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README.md

Therminator: Thermal Simulator for Portable Devices

Description

Therminator is a compact thermal modeling-based component-level thermal simulator that targets small form-factor mobile devices (such as smartphones). It produces temperature maps for all components, including the application processor, battery, display, and other key device components, as well as the skin of the device itself, with high accuracy and short runtime.

Therminator takes two input files as explained next. The specs.xml file describes the smartphone design, including components of interest and their geometric dimensions (length, width, and thickness) and relative positions. Therminator has a built-in library storing properties (i.e., thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat) of common materials that are used to manufacture smartphones. In addition, users can override these properties or specify new materials through the specs.xml file. The power.trace file provides the usage information (power consumption) of those components that consume power and generate heat, e.g., ICs, battery, and display. The power.trace can be obtained through real measurements or other power estimation tools/methods. power.trace is a separate file so that one can easily interface a performance-power simulator with Therminator. Section (6) of this README.md file explains the syntax of input files.

More details about Therminator can be found in [1].

Requirements

  • GNU build utilities (GCC 4+ and Make). You are recommended to use Linux. In case you want to use Windows, make sure to install MinGW or Cygwin.

  • Install CULA Dense library along with an NVIDIA GPU with CUDA support (optional). Therminator allows a parallel computing feature that uses NVIDIA GPUs to perform matrix computations. It is highly recommended to enable this feature as it can significantly reduce the runtime. To utilize this feature, you need to download the CULA Dense library and install it on your machine. Next, open the Makefile in the Therminator package and change lines 7 and 8, so that INCLUDE and LIBRARIES variables point to the directory where CULA is installed.

Note: Therminator can be run on Linux, Mac OS X and Windows given the above requirements are properly installed. To install GCC on Windows, it is recommended to use MinGW which can be obtained from here.

Installation

  1. Extract the downloaded terminator package.

  2. Build Therminator with either of the following options:

    • If you have CULA Dense library, you may enable the parallel computing feature by using the following command:

      make SOLVER=GPU
      
    • If you don't have CULA Dense library installed, use this command:

      make
      
  3. To remove all of the built files, type:

    make clean
    

Usage

Directories

Therminator
|--src
    |-- header
        `-- *.h -> header files
    |-- libs
        `-- pugixml -> Light-weight, simple and fast XML parser for C++
    `-- *.cpp -> Therminator source code
|-- examples
    |-- package_*.xml -> design specification files
    |-- power_*.trace -> power trace files
    `-- Temperature_Results.txt -> Sample output file for the given GS4 and its power trace
|-- LICENSE -> license file
`-- README -> this file

Input files syntax

  1. Design specification file (specs.xml)

    a) Two example files (package_GS4.xml and package_MDP.xml) have been provided along with the package of Therminator. You can basically follow them to specify a design specification.

    b) The outer hierarchy is the device level description, where you can specify the overall dimensions of the device and the ambient temperature. Three sub- hierarchies are material, floorplan, and component.

    c) The material hierarchy specifies the material properties that are used to build the device. The current version of Therminator is concerned with steady-state temperature maps, and thereby, only the thermal conductivity information matters. The feature that captures transient temperatures will be developed later.

    d) The floorplan hierarchy is an optional input that specifies the floorplan of some selected components. For example, in package_GS4.xml file, a floor plan is specified for the Snapdragon_600 processor. The purpose of this is to provide higher accuracy of temperature maps, given more detailed information about processors, or other IC components. Note that the coordinates in the floorplan hierarchy is re-normalized such that the left-bottom corner of the component is set to be (0,0).

    e) The component hierarchy specifies the components of interest. The properties of each component include:

    • coordinates: numerical values. The coordinates (x, y, and z) are relative to the left-bottom corner of the device.

    • dimensions: numerical values. Length, width, and height of the component.

    • materials: The type of material shall be specified in the material hierarchy.

    • power gen (yes/no): This property indicates whether this component consumes power and generates heat. If it is specified as yes, the power consumption shall be provided in the power trace file.

