Integrated option and argument processing for Perl scripts
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NAME
    OptArgs - integrated argument and option processing

VERSION
    0.1.16 (2014-10-01)

SYNOPSIS
        #!/usr/bin/env perl
        use OptArgs;

        opt quiet => (
            isa     => 'Bool',
            alias   => 'q',
            comment => 'output nothing while working',
        );

        arg item => (
            isa      => 'Str',
            required => 1,
            comment  => 'the item to paint',
        );

        my $ref = optargs;

        print "Painting $ref->{item}\n" unless $ref->{quiet};

DESCRIPTION
    OptArgs processes Perl script *options* and *arguments*. This is in
    contrast with most modules in the Getopt::* namespace, which deal with
    options only. This module is duplicated as Getopt::Args, to cover both
    its original name and yet still be found in the mess that is Getopt::*.

    The following model is assumed by OptArgs for command-line applications:

    Command
        The program name - i.e. the filename be executed by the shell.

    Options
        Options are parameters that affect the way a command runs. They are
        generally not required to be present, but that is configurable. All
        options have a long form prefixed by '--', and may have a single
        letter alias prefixed by '-'.

    Arguments
        Arguments are positional parameters that that a command needs know
        in order to do its work. Confusingly, arguments can be optional.

    Sub-commands
        From a users point of view a sub-command is simply one or more
        arguments given to a Command that result in a particular action.
        However from a code perspective they are implemented as separate,
        stand-alone programs which are called by a dispatcher when the
        appropriate arguments are given.

  Simple Scripts
    To demonstrate lets put the code from the synopsis in a file called
    "paint" and observe the following interactions from the shell:

        $ ./paint
        usage: paint ITEM

          arguments:
            ITEM          the item to paint

          options:
            --quiet, -q   output nothing while working

    The "optargs()" function parses the commands arguments according to the
    "opt" and "arg" declarations and returns a single HASH reference. If the
    command is not called correctly then an exception is thrown (an
    "OptArgs::Usage" object) with an automatically generated usage message
    as shown above.

    Because OptArgs knows about arguments it can detect errors relating to
    them:

        $ ./paint house red
        error: unexpected option or argument: red

    So let's add that missing argument definition:

        arg colour => (
            isa     => 'Str',
            default => 'blue',
            comment => 'the colour to use',
        );

    And then check the usage again:

        $ ./paint
        usage: paint ITEM [COLOUR]

          arguments:
            ITEM          the item to paint
            COLOUR        the colour to use

          options:
            --quiet, -q   output nothing while working

    It can be seen that the non-required argument "colour" appears inside
    square brackets indicating its optional nature.

    Let's add another argument with a positive value for the "greedy"
    parameter:

        arg message => (
            isa     => 'Str',
            comment => 'the message to paint on the item',
            greedy  => 1,
        );

    And check the new usage output:

        usage: paint ITEM [COLOUR] [MESSAGE...]

          arguments:
            ITEM          the item to paint
            COLOUR        the colour to use
            MESSAGE       the message to paint on the item

          options:
            --quiet, -q   output nothing while working

    Three dots (...) are postfixed to usage message for greedy arguments. By
    being greedy, the "message" argument will swallow whatever is left on
    the comand line:

        $ ./paint house blue Perl is great
        Painting in blue on house: "Perl is great".

    Note that it doesn't make sense to define any more arguments once you
    have a greedy argument.

    The order in which options and arguments (and sub-commands - see below)
    are defined is the order in which they appear in usage messsages, and is
    also the order in which the command line is parsed for them.

  Sub-Command Scripts
    Sub-commands are useful when your script performs different actions
    based on the value of a particular argument. To use sub-commands you
    build your application with the following structure:

    Command Class
        The Command Class defines the options and arguments for your
        *entire* application. The module is written the same way as a simple
        script but additionally specifies an argument of type 'SubCmd':

            package My::Cmd;
            use OptArgs;

            arg command => (
                isa     => 'SubCmd',
                comment => 'sub command to run',
            );

            opt help => (
                isa     => 'Bool',
                comment => 'print a help message and exit',
                ishelp  => 1,
            );

            opt dry_run => (
                isa     => 'Bool',
                comment => 'do nothing',
            );

