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ArduinoUnit is a unit testing framework for Arduino libraries

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readme.md

ArduinoUnit

Unit test framework for arduino projects.

Current Version 2.0

Download ArduinoUnit 2.0.

ArduinoUnit 2.0 is a complete rewrite of ArduinoUnit based on the experience of unit testing with the 1.x library over the last few years. It aims to be easier to use for simple use cases whilst at the same time providing better support for more complex unit testing needs (see below for details). As such it is not fully compatible with 1.x unit test sketches, although it is relatively easy to port these to 2.0 (see the porting guide).

If you don't want to take advantage of the great new features in 2.0 then the latest release of the 1.x code line is still available for download.

Why Version 2.0?

ArduinoUnit 2.0 follows the spirit of ArduinoUnit 1.x with the following less-is-more features:

  1. No test suite setup is required.
  2. Custom reporting now uses the standard Arduino Print class.

And the following more-is-more features:

  1. A wider variety of assertions and assertion argument types.
  2. A wildcard include() and exclude() mechanism for selecting active tests.
  3. A per-test verbosity setting.
  4. Check-once tests (like ArduinoUnit), but also check-until-skip-pass-or-fail and class structured (TestOnce and Test) tests.
  5. The output destination and verbosity is quite flexible.
  6. Test names and assert strings are stored in flash (not RAM).
    • Test names can optionally be stored in either RAM or flash.
  7. assertions about other tests.

Getting Started

Create a directory called ArduinoUnit in your Arduino Libraries Directory e.g. <arduino installation directory>\libraries.

Copy everything from the src directory to this new directory.

Open a sketch in arduino and click Sketch | Import Library... | ArduinoUnit to start unit testing.

For example, try this simple unit testing sketch:

#line 2 "sketch.ino"
#include <ArduinoUnit.h>

test(ok) 
{
  int x=3;
  int y=3;
  assertEqual(x,y);
}

test(bad)
{
  int x=3;
  int y=3;
  assertNotEqual(x,y);
}

void setup()
{
  Serial.begin(9600);
}

void loop()
{
  Test::run();
}

Upload this sketch to the Arduino (using the 'Upload' button, File | Upload or Ctrl+U).

Turn on the Serial Monitor (using the 'Serial Monitor' button, Tools | Serial Monitor or Ctrl+Shift+M) and expect to see the following:

Assertion failed: (x=3) != (y=3), file sketch.ino, line 17.
Test bad failed.
Test ok passed.
Test summary: 1 passed, 1 failed, and 0 skipped, out of 2 test(s).

Verbosity

Just how much information is generated on each test is fairly flexible, and designed to address these rules:

  1. How much code is generated (TEST_MAX_VERBOSITY)
  2. Global maximums subject to 1 (static Test::max_verbosity)
  3. Global minimums subject to 1 and 2 (static Test::min_verbosity)
  4. Per-test requirements subject to 1, 2 and 3 (Test::verbosity)

The rules are as follows for each kind of possible output flag:

  1. Is the flag set in TEST_MAX_VERBOSITY? If not set, then the output is suppressed and we are done.
  2. Is the flag set in Test::max_verbosity? If not set, then the output is suppressed and we are done.
  3. Is the flag set in Test::min_verbosity? If set, then the output is generated and we are done.
  4. Are we in a test context (Test::run())?

    If so, the output is generated if the corresponding per-test verbosity flag is set.

The default values are as follows

   TEST_MAX_VERBOSITY = TEST_VERBOSITY_ALL

   static Test::max_verbosity = TEST_VERBOSITY_ALL
   static Test::min_verbosity = TEST_VERBOSITY_TESTS_SUMMARY

   Test::verbosity = (TEST_VERBOSTY_TESTS_ALL|TEST_VERBOSITY_ASSERTIONS_FAILED)

This amounts to asking for a summary of each test (skip, pass, fail), an overall summary when all tests are resolved, and a more detailed report on each of the failed assertions.

The verbosity flags are the bitwise-or of the following values

TEST_VERBOSITY_TESTS_SUMMARY      (0x01)
TEST_VERBOSITY_TESTS_FAILED       (0x02)
TEST_VERBOSITY_TESTS_PASSED       (0x04)
TEST_VERBOSITY_TESTS_SKIPPED      (0x08)
TEST_VERBOSITY_TESTS_ALL          (0x0F)
TEST_VERBOSITY_ASSERTIONS_FAILED  (0x10)
TEST_VERBOSITY_ASSERTIONS_PASSED  (0x20)
TEST_VERBOSITY_ASSERTIONS_ALL     (0x30)
TEST_VERBOSITY_ALL                (0x3F)
TEST_VERBOSITY_NONE               (0x00)

Output

The Test::out value is the shared value for all tests describing where output for all tests goes. The default is

Test::out = &Serial;

But you can set to the address of any Print stream, for example, if you want the output to be on the Serial3 device on the arduino mega, use

Test::out = &Serial3;

in your setup(). Note the library does not set the baud rate - you have to do that in your setup().

Built-in Assertions

The following assertions are supported

assertLess(arg1,arg2)
assertLessOrEqual(arg1,arg2)
assertEqual(arg1,arg2)
assertNotEqual(arg1,arg2)
assertMoreOrEqual(arg1,arg2)
assertMore(arg1,arg2)

The following types are supported for these assertions:

String
char *
char
unsigned char
int
unsigned int
long
unsigned long
double

A note on character strings: There are specializations for the char * type, like "hello", but some versions of the compiler treats character literals ("hello") and character arrays (char buf[32]) as different types. You can safely cast character arrays to character pointers for these assertions. For example:

test(string)
{
  char str1[32];
  char *str2="test1";
  strcpy(str1,str2);
  assertEqual(str1,str2); // may not compile or give warning
  assertEqual((char*)str1,str2); // ok -- 
}

There are addtionally some boolean assertions:

assertTrue(arg)
assertFalse(arg)

See the section below for assertions on tests.

