Something that is untested is broken.
Not sure where that is coming from, and it's not entirely correct, but also not that far from the truth. Untested applications make it hard to improve existing code and developers of untested applications tend to become pretty paranoid. If an application has automated tests, you can safely change things, and you will instantly know if your change broke something.
Flask gives you a couple of ways to test applications. It mainly does that by exposing the Werkzeug test :class:`~werkzeug.Client` class to your code and handling the context locals for you. You can then use that with your favourite testing solution. In this documentation we will use the :mod:`unittest` package that comes preinstalled with each Python installation.
First we need an application to test for functionality. For the testing we will use the application from the :ref:`tutorial`. If you don't have that application yet, get the sources from the examples.
In order to test that, we add a second module ( flaskr_tests.py) and create a unittest skeleton there:
import os import flaskr import unittest import tempfile class FlaskrTestCase(unittest.TestCase): def setUp(self): self.db_fd, flaskr.app.config['DATABASE'] = tempfile.mkstemp() self.app = flaskr.app.test_client() flaskr.init_db() def tearDown(self): os.close(self.db_fd) os.unlink(flaskr.app.config['DATABASE']) if __name__ == '__main__': unittest.main()
The code in the :meth:`~unittest.TestCase.setUp` method creates a new test client and initializes a new database. That function is called before each individual test function. To delete the database after the test, we close the file and remove it from the filesystem in the :meth:`~unittest.TestCase.tearDown` method. What the test client does is give us a simple interface to the application. We can trigger test requests to the application, and the client will also keep track of cookies for us.
Because SQLite3 is filesystem-based we can easily use the tempfile module to create a temporary database and initialize it. The :func:`~tempfile.mkstemp` function does two things for us: it returns a low-level file handle and a random file name, the latter we use as database name. We just have to keep the db_fd around so that we can use the :func:`os.close` function to close the file.
If we now run that test suite, we should see the following output:
$ python flaskr_tests.py ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Ran 0 tests in 0.000s OK
Even though it did not run any tests, we already know that our flaskr application is syntactically valid, otherwise the import would have died with an exception.
Now we can add the first test. Let's check that the application shows "No entries here so far" if we access the root of the application (/). For that we modify our created test case class so that it looks like this:
class FlaskrTestCase(unittest.TestCase): def setUp(self): self.db_fd, flaskr.app.config['DATABASE'] = tempfile.mkstemp() self.app = flaskr.app.test_client() flaskr.init_db() def tearDown(self): os.close(self.db_fd) os.unlink(flaskr.DATABASE) def test_empty_db(self): rv = self.app.get('/') assert 'No entries here so far' in rv.data
Test functions begin with the word test. Every function named like that will be picked up automatically. By using self.app.get we can send an HTTP GET request to the application with the given path. The return value will be a :class:`~flask.Flask.response_class` object. We can now use the :attr:`~werkzeug.BaseResponse.data` attribute to inspect the return value (as string) from the application. In this case, we ensure that 'No entries here so far' is part of the output.
Run it again and you should see one passing test:
$ python flaskr_tests.py . ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Ran 1 test in 0.034s OK
Of course you can submit forms with the test client as well, which we will use now to log our user in.
The majority of the functionality of our application is only available for the administrative user, so we need a way to log our test client in to the application and out of it again. For that we fire some requests to the login and logout pages with the required form data (username and password). Because the login and logout pages redirect, we tell the client to follow_redirects.
Add the following two methods to your FlaskrTestCase class:
def login(self, username, password): return self.app.post('/login', data=dict( username=username, password=password ), follow_redirects=True) def logout(self): return self.app.get('/logout', follow_redirects=True)
Now we can easily test if logging in and out works and that it fails with invalid credentials. Add this new test to the class:
def test_login_logout(self): rv = self.login('admin', 'default') assert 'You were logged in' in rv.data rv = self.logout() assert 'You were logged out' in rv.data rv = self.login('adminx', 'default') assert 'Invalid username' in rv.data rv = self.login('admin', 'defaultx') assert 'Invalid password' in rv.data
Now we can also test that adding messages works. Add a new test method like this:
def test_messages(self): self.login('admin', 'default') rv = self.app.post('/add', data=dict( title='<Hello>', text='<strong>HTML</strong> allowed here' ), follow_redirects=True) assert 'No entries here so far' not in rv.data assert '<Hello>' in rv.data assert '<strong>HTML</strong> allowed here' in rv.data
Here we check that HTML is allowed in the text but not in the title, which is the intended behavior.
Running that should now give us three passing tests:
$ python flaskr_tests.py ... ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Ran 3 tests in 0.332s OK
For more complex tests with headers and status codes, check out the MiniTwit Example from the sources. That one contains a larger test suite.
Besides using the test client we used above, there is also the :meth:`~flask.Flask.test_request_context` method that in combination with the with statement can be used to activate a request context temporarily. With that you can access the :class:`~flask.request`, :class:`~flask.g` and :class:`~flask.session` objects like in view functions. Here's a full example that showcases this:
app = flask.Flask(__name__) with app.test_request_context('/?name=Peter'): assert flask.request.path == '/' assert flask.request.args['name'] == 'Peter'
All the other objects that are context bound can be used the same.
If you want to test your application with different configurations and there does not seem to be a good way to do that, consider switching to application factories (see :ref:`app-factories`).
Sometimes it can be helpful to trigger a regular request but keep the context around for a little longer so that additional introspection can happen. With Flask 0.4 this is possible by using the :meth:`~flask.Flask.test_client` with a with block:
app = flask.Flask(__name__) with app.test_client() as c: rv = c.get('/?tequila=42') assert request.args['tequila'] == '42'
If you would just be using the :meth:`~flask.Flask.test_client` without the with block, the assert would fail with an error because request is no longer available (because used outside of an actual request). Keep in mind however that :meth:`~flask.Flask.after_request` functions are already called at that point so your database connection and everything involved is probably already closed down.