        The "subcmd" function call is then used to define sub-command names
        and descriptions, and separate each sub-commands arguments and
        options:

            subcmd(
                cmd     => 'start',
                comment => 'start a machine'
            );

            arg machine => (
                isa     => 'Str',
                comment => 'the machine to start',
            );

            opt quickly => (
                isa     => 'Bool',
                comment => 'start the machine quickly',
            );

            subcmd(
                cmd     => 'stop',
                comment => 'start the machine'
            );

            arg machine => (
                isa     => 'Str',
                comment => 'the machine to stop',
            );

            opt plug => (
                isa     => 'Bool',
                comment => 'stop the machine by pulling the plug',
            );

        One nice thing about OptArgs is that options are *inherited*. You
        only need to specify something like a "dry-run" option once at the
        top level, and all sub-commands will see it if it has been set.

        Additionally, and this is the main reason why I wrote OptArgs, you
        do not have to load a whole bunch of slow-to-start modules ( I'm
        looking at you, Moose) just to get a help message.

    Sub-Command Classes
        These classes do the actual work. The usual entry point would be a
        method or a function, typically called something like "run", which
        takes a HASHref argument:

            package My::Cmd::start;

            sub run {
                my $self = shift;
                my $opts = shift;
                print "Starting $opts->{machine}\n";
            }


            package My::Cmd::stop;

            sub run {
                my $self = shift;
                my $opts = shift;
                print "Stoping $opts->{machine}\n";
            }

    Command Script
        The command script is what the user runs, and does nothing more than
        dispatch to your Command Class, and eventually a Sub-Command Class.

            #!/usr/bin/perl
            use OptArgs qw/class_optargs/;
            my ($class, $opts) = class_optargs('My::Cmd');

            # Run object based sub-command classes
            $class->new->run($opts);

            # Or function based sub-command classes
            $class->can('run')->($opts);

        One advantage to having a separate Command Class (and not defining
        everything inside a Command script) is that it is easy to run tests
        against your various Sub-Command Classes as follows:

            use Test::More;
            use Test::Output;
            use OptArgs qw/class_optargs/;

            stdout_is(
                sub {
                    my ($class,$opts) = class_optargs('My::Cmd','start','A');
                    $class->new->run($opts);
                },
                "Starting A\n", 'start'
            );

            eval { class_optargs('My::Cmd', '--invalid-option') };
            isa_ok $@, 'OptArgs::Usage';

            done_testing();

        It is much easier to catch and measure exceptions when the code is
        running inside your test script, instead of having to fork and parse
        stderr strings.

FUNCTIONS
    The following functions are exported (by default except for "dispatch")
    using Exporter::Tidy.

    arg( $name, %parameters )
        Define a Command Argument with the following parameters:

        isa Required. Is mapped to a Getopt::Long type according to the
            following table:

                 optargs         Getopt::Long
                ------------------------------
                 'Str'           '=s'
                 'Int'           '=i'
                 'Num'           '=f'
                 'ArrayRef'      's@'
                 'HashRef'       's%'
                 'SubCmd'        '=s'

        comment
            Required. Used to generate the usage/help message.

        required
            Set to a true value when the caller must specify this argument.
            Can not be used if a 'default' is given.

        default
            The value set when the argument is not given. Can not be used if
            'required' is set.

            If this is a subroutine reference it will be called with a
            hashref containg all option/argument values after parsing the
            source has finished. The value to be set must be returned, and
            any changes to the hashref are ignored.

        greedy
            If true the argument swallows the rest of the command line. It
            doesn't make sense to define any more arguments once you have
            used this as they will never be seen.

        fallback
            A hashref containing an argument definition for the event that a
            sub-command match is not found. This parameter is only valid
            when "isa" is a "SubCmd". The hashref must contain "isa", "name"
            and "comment" key/value pairs, and may contain a "greedy"
            key/value pair. The Command Class "run" function will be called
            with the fallback argument integrated into the first argument
            like a regular sub-command.

            This is generally useful when you want to calculate a command
            alias from a configuration file at runtime, or otherwise run
            commands which don't easily fall into the OptArgs sub-command
            model.

    class_optargs( $rootclass, [ @argv ] ) -> ($class, $opts)
        This is a more general version of the "optargs" function described
        in detail below. It parses @ARGV (or @argv if given) according to
        the options and arguments as defined in $rootclass, and returns two
        values:

        $class
            The class name of the matching sub-command.

