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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
Base implementation for logbook.
:copyright: (c) 2010 by Armin Ronacher, Georg Brandl.
:license: BSD, see LICENSE for more details.
import os
import sys
import thread
import threading
import traceback
from itertools import chain
from weakref import ref as weakref
from datetime import datetime
from logbook.helpers import to_safe_json, parse_iso8601, cached_property, \
F, _py3
from logbook._speedups import group_reflected_property, \
ContextStackManager, StackedObject
except ImportError:
from logbook._fallback import group_reflected_property, \
ContextStackManager, StackedObject
# make sure to sync these up with _speedups.pyx
INFO = 2
_level_names = {
_reverse_level_names = dict((v, k) for (k, v) in _level_names.iteritems())
_missing = object()
# on python 3 we can savely assume that frame filenames will be in
# unicode, on Python 2 we have to apply a trick.
if _py3:
def _convert_frame_filename(fn):
return fn
def _convert_frame_filename(fn):
if isinstance(fn, unicode):
fn = fn.decode(sys.getfilesystemencoding() or 'utf-8',
return fn
def level_name_property():
"""Returns a property that reflects the level as name from
the internal level attribute.
def _get_level_name(self):
return get_level_name(self.level)
def _set_level_name(self, level):
self.level = lookup_level(level)
return property(_get_level_name, _set_level_name,
doc='The level as unicode string')
def lookup_level(level):
"""Return the integer representation of a logging level."""
if isinstance(level, (int, long)):
return level
return _reverse_level_names[level]
except KeyError:
raise LookupError('unknown level name %s' % level)
def get_level_name(level):
"""Return the textual representation of logging level 'level'."""
return _level_names[level]
except KeyError:
raise LookupError('unknown level')
class ExtraDict(dict):
"""A dictionary which returns ``u''`` on missing keys."""
if sys.version_info[:2] < (2, 5):
def __getitem__(self, key):
return dict.__getitem__(self, key)
except KeyError:
return u''
def __missing__(self, key):
return u''
def copy(self):
return self.__class__(self)
def __repr__(self):
return '%s(%s)' % (
class _ExceptionCatcher(object):
"""Helper for exception caught blocks."""
def __init__(self, logger, args, kwargs):
self.logger = logger
self.args = args
self.kwargs = kwargs
def __enter__(self):
return self
def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, tb):
if exc_type is not None:
kwargs = self.kwargs.copy()
kwargs['exc_info'] = (exc_type, exc_value, tb)
self.logger.exception(*self.args, **kwargs)
return True
class ContextObject(StackedObject):
"""An object that can be bound to a context. It is managed by the
#: subclasses have to instanciate a :class:`ContextStackManager`
#: object on this attribute which is then shared for all the
#: subclasses of it.
stack_manager = None
def push_thread(self):
"""Pushes the context object to the thread stack."""
def pop_thread(self):
"""Pops the context object from the stack."""
popped = self.stack_manager.pop_thread()
assert popped is self, 'popped unexpected object'
def push_application(self):
"""Pushes the context object to the application stack."""
def pop_application(self):
"""Pops the context object from the stack."""
popped = self.stack_manager.pop_application()
assert popped is self, 'popped unexpected object'
class NestedSetup(StackedObject):
"""A nested setup can be used to configure multiple handlers
and processors at once.
def __init__(self, objects=None):
self.objects = list(objects or ())
def push_application(self):
for obj in self.objects:
def pop_application(self):
for obj in reversed(self.objects):
def push_thread(self):
for obj in self.objects:
def pop_thread(self):
for obj in reversed(self.objects):
class Processor(ContextObject):
"""Can be pushed to a stack to inject additional information into
a log record as necessary::
def inject_ip(record):
record.extra['ip'] = ''
with Processor(inject_ip):
stack_manager = ContextStackManager()
def __init__(self, callback=None):
#: the callback that was passed to the constructor
self.callback = callback
def process(self, record):
"""Called with the log record that should be overridden. The default
implementation calls :attr:`callback` if it is not `None`.
if self.callback is not None:
class _InheritedType(object):
__slots__ = ()
def __repr__(self):
return 'Inherit'
def __reduce__(self):
return 'Inherit'
Inherit = _InheritedType()
class Flags(ContextObject):
"""Allows flags to be pushed on a flag stack. Currently two flags
are available:
Can be set to override the current error behaviour. This value is
used when logging calls fail. The default behaviour is spitting
out the stacktrace to stderr but this can be overridden:
=================== ==========================================
``'silent'`` fail silently
``'raise'`` raise a catchable exception
``'print'`` print the stacktrace to stderr (default)
=================== ==========================================
Can be used to disable frame introspection. This can give a
speedup on production systems if you are using a JIT compiled
Python interpreter such as pypy. The default is `True`.
