypes and non-enumerable properties.

Edge case #gotcha: ignores symbol keys.

const prev = {one: NaN, two: [20]}
const next = {one: NaN, two: [20]}

e.equal(prev, next)  // true

equalBy(one, other, fun)

where fun: ƒ(oneValue, otherValue)

Customisable equality. Uses fun to compare properties of lists and dicts, and is to compare other values. Not recursive by itself, but fun may invoke equalBy to implement a recursive algorithm.

Edge case #gotcha: ignores symbol keys.

// Shallow equality
e.equalBy({one: 10},   {one: 10}, // true
e.equalBy({list: []}, {list: []}, // false

// Deep equality: `e.equal` is just a recursive `e.equalBy`
function equal(one, other) {
  return e.equalBy(one, other, e.equal)

// Add support for arbitrary types
function myEqual(one, other) {
  return isDate(one)
    ? isDate(other) && one.valueOf() === other.valueOf()
    : e.equalBy(one, other, myEqual)

function isDate(value) {
  return value instanceof Date

get(value, key)

Reads property key on value. Unlike dot or bracket notation, safe to use on null or undefined values.

e.get(null, 'one')
// undefined

e.get({one: 10}, 'one')
// 10

getIn(value, path)

Like get, but takes a list of keys and reads a nested property at that path. If unreachable, returns undefined.

e.getIn({one: {two: 20}}, ['one', 'two'])
// 20

scan(value, ...path)

Like getIn, but the path is formed by multiple arguments after the first.

e.scan({one: {two: 20}}, 'one', 'two')
// 20

Merge Semantics

When creating new structures, Emerge follows a few special rules:

  • Passing null and undefined as the first operand to "update" functions is the same as passing {}.
  • Non-values (see below) are treated atomically: included or replaced wholesale.
  • Uses structural sharing (see below).

Emerge differentiates between values (data) and references (non-data). The following types are considered values:

  • Primitives (null, undefined, numbers, strings, booleans, symbols).
  • Lists ([] or new Array).
  • Plain dicts ({}, new Object, Object.create(null)).

The rest are considered references:

  • Functions.
  • Non-plain objects (new class {}, Object.create({})).

References are considered outside the scope of Emerge, and treated atomically. Emerge includes and replaces them wholesale. This lets you use Emerge for data structures with non-data mixed in.

Emerge doesn't use Object.freeze. If you're consciously treating your data as immutable, you don't need this straight jacket. Object.freeze requires the library to choose between inconvenience ("mutating" the incoming data by freezing it), an inconsistent API (sometimes returning the mutable input), or a massive performance penalty by always copying any mutable input. Emerge rejects the false trilemma, choosing simplicity, performance, and freedom. As a nice side effect, data structures produced by Emerge are 100% vanilla and can be passed to any 3d party API, even one that mutates its inputs.

Structural Sharing

The concept is also known as "persistent data structures".

When creating data structures, Emerge attempts to preserve as many unmodified references as possible, even returning the original if the result would be #equal. This conserves memory and makes subsequent equality tests much cheaper.

Beware of the difference between a missing property, null, and undefined. The following structures would be considered different by Emerge:

  • {}
  • {value: null}
  • {value: undefined}

To minimize gotchas, I recommend avoiding null in your code.


#equal and #equalBy ignore symbol keys in dicts. Dicts with different sets of symbol keys may be considered equal:

e.equal({}, {[Symbol.for('one')]})
// true

Because equality is used to determine whether to replace or keep old references, Emerge currently doesn't allow symbol keys in "update" functions, rejecting them with an exception. This helps to minimize gotchas.


Versions >= 0.5.0 require ES2015+. Versions <= 0.5.0 work in ES5 (IE9+).



Added missing "type": "module" to package.json.

Reduced unminified size from ≈10.4 to ≈8.3 KiB (moved implementation notes to another file, shortened some function names).


Breaking changes: explicit property removal, only ES2015.

