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# Authors: Alexandre Gramfort <alexandre.gramfort@inria.fr>
# Matti Hämäläinen <msh@nmr.mgh.harvard.edu>
# Denis A. Engemann <denis.engemann@gmail.com>
#
# License: BSD (3-clause)
from copy import deepcopy
from distutils.version import LooseVersion
import itertools as itt
from math import log
import os
import numpy as np
from scipy import linalg, sparse
from .io.write import start_file, end_file
from .io.proj import (make_projector, _proj_equal, activate_proj,
_check_projs, _needs_eeg_average_ref_proj,
_has_eeg_average_ref_proj, _read_proj, _write_proj)
from .io import fiff_open, RawArray
from .io.pick import (pick_types, pick_channels_cov, pick_channels, pick_info,
_picks_by_type, _pick_data_channels, _picks_to_idx,
_DATA_CH_TYPES_SPLIT)
from .io.constants import FIFF
from .io.meas_info import read_bad_channels, create_info
from .io.tag import find_tag
from .io.tree import dir_tree_find
from .io.write import (start_block, end_block, write_int, write_name_list,
write_double, write_float_matrix, write_string)
from .defaults import _handle_default
from .epochs import Epochs
from .event import make_fixed_length_events
from .rank import compute_rank
from .utils import (check_fname, logger, verbose, check_version, _time_mask,
warn, copy_function_doc_to_method_doc, _pl,
_undo_scaling_cov, _scaled_array, _validate_type,
_check_option, eigh)
from . import viz
from .fixes import BaseEstimator, EmpiricalCovariance, _logdet
def _check_covs_algebra(cov1, cov2):
if cov1.ch_names != cov2.ch_names:
raise ValueError('Both Covariance do not have the same list of '
'channels.')
projs1 = [str(c) for c in cov1['projs']]
projs2 = [str(c) for c in cov1['projs']]
if projs1 != projs2:
raise ValueError('Both Covariance do not have the same list of '
'SSP projections.')
def _get_tslice(epochs, tmin, tmax):
"""Get the slice."""
mask = _time_mask(epochs.times, tmin, tmax, sfreq=epochs.info['sfreq'])
tstart = np.where(mask)[0][0] if tmin is not None else None
tend = np.where(mask)[0][-1] + 1 if tmax is not None else None
tslice = slice(tstart, tend, None)
return tslice
class Covariance(dict):
"""Noise covariance matrix.
.. warning:: This class should not be instantiated directly, but
instead should be created using a covariance reading or
computation function.
Parameters
----------
data : array-like
The data.
names : list of str
Channel names.
bads : list of str
Bad channels.
projs : list
Projection vectors.
nfree : int
Degrees of freedom.
eig : array-like | None
Eigenvalues.
eigvec : array-like | None
Eigenvectors.
method : str | None
The method used to compute the covariance.
loglik : float
The log likelihood.
Attributes
----------
data : array of shape (n_channels, n_channels)
The covariance.
ch_names : list of string
List of channels' names.
nfree : int
Number of degrees of freedom i.e. number of time points used.
dim : int
The number of channels ``n_channels``.
See Also
--------
compute_covariance
compute_raw_covariance
make_ad_hoc_cov
read_cov
"""
def __init__(self, data, names, bads, projs, nfree, eig=None, eigvec=None,
method=None, loglik=None):
"""Init of covariance."""
diag = (data.ndim == 1)
projs = _check_projs(projs)
self.update(data=data, dim=len(data), names=names, bads=bads,
nfree=nfree, eig=eig, eigvec=eigvec, diag=diag,
projs=projs, kind=FIFF.FIFFV_MNE_NOISE_COV)
if method is not None:
self['method'] = method
if loglik is not None:
self['loglik'] = loglik
@property
def data(self):
"""Numpy array of Noise covariance matrix."""
return self['data']
@property
def ch_names(self):
"""Channel names."""
return self['names']
@property
def nfree(self):
"""Number of degrees of freedom."""
return self['nfree']
def save(self, fname):
"""Save covariance matrix in a FIF file.
Parameters
----------
fname : str
Output filename.
"""
check_fname(fname, 'covariance', ('-cov.fif', '-cov.fif.gz',
'_cov.fif', '_cov.fif.gz'))
fid = start_file(fname)
try:
_write_cov(fid, self)
except Exception:
fid.close()
os.remove(fname)
raise
end_file(fid)
def copy(self):
"""Copy the Covariance object.