Note that the default setup of some of the handler (mail for
instance) includes frame dependent information which will
not be available when introspection is disabled.
Example usage::
with Flags(errors='silent'):
stack_manager = ContextStackManager()
def __init__(self, **flags):
def get_flag(flag, default=None):
"""Looks up the current value of a specific flag."""
for flags in Flags.stack_manager.iter_context_objects():
val = getattr(flags, flag, Inherit)
if val is not Inherit:
return val
return default
def _create_log_record(cls, dict):
"""Extra function for reduce because on Python 3 unbound methods
can no longer be pickled.
return cls.from_dict(dict)
class LogRecord(object):
"""A LogRecord instance represents an event being logged.
LogRecord instances are created every time something is logged. They
contain all the information pertinent to the event being logged. The
main information passed in is in msg and args
_pullable_information = frozenset((
'func_name', 'module', 'filename', 'lineno', 'process_name', 'thread',
'thread_name', 'formatted_exception', 'message', 'exception_name',
_noned_on_close = frozenset(('exc_info', 'frame', 'calling_frame'))
#: can be overriden by a handler to not close the record. This could
#: lead to memory leaks so it should be used carefully.
keep_open = False
#: the time of the log record creation as :class:`datetime.datetime`
#: object. This information is unavailable until the record was
#: heavy initialized.
time = None
#: a flag that is `True` if the log record is heavy initialized which
#: is not the case by default.
heavy_initialized = False
#: a flag that is `True` when heavy initialization is no longer possible
late = False
#: a flag that is `True` when all the information was pulled from the
#: information that becomes unavailable on close.
information_pulled = False
def __init__(self, channel, level, msg, args=None, kwargs=None,
exc_info=None, extra=None, frame=None, dispatcher=None):
#: the name of the logger that created it or any other textual
#: channel description. This is a descriptive name and can be
#: used for filtering. = channel
#: The message of the log record as new-style format string.
self.msg = msg
#: the positional arguments for the format string.
self.args = args or ()
#: the keyword arguments for the format string.
self.kwargs = kwargs or {}
#: the level of the log record as integer.
self.level = level
#: optional exception information. If set, this is a tuple in the
#: form ``(exc_type, exc_value, tb)`` as returned by
#: :func:`sys.exc_info`.
self.exc_info = exc_info
#: optional extra information as dictionary. This is the place
#: where custom log processors can attach custom context sensitive
#: data.
self.extra = ExtraDict(extra or ())
#: If available, optionally the interpreter frame that pulled the
#: heavy init. This usually points to somewhere in the dispatcher.
#: Might not be available for all calls and is removed when the log
#: record is closed.
self.frame = frame
#: the PID of the current process
self.process = None
if dispatcher is not None:
dispatcher = weakref(dispatcher)
self._dispatcher = dispatcher
def heavy_init(self):
"""Does the heavy initialization that could be expensive. This must
not be called from a higher stack level than when the log record was
created and the later the initialization happens, the more off the
date information will be for example.
This is internally used by the record dispatching system and usually
something not to worry about.
if self.heavy_initialized:
assert not self.late, 'heavy init is no longer possible'
self.heavy_initialized = True
self.process = os.getpid()
self.time = datetime.utcnow()
if self.frame is None and Flags.get_flag('introspection', True):
self.frame = sys._getframe(1)
def pull_information(self):
"""A helper function that pulls all frame-related information into
the object so that this information is available after the log
record was closed.
if self.information_pulled:
# due to how cached_property is implemented, the attribute access
# has the side effect of caching the attribute on the instance of
# the class.
for key in self._pullable_information:
getattr(self, key)
self.information_pulled = True
def close(self):
"""Closes the log record. This will set the frame and calling
frame to `None` and frame-related information will no longer be
available unless it was pulled in first (:meth:`pull_information`).
