A React Higher Order Component (HOC) for handling Authentication and Authorization with Redux and React-Router
JavaScript
Latest commit 4e0145b Feb 4, 2017 @mjrussell committed on GitHub Merge pull request #116 from dekked/fix-multiple-routes-example
Fix example in "Protecting Multiple Routes"

README.md

redux-auth-wrapper

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Decouple your Authentication and Authorization from your components!

npm install --save redux-auth-wrapper

Versioning Note: This project adheres to semver. Please view the Changelog for release notes.

Contents

Motivation

At first, handling authentication and authorization seems easy in React-Router and Redux. After all, we have a handy onEnter method, shouldn't we use it?

onEnter is great, and useful in certain situations. However, here are some common authentication and authorization problems onEnter does not solve:

  • Decide authentication/authorization from redux store data (there are some workarounds)
  • Recheck authentication/authorization if the store updates (but not the current route)
  • Recheck authentication/authorization if a child route changes underneath the protected route (React Router 2.0 now supports this with onChange)

An alternative approach is to use Higher Order Components.

A higher-order component is just a function that takes an existing component and returns another component that wraps it

Redux-auth-wrapper provides higher-order components for easy to read and apply authentication and authorization constraints for your components.

Tutorial

Usage with React-Router-Redux (Version 4.0)

import React from 'react'
import ReactDOM from 'react-dom'
import { createStore, combineReducers, applyMiddleware, compose } from 'redux'
import { Provider } from 'react-redux'
import { Router, Route, browserHistory } from 'react-router'
import { routerReducer, syncHistoryWithStore, routerActions, routerMiddleware } from 'react-router-redux'
import { UserAuthWrapper } from 'redux-auth-wrapper'
import userReducer from '<project-path>/reducers/userReducer'

const reducer = combineReducers({
  routing: routerReducer,
  user: userReducer
})

const routingMiddleware = routerMiddleware(browserHistory)

// Note: passing middleware as the last argument requires redux@>=3.1.0
const store = createStore(
  reducer,
  applyMiddleware(routingMiddleware)
)
const history = syncHistoryWithStore(browserHistory, store)

// Redirects to /login by default
const UserIsAuthenticated = UserAuthWrapper({
  authSelector: state => state.user, // how to get the user state
  redirectAction: routerActions.replace, // the redux action to dispatch for redirect
  wrapperDisplayName: 'UserIsAuthenticated' // a nice name for this auth check
})

ReactDOM.render(
  <Provider store={store}>
    <Router history={history}>
      <Route path="/" component={App}>
        <Route path="login" component={Login}/>
        <Route path="foo" component={UserIsAuthenticated(Foo)}/>
        <Route path="bar" component={Bar}/>
      </Route>
    </Router>
  </Provider>,
  document.getElementById('mount')
)

And your userReducer looks something like:

const userReducer = (state = {}, { type, payload }) => {
  if (type === USER_LOGGED_IN) {
    return payload
  }
  if (type === USER_LOGGED_OUT) {
    return {}
  }
  return state
}

When the user navigates to /foo, one of the following occurs:

  1. If The user data is null or an empty object:

    The user is redirected to /login?redirect=%2foo

    Notice the url contains the query parameter redirect for sending the user back to after you log them into your app

  2. Otherwise:

    The <Foo> component is rendered and passed the user data as a property

Any time the user data changes, the UserAuthWrapper will re-check for authentication.

Note: You still need to provide a mechanism for redirecting the user from the login page back to your component. You can also do that with redux-auth-wrapper! See the loading example for further details.

API

UserAuthWrapper(configObject)(DecoratedComponent)

Config Object Keys

  • authSelector(state, [ownProps]): authData (Function): A state selector for the auth data. Just like mapToStateProps. ownProps will be null if isOnEnter is true because onEnter hooks cannot receive the component properties. Can be ignored when not using onEnter.
  • authenticatingSelector(state, [ownProps]): Bool (Function): A state selector indicating if the user is currently authenticating. Just like mapToStateProps. Useful for async session loading.
  • LoadingComponent (Component): A React component to render while authenticatingSelector is true. Will be passed all properties passed into the wrapped component, including children.
  • FailureComponent (Component): A React component to render when authenticatingSelector is false. If specified, the wrapper will not redirect. Can be set to null to display nothing when the user is not authenticated/authorized.
  • [failureRedirectPath] (String | (state, [ownProps]): String): Optional path to redirect the browser to on a failed check. Defaults to /login. Can also be a function of state and ownProps that returns a string.
  • [redirectQueryParamName] (String): Optional name of the query parameter added when allowRedirectBack is true. Defaults to redirect.
  • [redirectAction] (Function): Optional redux action creator for redirecting the user. If not present, will use React-Router's router context to perform the transition.
  • [wrapperDisplayName] (String): Optional name describing this authentication or authorization check. It will display in React-devtools. Defaults to UserAuthWrapper
  • [predicate(authData): Bool] (Function): Optional function to be passed the result of the authSelector param. If it evaluates to false the browser will be redirected to failureRedirectPath, otherwise DecoratedComponent will be rendered. By default, it returns false if authData is {} or null.
  • [allowRedirectBack] (Bool | (location, redirectPath): Bool ): Optional bool on whether to pass a redirect query parameter to the failureRedirectPath. Can also be a function of location and the computed failureRedirectPath passed above, that must return a boolean value. Defaults to true.
  • [propMapper] (Function): Optional function that takes the props passed into the wrapped component and returns those props to pass to the DecoratedComponent, The LoadingComponent, and the FailureComponent.

Returns

After applying the configObject, UserAuthWrapper returns a function which can applied to a Component to wrap in authentication and authorization checks. The function also has the following extra properties:

  • onEnter(store, nextState, replace) (Function): Function to be optionally used in the onEnter property of a route.

Component Parameter

  • DecoratedComponent (React Component): The component to be wrapped in the auth check. It will pass down all props given to the returned component as well as the prop authData which is the result of the authSelector. The component is not modified and all static properties are hoisted to the returned component

Authorization & Advanced Usage

/* Allow only users with first name Bob */
const OnlyBob = UserAuthWrapper({
  authSelector: state => state.user,
  redirectAction: routerActions.replace,
  failureRedirectPath: '/app',
  wrapperDisplayName: 'UserIsOnlyBob',
  predicate: user => user.firstName === 'Bob'
})

/* Admins only */

// Take the regular authentication & redirect to login from before
const UserIsAuthenticated = UserAuthWrapper({
  authSelector: state => state.user,
  redirectAction: routerActions.replace,
  wrapperDisplayName: 'UserIsAuthenticated'
})
// Admin Authorization, redirects non-admins to /app and don't send a redirect param
const UserIsAdmin = UserAuthWrapper({
  authSelector: state => state.user,
  redirectAction: routerActions.replace,
  failureRedirectPath: '/app',
  wrapperDisplayName: 'UserIsAdmin',
  predicate: user => user.isAdmin,
  allowRedirectBack: false
})

// Now to secure the component: first check if the user is authenticated, and then check if the user is an admin
<Route path="foo" component={UserIsAuthenticated(UserIsAdmin(Admin))}/>

The ordering of the nested higher order components is important because UserIsAuthenticated(UserIsAdmin(Admin)) means that logged out admins will be redirected to /login before checking if they are an admin.

Otherwise admins would be sent to /app if they weren't logged in and then redirected to /login, only to find themselves at /app after entering their credentials.

Hiding and Alternate Components

Hiding Components

The auth wrappers can be used for more than redirection. You can use the FailureComponent parameter to hide a component or display an alternative component when the user is not authorized. Keep in mind that wrappers that use FailureComponent will not redirect users.

Here is an example that hides a link from a non-admin user.

const VisibleOnlyAdmin = UserAuthWrapper({
  authSelector: state => state.user,
  wrapperDisplayName: 'VisibleOnlyAdmin',
  predicate: user => user.isAdmin,
  FailureComponent: null
})

// Applying to a function component for simplicity but could be Class or createClass component
const AdminOnlyLink = VisibleOnlyAdmin(() => <Link to='/admin'>Admin Section</Link>)

You can see an example of hiding links in the basic example.

Alternate Components

Alternatively, you can specify a FailureComponent to display an alternative component, in this example we specify a new function for our returned HOC to make it more flexible to apply across the app.

const AdminOrElse = (Component, FailureComponent) => UserAuthWrapper({
  authSelector: state => state.user,
  wrapperDisplayName: 'AdminOrElse',
  predicate: user => user.isAdmin,
  FailureComponent
})(Component)

// Show Admin dashboard to admins and user dashboard to regular users
<Route path='/dashboard' component={AdminOrElse(AdminDashboard, UserDashboard)} />

Where to define & apply the wrappers

One benefit of the beginning example is that it is clear from looking at the Routes where the authentication & authorization logic is applied.

If you are using getComponent in React Router you should not apply the auth-wrapper inside getComponent. This will cause React Router to create a new component each time the route changes.

An alternative choice might be to use es7 decorators (after turning on the proper presets) in your component:

import { UserIsAuthenticated } from '<projectpath>/auth/authWrappers';

@UserIsAuthenticated
class MyComponent extends Component {
}

Or with standard ES5/ES6 apply it inside the component file:

export default UserIsAuthenticated(MyComponent)

Protecting Multiple Routes

Because routes in React Router are not required to have paths, you can use nesting to protect multiple routes without applying the wrapper multiple times.

const Authenticated = UserIsAuthenticated((props) => React.cloneElement(props.children, props));

<Route path='/' component={App}>
   <IndexRedirect to="/login" />
   <Route path='login' component={Login} />
   <Route component={Authenticated}>
     <Route path="foo" component={Foo} />
     <Route path="bar" component={Bar} />
   </Route>
</Route>

Dispatching an Additional Redux Action on Redirect

You may want to dispatch an additional redux action when a redirect occurs. One example of this is to display a notification message that the user is being redirected or don't have access to that protected resource. To do this, you can chain the redirectAction parameter using redux-thunk middleware. It depends slightly on if you are using a redux + routing solution or just React Router.