Returns
-------
cov : instance of Covariance
The copied object.
"""
return deepcopy(self)
def as_diag(self):
"""Set covariance to be processed as being diagonal.
Returns
-------
cov : dict
The covariance.
Notes
-----
This function allows creation of inverse operators
equivalent to using the old "--diagnoise" mne option.
"""
if self['diag']:
return self
self['diag'] = True
self['data'] = np.diag(self['data'])
self['eig'] = None
self['eigvec'] = None
return self
def __repr__(self): # noqa: D105
if self.data.ndim == 2:
s = 'size : %s x %s' % self.data.shape
else: # ndim == 1
s = 'diagonal : %s' % self.data.size
s += ", n_samples : %s" % self.nfree
s += ", data : %s" % self.data
return "<Covariance | %s>" % s
def __add__(self, cov):
"""Add Covariance taking into account number of degrees of freedom."""
_check_covs_algebra(self, cov)
this_cov = cov.copy()
this_cov['data'] = (((this_cov['data'] * this_cov['nfree']) +
(self['data'] * self['nfree'])) /
(self['nfree'] + this_cov['nfree']))
this_cov['nfree'] += self['nfree']
this_cov['bads'] = list(set(this_cov['bads']).union(self['bads']))
return this_cov
def __iadd__(self, cov):
"""Add Covariance taking into account number of degrees of freedom."""
_check_covs_algebra(self, cov)
self['data'][:] = (((self['data'] * self['nfree']) +
(cov['data'] * cov['nfree'])) /
(self['nfree'] + cov['nfree']))
self['nfree'] += cov['nfree']
self['bads'] = list(set(self['bads']).union(cov['bads']))
return self
@verbose
@copy_function_doc_to_method_doc(viz.misc.plot_cov)
def plot(self, info, exclude=[], colorbar=True, proj=False, show_svd=True,
show=True, verbose=None):
return viz.misc.plot_cov(self, info, exclude, colorbar, proj, show_svd,
show, verbose)
###############################################################################
# IO
@verbose
def read_cov(fname, verbose=None):
"""Read a noise covariance from a FIF file.
Parameters
----------
fname : string
The name of file containing the covariance matrix. It should end with
-cov.fif or -cov.fif.gz.
%(verbose)s
Returns
-------
cov : Covariance
The noise covariance matrix.
See Also
--------
write_cov, compute_covariance, compute_raw_covariance
"""
check_fname(fname, 'covariance', ('-cov.fif', '-cov.fif.gz',
'_cov.fif', '_cov.fif.gz'))
f, tree = fiff_open(fname)[:2]
with f as fid:
return Covariance(**_read_cov(fid, tree, FIFF.FIFFV_MNE_NOISE_COV,
limited=True))
###############################################################################
# Estimate from data
@verbose
def make_ad_hoc_cov(info, std=None, verbose=None):
"""Create an ad hoc noise covariance.
Parameters
----------
info : instance of Info
Measurement info.
std : dict of float | None
Standard_deviation of the diagonal elements. If dict, keys should be
`grad` for gradiometers, `mag` for magnetometers and `eeg` for EEG
channels. If None, default values will be used (see Notes).
%(verbose)s
Returns
-------
cov : instance of Covariance
The ad hoc diagonal noise covariance for the M/EEG data channels.
Notes
-----
The default noise values are 5 fT/cm, 20 fT, and 0.2 uV for gradiometers,
magnetometers, and EEG channels respectively.
.. versionadded:: 0.9.0
"""
picks = pick_types(info, meg=True, eeg=True, exclude=())
std = _handle_default('noise_std', std)
data = np.zeros(len(picks))
for meg, eeg, val in zip(('grad', 'mag', False), (False, False, True),
(std['grad'], std['mag'], std['eeg'])):
these_picks = pick_types(info, meg=meg, eeg=eeg)
data[np.searchsorted(picks, these_picks)] = val * val
ch_names = [info['ch_names'][pick] for pick in picks]
return Covariance(data, ch_names, info['bads'], info['projs'], nfree=0)
def _check_n_samples(n_samples, n_chan):
"""Check to see if there are enough samples for reliable cov calc."""
n_samples_min = 10 * (n_chan + 1) // 2
if n_samples <= 0:
raise ValueError('No samples found to compute the covariance matrix')
if n_samples < n_samples_min:
warn('Too few samples (required : %d got : %d), covariance '
'estimate may be unreliable' % (n_samples_min, n_samples))
@verbose
def compute_raw_covariance(raw, tmin=0, tmax=None, tstep=0.2, reject=None,
flat=None, picks=None, method='empirical',
method_params=None, cv=3, scalings=None, n_jobs=1,
return_estimators=False, reject_by_annotation=True,
rank=None, verbose=None):
"""Estimate noise covariance matrix from a continuous segment of raw data.