This makes a log record safe for pickling and will clean up
memory that might be still referenced by the frames.
for key in self._noned_on_close:
setattr(self, key, None)
self.late = True
def __reduce_ex__(self, protocol):
return _create_log_record, (type(self), self.to_dict())
def to_dict(self, json_safe=False):
"""Exports the log record into a dictionary without the information
that cannot be safely serialized like interpreter frames and
rv = {}
for key, value in self.__dict__.iteritems():
if key[:1] != '_' and key not in self._noned_on_close:
rv[key] = value
# the extra dict is exported as regular dict
rv['extra'] = dict(rv['extra'])
if json_safe:
return to_safe_json(rv)
return rv
def from_dict(cls, d):
"""Creates a log record from an exported dictionary. This also
supports JSON exported dictionaries.
rv = object.__new__(cls)
return rv
def update_from_dict(self, d):
"""Like the :meth:`from_dict` classmethod, but will update the
instance in place. Helpful for constructors.
for key in self._noned_on_close:
setattr(self, key, None)
self._information_pulled = True
self._channel = None
if isinstance(self.time, basestring):
self.time = parse_iso8601(self.time)
return self
def message(self):
"""The formatted message."""
if not (self.args or self.kwargs):
return self.msg
return F(self.msg).format(*self.args, **self.kwargs)
except Exception, e:
# this obviously will not give a proper error message if the
# information was not pulled and the log record no longer has
# access to the frame. But there is not much we can do about
# that.
errormsg = F('Could not format message with provided '
'arguments: {err}\n msg=\'{msg}\'\n '
'args={args} \n kwargs={kwargs}.\n'
'Happened in file {file}, line {lineno}').format(
err=e, msg=self.msg, args=self.args,
kwargs=self.kwargs, file=self.filename,
if not _py3:
errormsg = errormsg.encode('utf-8')
raise TypeError(errormsg)
level_name = level_name_property()
def calling_frame(self):
"""The frame in which the record has been created. This only
exists for as long the log record is not closed.
frm = self.frame
globs = globals()
while frm is not None and frm.f_globals is globs:
frm = frm.f_back
return frm
def func_name(self):
"""The name of the function that triggered the log call if
available. Requires a frame or that :meth:`pull_information`
was called before.
cf = self.calling_frame
if cf is not None:
return cf.f_code.co_name
def module(self):
"""The name of the module that triggered the log call if
available. Requires a frame or that :meth:`pull_information`
was called before.
cf = self.calling_frame
if cf is not None:
return cf.f_globals.get('__name__')
def filename(self):
"""The filename of the module in which the record has been created.
Requires a frame or that :meth:`pull_information` was called before.
cf = self.calling_frame
if cf is not None:
fn = cf.f_code.co_filename
if fn[:1] == '<' and fn[-1:] == '>':
return fn
return _convert_frame_filename(os.path.abspath(fn))
def lineno(self):
"""The line number of the file in which the record has been created.
Requires a frame or that :meth:`pull_information` was called before.
cf = self.calling_frame
if cf is not None:
return cf.f_lineno
def thread(self):
"""The ident of the thread. This is evaluated late and means that
if the log record is passed to another thread, :meth:`pull_information`
was called in the old thread.
return thread.get_ident()
def thread_name(self):
"""The name of the thread. This is evaluated late and means that
if the log record is passed to another thread, :meth:`pull_information`
was called in the old thread.
return threading.currentThread().getName()
def process_name(self):
"""The name of the process in which the record has been created."""
# Errors may occur if multiprocessing has not finished loading
# yet - e.g. if a custom import hook causes third-party code
# to run when multiprocessing calls import. See issue 8200
# for an example
mp = sys.modules.get('multiprocessing')
if mp is not None: # pragma: no cover
return mp.current_process().name
except Exception:
def formatted_exception(self):
"""The formatted exception which caused this record to be created
in case there was any.
if self.exc_info is not None:
rv = ''.join(traceback.format_exception(*self.exc_info))
if not _py3:
rv = rv.decode('utf-8', 'replace')
return rv.rstrip()
def exception_name(self):
"""The name of the exception."""
if self.exc_info is not None:
cls = self.exc_info[0]
return unicode(cls.__module__ + '.' + cls.__name__)
def exception_shortname(self):
"""An abbreviated exception name (no import path)"""
return self.exception_name.rsplit('.')[-1]
def exception_message(self):
"""The message of the exception."""
if self.exc_info is not None:
val = self.exc_info[1]
return unicode(val)
except UnicodeError:
return str(val).decode('utf-8', 'replace')
def dispatcher(self):
"""The dispatcher that created the log record. Might not exist because
a log record does not have to be created from a logger or other
dispatcher to be handled by logbook. If this is set, it will point to
an object that implements the :class:`~logbook.base.RecordDispatcher`
if self._dispatcher is not None:
return self._dispatcher()
class LoggerMixin(object):
"""This mixin class defines and implements the "usual" logger
interface (i.e. the descriptive logging functions).