Using react-router-redux or redux-router and dispatching an extra redux action in the wrapper

import { replace } from 'react-router-redux'; // Or your redux-router equivalent
import addNotification from './notificationActions';

// Admin Authorization, redirects non-admins to /app
const UserIsAdmin = UserAuthWrapper({
  failureRedirectPath: '/app',
  predicate: user => user.isAdmin,
  redirectAction: (newLoc) => (dispatch) => {
     dispatch(replace(newLoc));
     dispatch(addNotification({ message: 'Sorry, you are not an administrator' }));
  },
  ...
})

Using React Router with history singleton and extra redux action

import { browserHistory } from 'react-router';
import addNotification from './notificationActions';

// Admin Authorization, redirects non-admins to /app
const UserIsAdmin = UserAuthWrapper({
  failureRedirectPath: '/app',
  predicate: user => user.isAdmin,
  redirectAction: (newLoc) => (dispatch) => {
     browserHistory.replace(newLoc);
     dispatch(addNotification({ message: 'Sorry, you are not an administrator' }));
  },
  ...
})

Server Side Rendering

If your UserAuthWrapper uses redirection, then you may need to use the onEnter property of a <Route> to perform authentication and authorization checks for Server Side Rendering. (Note: If you are only using FailureComponent and not redirecting in your UserAuthWrapper, then you do not need to use onEnter option described below.)

During onEnter, selectors such as authSelector, authenticatingSelector, and failureRedirectPath (if you are using) the function variation, will receive react-router's nextState as their second argument instead of the component props.

You can access the onEnter method of the UserAuthWrapper after applying the config parameters:

import { UserAuthWrapper } from 'redux-auth-wrapper';

const UserIsAuthenticated = UserAuthWrapper({
  authSelector: state => state.user,
  redirectAction: routerActions.replace,
  wrapperDisplayName: 'UserIsAuthenticated'
})

const getRoutes = (store) => {
  const connect = (fn) => (nextState, replaceState) => fn(store, nextState, replaceState);

  return (
    <Route>
      <Route path="/" component={App}>
        <Route path="login" component={Login}/>
        <Route path="foo" component={UserIsAuthenticated(Foo)} onEnter={connect(UserIsAuthenticated.onEnter)} />
      </Route>
    </Route>
  );
};

Server Side Rendering (SSR) with nested auth wrappers

To implement SSR with nested wrappers, you will have to provide a function to chain onEnter functions of each wrapper. To illustrate this, we can modify the example provided in the Authorization & Advanced Usage section above, wherein UserIsAuthenticated is the parent wrapper and UserIsAdmin is the child wrapper.

import { UserAuthWrapper } from 'redux-auth-wrapper';

const UserIsAuthenticated = UserAuthWrapper({
  authSelector: state => state.user,
  redirectAction: routerActions.replace,
  wrapperDisplayName: 'UserIsAuthenticated'
})

// Admin Authorization, redirects non-admins to /app and don't send a redirect param
const UserIsAdmin = UserAuthWrapper({
  authSelector: state => state.user,
  redirectAction: routerActions.replace,
  failureRedirectPath: '/app',
  wrapperDisplayName: 'UserIsAdmin',
  predicate: user => user.isAdmin,
  allowRedirectBack: false
})

const getRoutes = (store) => {
  const connect = (fn) => (nextState, replaceState) => fn(store, nextState, replaceState);

  //This executes the parent onEnter first, going from left to right.
  // `replace` has to be wrapped because we want to stop executing `onEnter` hooks
  // after the first call to `replace`.
  const onEnterChain = (...listOfOnEnters) => (store, nextState, replace) => {
    let redirected = false;
    const wrappedReplace = (...args) => {
      replace(...args);
      redirected = true;
    };
    listOfOnEnters.forEach((onEnter) => {
      if (!redirected) {
        onEnter(store, nextState, wrappedReplace);
      }
    });
  };

  return (
    <Route>
      <Route path="/" component={App}>
        <Route path="login" component={Login}/>
        <Route path="foo"
          component={UserIsAuthenticated(UserIsAdmin(Admin))}
          onEnter={connect(onEnterChain(UserIsAuthenticated.onEnter, UserIsAdmin.onEnter))} />
      </Route>
    </Route>
  );
};

React Native

This library can be used with React Native >= 0.25.0 without any changes.

Using React Native and redux-auth-wrapper? Please help create an example for others to get started!

Examples