It is typically useful to estimate a noise covariance from empty room
data or time intervals before starting the stimulation.
Parameters
----------
raw : instance of Raw
Raw data
tmin : float
Beginning of time interval in seconds. Defaults to 0.
tmax : float | None (default None)
End of time interval in seconds. If None (default), use the end of the
recording.
tstep : float (default 0.2)
Length of data chunks for artifact rejection in seconds.
Can also be None to use a single epoch of (tmax - tmin)
duration. This can use a lot of memory for large ``Raw``
instances.
reject : dict | None (default None)
Rejection parameters based on peak-to-peak amplitude.
Valid keys are 'grad' | 'mag' | 'eeg' | 'eog' | 'ecg'.
If reject is None then no rejection is done. Example::
reject = dict(grad=4000e-13, # T / m (gradiometers)
mag=4e-12, # T (magnetometers)
eeg=40e-6, # V (EEG channels)
eog=250e-6 # V (EOG channels)
)
flat : dict | None (default None)
Rejection parameters based on flatness of signal.
Valid keys are 'grad' | 'mag' | 'eeg' | 'eog' | 'ecg', and values
are floats that set the minimum acceptable peak-to-peak amplitude.
If flat is None then no rejection is done.
%(picks_good_data_noref)s
method : str | list | None (default 'empirical')
The method used for covariance estimation.
See :func:`mne.compute_covariance`.
.. versionadded:: 0.12
method_params : dict | None (default None)
Additional parameters to the estimation procedure.
See :func:`mne.compute_covariance`.
.. versionadded:: 0.12
cv : int | sklearn.model_selection object (default 3)
The cross validation method. Defaults to 3, which will
internally trigger by default :class:`sklearn.model_selection.KFold`
with 3 splits.
.. versionadded:: 0.12
scalings : dict | None (default None)
Defaults to ``dict(mag=1e15, grad=1e13, eeg=1e6)``.
These defaults will scale magnetometers and gradiometers
at the same unit.
.. versionadded:: 0.12
%(n_jobs)s
.. versionadded:: 0.12
return_estimators : bool (default False)
Whether to return all estimators or the best. Only considered if
method equals 'auto' or is a list of str. Defaults to False
.. versionadded:: 0.12
reject_by_annotation : bool
Whether to reject based on annotations. If True (default), epochs
overlapping with segments whose description begins with ``'bad'`` are
rejected. If False, no rejection based on annotations is performed.
.. versionadded:: 0.14
%(rank_None)s
.. versionadded:: 0.17
.. versionadded:: 0.18
Support for 'info' mode.
%(verbose)s
Returns
-------
cov : instance of Covariance | list
The computed covariance. If method equals 'auto' or is a list of str
and return_estimators equals True, a list of covariance estimators is
returned (sorted by log-likelihood, from high to low, i.e. from best
to worst).
See Also
--------
compute_covariance : Estimate noise covariance matrix from epochs
Notes
-----
This function will:
1. Partition the data into evenly spaced, equal-length epochs.
2. Load them into memory.
3. Subtract the mean across all time points and epochs for each channel.
4. Process the :class:`Epochs` by :func:`compute_covariance`.
This will produce a slightly different result compared to using
:func:`make_fixed_length_events`, :class:`Epochs`, and
:func:`compute_covariance` directly, since that would (with the recommended
baseline correction) subtract the mean across time *for each epoch*
(instead of across epochs) for each channel.
