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File Abstraction Interface Layer (FAIL) for R, mimicking a key-value store.

This package simplifies working with RData files managed in directories. A FAIL operates non-recursively on a single directory and provides the following functionality:

  • Internal handling of path joining.
  • List "keys" (filename without RData-extension) or subsets of keys by providing regular expressions.
  • Create, load, save and remove R objects using a key-value syntax.
  • Efficient apply functions on all files or on subsets.
  • Flexible in-memory caching mechanism to avoid reading files multiple times.


Install from CRAN:


Alternatively, you can also install the latest development version from GitHub using the devtools package:

install_github("fail", username="mllg")


Example files

For illustration we create a directory with multiple (result) files in it. You can create one in your current working directory by using the following small snippet. All next examples rely on them, so you better do this now.

path = file.path(getwd(), "results")
for (i in 1:10) {
    for (j in 1:10) {
        x = rnorm(100)
        save(x, file = file.path(path, sprintf("result_%s_%02i.RData", letters[i], j)))


A FAIL is constructed with the fail function: fail(path = getwd(), extension = ".RData", use.cache = FALSE). You can specify the path to work on (defaults to the current working directory), the file extension (default: "RData"), and a logical flag to enable or disable the caching mechanism per default (default: FALSE).

# initialize a FAIL on the previously created directory
results = fail("results")

Listing files

The path and further options are saved internally so everything you need to do is calling the ls(pattern=NULL) subfunction of the created object. The return value is always a character vector containing the keys (filenames without extension).


# restrict to  subsets using a regular expression

Retrieving R objects

FAIL provides two retrieval subfunctions: get(key, use.cache) and as.list(keys, use.cache). get is handy to retrieve a single object by its key while as.list loads multiple files into a named list. The use.cache argument defaults to the value specified in the constructor. If use.cache is set to TRUE, the objects will be stored in memory so that multiple calls to get or as.list do not cause multiple disk reads.

Furthermore the subfunction assign(keys, envir, use.cache) assigns objects to a provided environment envir which defaults to the current.

# single object

# multiple objects
keys = results$ls("_a_")

# all objects
results$as.list() # or as.list(results)

# read all files quickly into a list as one-liner

# assign two variables into the current environment
results$assign(c("result_a_01", "result_a_02"))

Saving R objects

The subfunction put(..., keys, li=list(), use.cache) stores all objects provided to the directory specified in the constructor. You can pass arguments in a key=vale syntax or just use predefined variables (the variable names will then be looked up). You can furthermore pass a named list to li (see example). The argument keys can be used to overwrite the names for the objects passed via ... which is useful in some scenarios, e.g. together with Again, the global flag use.cache can be overwritten locally.

# add two files "foo.RData" and "bar.RData"
foo = 1
results$put(foo, bar = 2)

# provide a named list, each item will be saved in a separate file
results$put(li = list(foo = 1, bar = 2))

Removing R objects (and related files)

Of course you can also remove files. The subfunction rm(keys) takes a character vector of keys. Removed objects will also be purged from the cache.

results$remove(results$ls("ar")) # matches bar

Applying functions over R objects

The subfunction apply(FUN, ..., keys, cache, simplify = FALSE, use.names = TRUE) acts in principle like a sapply (but has more sane defaults, because the error prone simplify is per default off). You can provide some keys (default is all keys) and the provided function FUN is applied on the objects stored on the file system (or in the cache). use.names defaults to TRUE. The function returns a named (possibly simplified) list with keys as list names. The advantage over manually applying a function with sapply on a list created by as.list is the lower memory consumption: List items are read in and discarded iteratively.

Sometimes the functionality of lapply does not suffice. Therefore the package also ships with a version of mapply as mapply(FUN, ..., keys, use.cache, moreArgs = NULL, simplify = FALSE, use.names = TRUE). The provided function FUN must have the formals key and value to which the keys and corresponding objects are passed.

# memory friendly lapply-like function
results$apply(mean, simplify=TRUE)

# identical, but the list of all objects will be created first
sapply(as.list(results), mean)

# map function scale and store results (in a temporary directory)
scaled = fail(tempfile())
scaled$put(li = results$apply(scale)) # memory inefficient
results$mapply(function(key, value) scaled$put(scale(value), keys = key)) # memory efficent

More utility functions

The next snippet teases some more (for most users not that important) utility functions. If you are missing some important ones, please contact me.

# show file size informations

# enable caching (can be switched on globally)
results$put(a = rnorm(100000))
microbenchmark(results$get("a"), results$get("a", use.cache=TRUE))

# simple cache control


File Abstraction Interface Layer (FAIL) for R mimicking a key-value store




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