Major changes:

  • Setting properties to null or undefined no longer removes them. Call remove or removeIn to explicitly remove a property.
  • Renamed insertAtIndexinsert.
  • Renamed removeAtIndexremove, now supports dicts.
  • Added removeIn.
  • Only ES2015 source code.

Minor changes:

  • Stricter key validation: reject keys that aren't strings or numbers to minimize gotchas. Symbol keys are rejected because Emerge's equality tests completely ignore them; allowing them in updates could have lead to gotchas.
  • Relicensed under the Unlicense:

Warning: Emerge no longer provides ES5 code. If you wish to use newer versions with older browsers (IE9 and its ilk), you may have to configure your build system to transpile Emerge, alongside your application's code.


Breaking change: stricter input validation.

  • patch and merge now accept only null, undefined, and dicts.

  • In other update functions, the first argument must be null, undefined, a list, or a dict.

  • Other inputs are rejected with an exception.

In earlier versions, the following code "worked":

e.patch('not dict', {key: 'value'})
// {key: 'value'}

e.patch(['not dict'], {key: 'value'})
// {key: 'value'}

Starting with 0.4.0, it fails loudly rather than silently:

e.patch('not dict', {key: 'value'})
// Error: Expected "not dict" to satisfy test isDict

e.patch(['not dict'], {key: 'value'})
// Error: Expected ["not dict"] to satisfy test isDict

This should help catch silly errors, and should not affect well-written code.


Lists now must be arrays. Other types of lists, such as arguments and DOM lists, don't count.

  • getIn, putIn, and putInBy require the path to be an array
  • arguments is considered a plain dict
  • other non-array lists, such as DOM lists, are considered non-data

This simplifies the code. Whether it simplifies the mental assumptions depends on how you think about arguments. I found that it's better to avoid mixing it with your data to prevent gotchas. This change should help catch the arguments gotchas early.


Performance improvements, simplified internals, and a breaking API cleanup that's been brewing for a long time. Through convergent evolution, the API is now closer than ever to the data functions in clojure.core.

  • put now inserts value by key; faster and more convenient than putIn or patch for single properties
  • patch and merge now operate only on dicts and always return a dict
  • patch and merge now accept any number of arguments
  • removed patchDicts and mergeDicts; patch and merge fully replace them and are now 2-3x faster for small dicts and argument counts
  • list operations in put and putIn are stricter: attempting to update an out-of-bounds index or add a non-index property produces an exception
  • added list-only operations: insertAtIndex and removeAtIndex
  • because put now acts on a single property by key, putBy takes a function to be applied to that property; the old putBy functionality has been removed
  • patchBy has been removed
  • putBy and equalBy now accept the operator function as the last argument; this is consistent with putInBy, easier to remember (mnemonic: operator comes last), lets us accept additional arguments, and is more convenient with lambdas
  • putInBy is now limited to 10 additional arguments for the operator
  • putBy now accepts up to 10 additional arguments for the operator, like putInBy

Migration guide for 0.1.2 → 0.2.0

  • replace patchDictspatch
  • replace mergeDictsmerge
  • make sure patch and merge are only used for dicts
  • replace patchIn(root, path, val)putInBy(root, path, patch, val) or define your own patchIn
  • replace mergeIn(root, path, val)putInBy(root, path, merge, val) or define your own mergeIn
  • old putBy and patchBy functionality has been removed; putBy now takes a key and applies the operator to the property at that key
  • getAt has been removed; if you actually need it, copy the one-liner from the 0.1.2 source
  • change the argument order from putBy(fun, val) to putBy(val, fun)
  • change the argument order from equalBy(fun, one, other) to equalBy(one, other, fun)
  • make sure putBy and putInBy are called with no more than 10 additional arguments; if you need more, copy the one-liners from the source and modify them
  • for patch calls where the next value has just one property, use put
  • for putIn calls with a single-key path, use put
  • for putInBy calls with a single-key path, use putBy



I'm receptive to suggestions. If this library almost satisfies you but needs changes, open an issue or chat me up. Contacts: