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Markus Unterwaditzer untitaker
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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
werkzeug.security
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Security related helpers such as secure password hashing tools.
:copyright: (c) 2014 by the Werkzeug Team, see AUTHORS for more details.
:license: BSD, see LICENSE for more details.
"""
import os
import hmac
import hashlib
import posixpath
import codecs
from struct import Struct
from random import SystemRandom
from operator import xor
from itertools import starmap
from werkzeug._compat import range_type, PY2, text_type, izip, to_bytes, \
string_types, to_native
SALT_CHARS = 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789'
DEFAULT_PBKDF2_ITERATIONS = 1000
_pack_int = Struct('>I').pack
_builtin_safe_str_cmp = getattr(hmac, 'compare_digest', None)
_sys_rng = SystemRandom()
_os_alt_seps = list(sep for sep in [os.path.sep, os.path.altsep]
if sep not in (None, '/'))
def _find_hashlib_algorithms():
algos = getattr(hashlib, 'algorithms', None)
if algos is None:
algos = ('md5', 'sha1', 'sha224', 'sha256', 'sha384', 'sha512')
rv = {}
for algo in algos:
func = getattr(hashlib, algo, None)
if func is not None:
rv[algo] = func
return rv
_hash_funcs = _find_hashlib_algorithms()
def pbkdf2_hex(data, salt, iterations=DEFAULT_PBKDF2_ITERATIONS,
keylen=None, hashfunc=None):
"""Like :func:`pbkdf2_bin`, but returns a hex-encoded string.
.. versionadded:: 0.9
:param data: the data to derive.
:param salt: the salt for the derivation.
:param iterations: the number of iterations.
:param keylen: the length of the resulting key. If not provided,
the digest size will be used.
:param hashfunc: the hash function to use. This can either be the
string name of a known hash function, or a function
from the hashlib module. Defaults to sha1.
"""
rv = pbkdf2_bin(data, salt, iterations, keylen, hashfunc)
return to_native(codecs.encode(rv, 'hex_codec'))
_has_native_pbkdf2 = hasattr(hashlib, 'pbkdf2_hmac')
def pbkdf2_bin(data, salt, iterations=DEFAULT_PBKDF2_ITERATIONS,
keylen=None, hashfunc=None):
"""Returns a binary digest for the PBKDF2 hash algorithm of `data`
with the given `salt`. It iterates `iterations` times and produces a
key of `keylen` bytes. By default, SHA-1 is used as hash function;
a different hashlib `hashfunc` can be provided.
.. versionadded:: 0.9
:param data: the data to derive.
:param salt: the salt for the derivation.
:param iterations: the number of iterations.
:param keylen: the length of the resulting key. If not provided
the digest size will be used.
:param hashfunc: the hash function to use. This can either be the
string name of a known hash function or a function
from the hashlib module. Defaults to sha1.
"""
if isinstance(hashfunc, string_types):
hashfunc = _hash_funcs[hashfunc]
elif not hashfunc:
hashfunc = hashlib.sha1
data = to_bytes(data)
salt = to_bytes(salt)
# If we're on Python with pbkdf2_hmac we can try to use it for
# compatible digests.
if _has_native_pbkdf2:
_test_hash = hashfunc()
if hasattr(_test_hash, 'name') and \
_test_hash.name in _hash_funcs:
return hashlib.pbkdf2_hmac(_test_hash.name,
data, salt, iterations,
keylen)
mac = hmac.HMAC(data, None, hashfunc)
if not keylen:
keylen = mac.digest_size
def _pseudorandom(x, mac=mac):
h = mac.copy()
h.update(x)
return bytearray(h.digest())
buf = bytearray()
for block in range_type(1, -(-keylen // mac.digest_size) + 1):
rv = u = _pseudorandom(salt + _pack_int(block))
for i in range_type(iterations - 1):
u = _pseudorandom(bytes(u))
rv = bytearray(starmap(xor, izip(rv, u)))
buf.extend(rv)
return bytes(buf[:keylen])
def safe_str_cmp(a, b):
"""This function compares strings in somewhat constant time. This
requires that the length of at least one string is known in advance.
