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Ring is a Clojure web applications library inspired by Python's WSGI and Ruby's Rack. By abstracting the details of HTTP into a simple, unified API, Ring allows web applications to be constructed of modular components that can be shared among a variety of applications, web servers, and web frameworks.

The SPEC file at the root of this distribution for provides a complete description of the Ring interface.


"Hello World" in Ring:

(use 'ring.adapter.jetty)

(defn app [req]
  {:status  200
   :headers {"Content-Type" "text/html"}
   :body    "Hello World from Ring"})

(run-jetty app {:port 8080})

Adding simple middleware:

(defn wrap-upcase [app]
  (fn [req]
    (let [orig-resp (app req)]
      (assoc orig-resp :body (.toUpperCase (:body orig-resp))))))

(def upcase-app (wrap-upcase app))

(run-jetty upcase-app {:port 8080})

Quick Start

To see some working examples, first pull in Ring's dependencies using Leiningen:

$ lein deps

To see a live "Hello World" Ring app, run:

$ java -cp "lib/*" clojure.main example/hello_world.clj

Now visit http://localhost:8080/ in your browser; the Ring app will respond to your request with a simple HTML page indicating the time of day.

To see a more sophisticated Ring app, run:

$ java -cp "lib/*" clojure.main example/wrapping.clj
  • If you request http://localhost:8080/ in your browser the ring.handler.dump handler will respond with an HTML page representing the request map that it received (see the SPEC for details on the request map).
  • If you request http://localhost:8080/clojure.png, the ring.middleware.file middleware will detect that there is a clojure.png file in the app's public directory and return that image as a response.
  • If you request http://localhost:8080/error, the app will produce an error that will be caught by the ring.middleware.stacktrace middleware, which will in turn return a readable stacktrace as the HTML response.


Available Libraries


  • ring.middleware.file: Serve static files out of a public directory.
  • ring.middleware.static: Serve static files with specified prefixes out of a public directory.
  • ring.middleware.file-info: Augment response headers with info about File responses.
  • ring.middleware.params: Parse query and form params.
  • ring.middleware.multipart-params: Parse multipart params.
  • 'ring.middleware.keyword-params`: Convert string param keys to keywords.
  • ring.middleware.cookies: Manage browser cookies.
  • ring.middleware.session: Manage user sessions. Memory and cookie session stores are available by default.
  • ring.util.response: Generate Ring responses.


  • ring.handler.dump: Dumps request maps as HTML responses for debugging.
  • ring.middleware.lint: Lint requests and responses to ensure compliance with the Ring spec.
  • ring.middleware.reload: Automatically reload selected libs before each request.
  • ring.middleware.stacktrace: Catch exceptions and displays readable stacktraces for debugging.


  • ring.util.servlet: Utilities for interfacing with Java Servlets.


  • ring.adapter.jetty: Adapter for the Jetty webserver.


  • ring.adapter.httpcore: Adapter for the Apache HttpCore webserver.

Leiningen Usage

To include one of the above libraries in your Leiningen project, for example ring-core, add the following to your :dependences:

[ring/ring-core "0.2.0"]

To include all of them, add:

[ring/ring "0.2.0"]


Ring is being actively developed; you can track its progress and contribute at the project's GitHub page and Google Group.

To run the Ring unit tests, first navigate to the appropriate project and then:

$ lein deps
$ lein test


This project borrows heavily from Ruby's Rack and Python's WSGI; thanks to those communities for their work.


Copyright (c) 2009-2010 Mark McGranaghan and released under an MIT license.

Clojure logo by Tom Hickey.

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