        $opts
            The matching argument and options for the sub-command.

        As an aid for testing, if the passed in argument @argv (not @ARGV)
        contains a HASH reference, the key/value combinations of the hash
        will be added as options. An undefined value means a boolean option.

    dispatch( $function, $rootclass, [ @argv ] )
        [ NOTE: This function is badly designed and is depreciated. It will
        be removed at some point before version 1.0.0]

        Parse @ARGV (or @argv if given) and dispatch to $function in the
        appropriate package name constructed from $rootclass.

        As an aid for testing, if the passed in argument @argv (not @ARGV)
        contains a HASH reference, the key/value combinations of the hash
        will be added as options. An undefined value means a boolean option.

    opt( $name, %parameters )
        Define a Command Option. If $name contains underscores then aliases
        with the underscores replaced by dashes (-) will be created. The
        following parameters are accepted:

        isa Required. Is mapped to a Getopt::Long type according to the
            following table:

                 optargs         Getopt::Long
                ------------------------------
                 'Bool'          '!'
                 'Counter'       '+'
                 'Str'           '=s'
                 'Int'           '=i'
                 'Num'           '=f'
                 'ArrayRef'      's@'
                 'HashRef'       's%'

        comment
            Required. Used to generate the usage/help message.

        default
            The value set when the option is not used.

            If this is a subroutine reference it will be called with a
            hashref containg all option/argument values after parsing the
            source has finished. The value to be set must be returned, and
            any changes to the hashref are ignored.

        alias
            A single character alias.

        ishelp
            When true flags this option as a help option, which when given
            on the command line results in a usage message exception. This
            flag is basically a cleaner way of doing the following in each
            (sub) command:

                my $opts = optargs;
                if ( $opts->{help} ) {
                    die usage('help requested');
                }

        hidden
            When true this option will not appear in usage messages unless
            the usage message is a help request.

            This is handy if you have developer-only options, or options
            that are very rarely used that you don't want cluttering up your
            normal usage message.

    optargs( [ @argv ] ) -> HashRef
        Parse @ARGV by default (or @argv when given) for the arguments and
        options defined in the *current package*, and returns a hashref
        containing key/value pairs for options and arguments *combined*. An
        error / usage exception object ("OptArgs::Usage") is thrown if an
        invalid combination of options and arguments is given.

        Note that @ARGV will be decoded into UTF-8 (if necessary) from
        whatever I18N::Langinfo says your current locale codeset is.

    subcmd( %parameters )
        Create a sub-command. After this function is called further calls to
        "opt" and "arg" define options and arguments respectively for the
        sub-command. The following parameters are accepted:

        cmd Required. Either a scalar or an ARRAY reference containing the
            sub command name.

        comment
            Required. Used to generate the usage/help message.

        hidden
            When true this sub command will not appear in usage messages
            unless the usage message is a help request.

            This is handy if you have developer-only or rarely-used commands
            that you don't want cluttering up your normal usage message.

    usage( [$message] ) -> Str
        Returns a usage string prefixed with $message if given.

OPTIONAL BEHAVIOUR
    Certain OptArgs behaviour and/or output can be changed by setting the
    following package-level variables:

    $OptArgs::ABBREV
        If $OptArgs::ABBREV is a true value then sub-commands can be
        abbreviated, up to their shortest, unique values.

    $OptArgs::COLOUR
        If $OptArgs::COLOUR is a true value and "STDOUT" is connected to a
        terminal then usage and error messages will be colourized using
        terminal escape codes.

    $OptArgs::SORT
        If $OptArgs::SORT is a true value then sub-commands will be listed
        in usage messages alphabetically instead of in the order they were
        defined.

SEE ALSO
    Getopt::Long, Exporter::Tidy

SUPPORT & DEVELOPMENT
    This distribution is managed via github:

        https://github.com/mlawren/p5-OptArgs/tree/devel

    This distribution follows the semantic versioning model:

        http://semver.org/

    Code is tidied up on Git commit using githook-perltidy:

        http://github.com/mlawren/githook-perltidy

AUTHOR
    Mark Lawrence <nomad@null.net>

LICENSE
    Copyright 2012-2014 Mark Lawrence <nomad@null.net>

    This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
    under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
    Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at your
    option) any later version.