Returns `True` if the two strings are equal, or `False` if they are not.
.. versionadded:: 0.7
"""
if isinstance(a, text_type):
a = a.encode('utf-8')
if isinstance(b, text_type):
b = b.encode('utf-8')
if _builtin_safe_str_cmp is not None:
return _builtin_safe_str_cmp(a, b)
if len(a) != len(b):
return False
rv = 0
if PY2:
for x, y in izip(a, b):
rv |= ord(x) ^ ord(y)
else:
for x, y in izip(a, b):
rv |= x ^ y
return rv == 0
def gen_salt(length):
"""Generate a random string of SALT_CHARS with specified ``length``."""
if length <= 0:
raise ValueError('Salt length must be positive')
return ''.join(_sys_rng.choice(SALT_CHARS) for _ in range_type(length))
def _hash_internal(method, salt, password):
"""Internal password hash helper. Supports plaintext without salt,
unsalted and salted passwords. In case salted passwords are used
hmac is used.
"""
if method == 'plain':
return password, method
if isinstance(password, text_type):
password = password.encode('utf-8')
if method.startswith('pbkdf2:'):
args = method[7:].split(':')
if len(args) not in (1, 2):
raise ValueError('Invalid number of arguments for PBKDF2')
method = args.pop(0)
iterations = args and int(args[0] or 0) or DEFAULT_PBKDF2_ITERATIONS
is_pbkdf2 = True
actual_method = 'pbkdf2:%s:%d' % (method, iterations)
else:
is_pbkdf2 = False
actual_method = method
hash_func = _hash_funcs.get(method)
if hash_func is None:
raise TypeError('invalid method %r' % method)
if is_pbkdf2:
if not salt:
raise ValueError('Salt is required for PBKDF2')
rv = pbkdf2_hex(password, salt, iterations,
hashfunc=hash_func)
elif salt:
if isinstance(salt, text_type):
salt = salt.encode('utf-8')
rv = hmac.HMAC(salt, password, hash_func).hexdigest()
else:
h = hash_func()
h.update(password)
rv = h.hexdigest()
return rv, actual_method
def generate_password_hash(password, method='pbkdf2:sha1', salt_length=8):
"""Hash a password with the given method and salt with with a string of
the given length. The format of the string returned includes the method
that was used so that :func:`check_password_hash` can check the hash.
The format for the hashed string looks like this::
method$salt$hash
This method can **not** generate unsalted passwords but it is possible
to set the method to plain to enforce plaintext passwords. If a salt
is used, hmac is used internally to salt the password.
If PBKDF2 is wanted it can be enabled by setting the method to
``pbkdf2:method:iterations`` where iterations is optional::
pbkdf2:sha1:2000$salt$hash
pbkdf2:sha1$salt$hash
:param password: the password to hash.
:param method: the hash method to use (one that hashlib supports). Can
optionally be in the format ``pbkdf2:<method>[:iterations]``
to enable PBKDF2.
:param salt_length: the length of the salt in letters.
"""
salt = method != 'plain' and gen_salt(salt_length) or ''
h, actual_method = _hash_internal(method, salt, password)
return '%s$%s$%s' % (actual_method, salt, h)
def check_password_hash(pwhash, password):
"""check a password against a given salted and hashed password value.
In order to support unsalted legacy passwords this method supports
plain text passwords, md5 and sha1 hashes (both salted and unsalted).
Returns `True` if the password matched, `False` otherwise.
:param pwhash: a hashed string like returned by
:func:`generate_password_hash`.
:param password: the plaintext password to compare against the hash.
"""
if pwhash.count('$') < 2:
return False
method, salt, hashval = pwhash.split('$', 2)
return safe_str_cmp(_hash_internal(method, salt, password)[0], hashval)
def safe_join(directory, filename):
"""Safely join `directory` and `filename`. If this cannot be done,
this function returns ``None``.
:param directory: the base directory.
:param filename: the untrusted filename relative to that directory.
"""
filename = posixpath.normpath(filename)
for sep in _os_alt_seps:
if sep in filename:
return None
if os.path.isabs(filename) or filename.startswith('../'):
return None
return os.path.join(directory, filename)
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