Classes using this mixin have to implement a :meth:`!handle` method which
takes a :class:`~logbook.LogRecord` and passes it along.
#: The name of the minimium logging level required for records to be
#: created.
level_name = level_name_property()
def debug(self, *args, **kwargs):
"""Logs a :class:`~logbook.LogRecord` with the level set
to :data:`~logbook.DEBUG`.
if not self.disabled and DEBUG >= self.level:
self._log(DEBUG, args, kwargs)
def info(self, *args, **kwargs):
"""Logs a :class:`~logbook.LogRecord` with the level set
to :data:`~logbook.INFO`.
if not self.disabled and INFO >= self.level:
self._log(INFO, args, kwargs)
def warn(self, *args, **kwargs):
"""Logs a :class:`~logbook.LogRecord` with the level set
to :data:`~logbook.WARNING`. This function has an alias
named :meth:`warning`.
if not self.disabled and WARNING >= self.level:
self._log(WARNING, args, kwargs)
def warning(self, *args, **kwargs):
"""Alias for :meth:`warn`."""
return self.warn(*args, **kwargs)
def notice(self, *args, **kwargs):
"""Logs a :class:`~logbook.LogRecord` with the level set
to :data:`~logbook.NOTICE`.
if not self.disabled and NOTICE >= self.level:
self._log(NOTICE, args, kwargs)
def error(self, *args, **kwargs):
"""Logs a :class:`~logbook.LogRecord` with the level set
to :data:`~logbook.ERROR`.
if not self.disabled and ERROR >= self.level:
self._log(ERROR, args, kwargs)
def exception(self, *args, **kwargs):
"""Works exactly like :meth:`error` just that the message
is optional and exception information is recorded.
if self.disabled or ERROR < self.level:
if not args:
args = ('Uncaught exception occurred',)
if 'exc_info' not in kwargs:
exc_info = sys.exc_info()
assert exc_info[0] is not None, 'no exception occurred'
kwargs.setdefault('exc_info', sys.exc_info())
return self.error(*args, **kwargs)
def critical(self, *args, **kwargs):
"""Logs a :class:`~logbook.LogRecord` with the level set
to :data:`~logbook.CRITICAL`.
if not self.disabled and CRITICAL >= self.level:
self._log(CRITICAL, args, kwargs)
def log(self, level, *args, **kwargs):
"""Logs a :class:`~logbook.LogRecord` with the level set
to the `level` parameter. Because custom levels are not
supported by logbook, this method is mainly used to avoid
the use of reflection (e.g.: :func:`getattr`) for programmatic
level = lookup_level(level)
if level >= self.level:
self._log(level, args, kwargs)
def catch_exceptions(self, *args, **kwargs):
"""A context manager that catches exceptions and calls
:meth:`exception` for exceptions caught that way. Example::
with logger.catch_exceptions():
if not args:
args = ('Uncaught exception occurred',)
return _ExceptionCatcher(self, args, kwargs)
def _log(self, level, args, kwargs):
exc_info = kwargs.pop('exc_info', None)
extra = kwargs.pop('extra', None)
self.make_record_and_handle(level, args[0], args[1:], kwargs,
exc_info, extra)
class RecordDispatcher(object):
"""A record dispatcher is the internal base class that implements
the logic used by the :class:`~logbook.Logger`.
#: If this is set to `True` the dispatcher information will be suppressed
#: for log records emitted from this logger.
suppress_dispatcher = False
def __init__(self, name=None, level=NOTSET):
#: the name of the record dispatcher = name
#: list of handlers specific for this record dispatcher
self.handlers = []
#: optionally the name of the group this logger belongs to = None
#: the level of the record dispatcher as integer
self.level = level
disabled = group_reflected_property('disabled', False)
level = group_reflected_property('level', NOTSET, fallback=NOTSET)
def handle(self, record):
"""Call the handlers for the specified record. This is
invoked automatically when a record should be handled.
The default implementation checks if the dispatcher is disabled
and if the record level is greater than the level of the
record dispatcher. In that case it will call the handlers
if not self.disabled and record.level >= self.level:
def make_record_and_handle(self, level, msg, args, kwargs, exc_info,
"""Creates a record from some given arguments and heads it
over to the handling system.