The output from these assertions is to print a string represenation of the arguments, and the value of the arguments, as in:

Assertion passed/failed: (arg1=value1) op (arg2=value2), file name, line #.

These assertions are defined in a way that the problem of multiple evaluations is avoided. The arguments are only evaluated once in these assertions.

All the assert macros expand to a test that creates an optional message, and, if false, calls fail() on the current test and returns.

Meta Assertions

You can make assertions on the outcome of tests as well. The following meta-assertions are supported:

assertTestDone(test)
assertTestNotDone(test)
assertTestPass(test)
assertTestNotPass(test)
assertTestFail(test)
assertTestNotFail(test)
assertTestSkip(test)
assertTestNotSkip(test)

These can be used in conjunction with the boolean check-only macros

checkTestDone(test)
checkTestNotDone(test)
checkTestPass(test)
checkTestNotPass(test)
checkTestFail(test)
checkTestNotFail(test)
checkTestSkip(test)
checkTestNotSkip(test)

These behave like the other asserts, but they work only in the context of other tests. The most likely place you would have such a test would be in a testing meta-test as so:

test(ok) { pass(); }
test(bad) { fail(); }
testing(slow) { if (millis() > 1000) pass(); }

testing(passed) 
{
  if (checkTestDone(ok)) {
    assertTestPass(ok);
    pass();
  }
}

testing(too_slow)
{
  if (millis() > 100) {
    assertTestDone(slow);
    pass();
  }
}

Since the ordering tests cannot be controlled, only use test-asserts in a testing() environment.

Test and TestOnce

You can create your own modular tests by deriving from these classes.

class MyTest : public Test {
public:
  MyTest(const __FlashStringHelper *name) : Test(name) {
    // TODO: construct named test.
    // This should be lightweight - it may be excluded
    //
    // You can set verbosity.
  }
  void setup() {
    // TODO: setup test
    // You can call pass(), fail(), or skip() to immediately resolve test
    // You can make assertions.
    // You can set verbosity.
  }
  void loop() {
    // TODO: run test on each loop
    // You can call pass(), fail(), or skip() to resolve test
    // You can make assertions.
    // You can set verbosity.
  }
};

class MyTestOnce : public TestOnce
{
public:
  MyTestOnce(const char *name) : TestOnce(name) {
  // same as MyTest
  }
  void setup() {
  // same as MyTest
  }
  void once() {
  // same as MyTest::loop(), but will only be called once from loop()
  // if included in the active tests and was not resolved in setup().
  }

}

// create instances of the custom test 
MyTest myTest1(F("myTest1"));
MyTest myTest2(F("myTest2"));

MyTestOnce myTestOnce1("myTestOnce1");
MyTestOnce myTestOnce2("myTestOnce2");

Note that Test::run() only calls the active unresolved tests.

Selecting tests

In your setup() function, you can select which tests are going to be setup and looped. The default is that all tests are included.

Test::exclude(const char *pattern) removes all the tests that match the given *-pattern.

Test::include(const char *pattern) includes all the tests that match the given *-pattern.

Here are some examples:

Select examples:

A single test my_test

void setup()
{
  Serial.begin(9600);
  Test::exclude("*");
  Test::include("my_test");
}

All tests named dev_-something, but not the ones ending in _skip or _slow, or have the word eeprom in them:

void setup()
{
  Serial.begin(9600);
  Test::exclude("*");
  Test::include("dev_*");
  Test::exclude("*_slow");
  Test::exclude("*_skip");
  Test::exclude("*eeprom*");
}

FAQ

Q. The line number of the asserts do not match the source file.

A. As far as I can tell, this is a bug in the compiler -- look two lines up. I do not know why the __LINE__ macro does not match the actual line of code.

Q. What's with the # 2 "file.ino" business in the examples?

A. This is to address question 1 above, and, without this line, the filename will be a very long and mostly useless name in the asserts, like,

/var/folders/gr/n9s7qtcs2qqbdnmcgm6gjzrm0000gp/T/build2118014134542174575.tmp/sketch_mar17a.ino

This uses up flash memory space and doesn't give any useful information when something goes wrong.

Q. I get these link errors about multiply defined test_XXXX_instance.

A. You have defined two tests with the same name XXXX using either the test() or testing() macro.

Q. I get no output

A. Here is a troubleshooting guideline:

  • Make sure you call Serial.begin() in your setup. Or, if you redirect output by changing the value of Test::out, make sure you configure the Print stream you direct it to.
  • Make sure you call Test::run() in your loop().
  • Make sure you did not exclude the test(s) with Test::exclude(pattern). By default all tests are included.
  • Make sure your tests complete.
    • Each single-check test() test not be in an infinite loop.
    • Each continous testing() test do a small amount of work on each call, and should eventually invoke pass(), fail() or skip().
  • Make sure verbosity is adequate. You can generate all possible output by
    • Assuring that TEST_MAX_VERBOSITY in ArduinoUnit.h is TEST_VERBOSITY_ALL (the default).
    • Assuring that Test::max_verbosity is TEST_VERBOSITY_ALL (the default).
    • Setting Test::min_verbosity = TEST_VERBOSITY_ALL (the default is TEST_VERSOBITY_TESTS_ALL | TEST_VERBOSITY_ASSERTIONS_FAILED, generating output only for failed assertions, completions of tests, and an overall summary).
    • With these settings, the per-test verbosity has no effect.

License

Copyright (c) 2013 Warren MacEvoy, Matthew Murdoch

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

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