    • fill: some IC chips have a thermal pad pasted on it. If the value is set as yes, Therminator will automatically calculates the free space above this component, and fills the free space with material specified in filling_material.

    • lateral_connectivity: Many materials are orthotropic (i.e., having different thermal conductivity along x, y, and z directions.) This tells Therminator whether this component is orthotropic.

    • resolution: How many sub-components will Therminator divide this component to. You can specify resolution in x, y, and z directions. An automated approach for determining the resolution will be developed later.

    Note that, currently, users need to identify major free space manually and specify them as air blocks (ab). This will prevent singularity issue when reversing the conduction matrix. Automatic gap-fill will be developed in next release.

  2. Power trace file This file specifies the power consumption of each component that is declared as yes in its power gen property in the design specification file.

    a) If you did not enable the floorplan feature, then the number power consumptions you provide here is the same as those components that consume power in design specification file.

    b) If you enable the floorplan feature and the component consumes power, you need to provide the power consumption for each component in the floorplan. You can add column with name of floorplanname-componentname.

Running Therminator

usage: therminator -d <file> -p <file> -o <file>
Therminator produces accurate temperature maps given the power consumption
and physical characteristics.
 -h            Shows this help menu
 -d <file>    Input design specification file name
 -p <file>    Input power trace file
 -o <file>    Output file

Example Outputs

Therminator outputs the temperature (in Celsius) of each sub-component in the output results file. In case of multiple layers specified in the z-direction, results on the top have the highest z value.

For example, the provided design for Snapdragon 600 in package_GS4.xml has the resolution of 6x6x3 (a total of 108 subcomponents). Running

$ ./therminator -d examples/package_GS4.xml -p examples/power_GS4.trace \
    -o Temperature_Results.txt

gives this output:

y
^                    z = 3 (top layer)
|60.376     60.7172    61.0108    60.9561    60.8312   60.0348    
|60.9646    61.3455    61.6756    61.6117    61.4722   60.5633    
|61.3078    61.7083    62.0559    61.987     61.8393   60.8779    
|61.3934    61.7916    62.1365    62.0672    61.9197   60.9622    
|61.2314    61.6056    61.9277    61.8628    61.7237   60.8269    
|60.8264    61.1592    61.4399    61.3836    61.2596   60.4854    
|----------------------------------------------------> x
|                           z = 2
|62.08      62.3741    62.6072    62.5708    62.4319   61.7898    
|62.5968    62.921     63.1801    63.1376    62.9835   62.2609    
|62.9024    63.2422    63.5144    63.4684    63.3058   62.5431    
|62.9796    63.3177    63.5877    63.5411    63.3786   62.6184    
|62.8445    63.164     63.4166    63.3724    63.2184   62.5039    
|62.5136    62.8031    63.0259    62.9867    62.8478   62.2204    
|----------------------------------------------------> x
|                    z = 1  (bottom layer)
|61.9131    62.1597    62.3395    62.3151   62.1786    61.6693    
|62.3804    62.6498    62.8478    62.819    62.6683    62.101    
|62.6489    62.9304    63.1378    63.1064   62.9479    62.3507    
|62.7171    62.9973    63.203     63.1709   63.0122    62.4168    
|62.609     62.8749    63.0677    63.0367   62.8854    62.3235    
|62.3428    62.5869    62.7584    62.73     62.5923    62.0925    
-----------------------------------------------------> x

Developers

Contact us

If you have any question, find any bug, or encounter any problem when using Therminator, please contact Mohammad Javad Dousti (dousti@usc.edu) or Qing Xie (xqing@usc.edu).

Reference

[1] Qing Xie, Mohammad Javad Dousti, and Massoud Pedram, "Therminator: A Thermal Simulator for Smartphones Producing Accurate Chip and Skin Temperature Maps", in Proc. of the International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED), pp. 117-122, Aug, 2014.

License

Please refer to the LICENSE file.

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