# The channel information can be useful for some use cases which is
# why we keep it on there. The log record however internally will
# only store a weak reference to the channel, so it might disappear
# from one instruction to the other. It will also disappear when
# a log record is transmitted to another process etc.
channel = None
if not self.suppress_dispatcher:
channel = self
record = LogRecord(, level, msg, args, kwargs, exc_info,
extra, None, channel)
# after handling the log record is closed which will remove some
# referenes that would require a GC run on cpython. This includes
# the current stack frame, exception information. However there are
# some use cases in keeping the records open for a little longer.
# For example the test handler keeps log records open until the
# test handler is closed to allow assertions based on stack frames
# and exception information.
record.late = True
if not record.keep_open:
def call_handlers(self, record):
"""Pass a record to all relevant handlers in the following
- per-dispatcher handlers are handled first
- afterwards all the current context handlers in the
order they were pushed
Before the first handler is invoked, the record is processed
# for performance reasons records are only heavy initialized
# and processed if at least one of the handlers has a higher
# level than the record and that handler is not a black hole.
record_initialized = False
# Both logger attached handlers as well as context specific
# handlers are handled one after another. The latter also
# include global handlers.
for handler in chain(self.handlers,
# skip records that this handler is not interested in based
# on the record and handler level or in case this method was
# overridden on some custom logic.
if not handler.should_handle(record):
# if this is a blackhole handler, don't even try to
# do further processing, stop right away. Technically
# speaking this is not 100% correct because if the handler
# is bubbling we shouldn't apply this logic, but then we
# won't enter this branch anyways. The result is that a
# bubbling blackhole handler will never have this shortcut
# applied and do the heavy init at one point. This is fine
# however because a bubbling blackhole handler is not very
# useful in general.
if handler.blackhole:
# we are about to handle the record. If it was not yet
# processed by context-specific record processors we
# have to do that now and remeber that we processed
# the record already.
if not record_initialized:
record_initialized = True
# a filter can still veto the handling of the record. This
# however is already operating on an initialized and processed
# record. The impact is that filters are slower than the
# handler's should_handle function in case there is no default
# handler that would handle the record (delayed init).
if handler.filter is not None \
and not handler.filter(record, handler):
# handle the record. If the record was handled and
# the record is not bubbling we can abort now.
if handler.handle(record) and not handler.bubble:
def process_record(self, record):
"""Processes the record with all context specific processors. This
can be overriden to also inject additional information as necessary
that can be provided by this record dispatcher.
if is not None:
for processor in Processor.stack_manager.iter_context_objects():
class Logger(RecordDispatcher, LoggerMixin):
"""Instances of the Logger class represent a single logging channel.
A "logging channel" indicates an area of an application. Exactly
how an "area" is defined is up to the application developer.
Names used by logbook should be descriptive and are intended for user
display, not for filtering. Filtering should happen based on the
context information instead.
A logger internally is a subclass of a
:class:`~logbook.base.RecordDispatcher` that implements the actual
logic. If you want to implement a custom logger class, have a look
at the interface of that class as well.
class LoggerGroup(object):
"""A LoggerGroup represents a group of loggers. It cannot emit log
messages on its own but it can be used to set the disabled flag and
log level of all loggers in the group.
Furthermore the :meth:`process_record` method of the group is called
by any logger in the group which by default calls into the
:attr:`processor` callback function.
def __init__(self, loggers=None, level=NOTSET, processor=None):
#: a list of all loggers on the logger group. Use the
#: :meth:`add_logger` and :meth:`remove_logger` methods to add
#: or remove loggers from this list.
self.loggers = []
if loggers is not None:
for logger in loggers:
#: the level of the group. This is reflected to the loggers
#: in the group unless they overrode the setting.
self.level = lookup_level(level)
#: the disabled flag for all loggers in the group, unless
#: the loggers overrode the setting.
self.disabled = False
#: an optional callback function that is executed to process
#: the log records of all loggers in the group.
self.processor = processor
def add_logger(self, logger):
"""Adds a logger to this group."""
assert is None, 'Logger already belongs to a group' = self
def remove_logger(self, logger):
"""Removes a logger from the group."""
self.loggers.remove(logger) = None
def process_record(self, record):
"""Like :meth:`Logger.process_record` but for all loggers in
the group. By default this calls into the :attr:`processor`
function is it's not `None`.
if self.processor is not None:
_default_dispatcher = RecordDispatcher()
def dispatch_record(record):
"""Passes a record on to the handlers on the stack. This is useful when
log records are created programmatically and already have all the
information attached and should be dispatched independent of a logger.
# at that point we are save to import handler
from logbook.handlers import Handler
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