"""
tmin = 0. if tmin is None else float(tmin)
tmax = raw.times[-1] if tmax is None else float(tmax)
tstep = tmax - tmin if tstep is None else float(tstep)
tstep_m1 = tstep - 1. / raw.info['sfreq'] # inclusive!
events = make_fixed_length_events(raw, 1, tmin, tmax, tstep)
logger.info('Using up to %s segment%s' % (len(events), _pl(events)))
# don't exclude any bad channels, inverses expect all channels present
if picks is None:
# Need to include all channels e.g. if eog rejection is to be used
picks = np.arange(raw.info['nchan'])
pick_mask = np.in1d(
picks, _pick_data_channels(raw.info, with_ref_meg=False))
else:
pick_mask = slice(None)
picks = _picks_to_idx(raw.info, picks)
epochs = Epochs(raw, events, 1, 0, tstep_m1, baseline=None,
picks=picks, reject=reject, flat=flat, verbose=False,
preload=False, proj=False,
reject_by_annotation=reject_by_annotation)
if method is None:
method = 'empirical'
if isinstance(method, str) and method == 'empirical':
# potentially *much* more memory efficient to do it the iterative way
picks = picks[pick_mask]
data = 0
n_samples = 0
mu = 0
# Read data in chunks
for raw_segment in epochs:
raw_segment = raw_segment[pick_mask]
mu += raw_segment.sum(axis=1)
data += np.dot(raw_segment, raw_segment.T)
n_samples += raw_segment.shape[1]
_check_n_samples(n_samples, len(picks))
data -= mu[:, None] * (mu[None, :] / n_samples)
data /= (n_samples - 1.0)
logger.info("Number of samples used : %d" % n_samples)
logger.info('[done]')
ch_names = [raw.info['ch_names'][k] for k in picks]
bads = [b for b in raw.info['bads'] if b in ch_names]
return Covariance(data, ch_names, bads, raw.info['projs'],
nfree=n_samples)
del picks, pick_mask
# This makes it equivalent to what we used to do (and do above for
# empirical mode), treating all epochs as if they were a single long one
epochs.load_data()
ch_means = epochs._data.mean(axis=0).mean(axis=1)
epochs._data -= ch_means[np.newaxis, :, np.newaxis]
# fake this value so there are no complaints from compute_covariance
epochs.baseline = (None, None)
return compute_covariance(epochs, keep_sample_mean=True, method=method,
method_params=method_params, cv=cv,
scalings=scalings, n_jobs=n_jobs,
return_estimators=return_estimators,
rank=rank)
def _check_method_params(method, method_params, keep_sample_mean=True,
name='method', allow_auto=True, rank=None):
"""Check that method and method_params are usable."""
accepted_methods = ('auto', 'empirical', 'diagonal_fixed', 'ledoit_wolf',
'oas', 'shrunk', 'pca', 'factor_analysis', 'shrinkage')
_method_params = {
'empirical': {'store_precision': False, 'assume_centered': True},
'diagonal_fixed': {'store_precision': False, 'assume_centered': True},
'ledoit_wolf': {'store_precision': False, 'assume_centered': True},
'oas': {'store_precision': False, 'assume_centered': True},
'shrinkage': {'shrinkage': 0.1, 'store_precision': False,
'assume_centered': True},
'shrunk': {'shrinkage': np.logspace(-4, 0, 30),
'store_precision': False, 'assume_centered': True},
'pca': {'iter_n_components': None},
'factor_analysis': {'iter_n_components': None}
}
for ch_type in _DATA_CH_TYPES_SPLIT:
_method_params['diagonal_fixed'][ch_type] = 0.1
if isinstance(method_params, dict):
for key, values in method_params.items():
if key not in _method_params:
raise ValueError('key (%s) must be "%s"' %
(key, '" or "'.join(_method_params)))
_method_params[key].update(method_params[key])
shrinkage = method_params.get('shrinkage', {}).get('shrinkage', 0.1)
if not 0 <= shrinkage <= 1:
raise ValueError('shrinkage must be between 0 and 1, got %s'
% (shrinkage,))
was_auto = False
if method is None:
method = ['empirical']
elif method == 'auto' and allow_auto:
was_auto = True
method = ['shrunk', 'diagonal_fixed', 'empirical', 'factor_analysis']
if not isinstance(method, (list, tuple)):
method = [method]
if not all(k in accepted_methods for k in method):
raise ValueError(
'Invalid {name} ({method}). Accepted values (individually or '
'in a list) are any of "{accepted_methods}" or None.'.format(
name=name, method=method, accepted_methods=accepted_methods))
if not (isinstance(rank, str) and rank == 'full'):
if was_auto:
method.pop(method.index('factor_analysis'))
for method_ in method:
if method_ in ('pca', 'factor_analysis'):
raise ValueError('%s can so far only be used with rank="full",'
' got rank=%r' % (method_, rank))
if not keep_sample_mean:
if len(method) != 1 or 'empirical' not in method:
raise ValueError('`keep_sample_mean=False` is only supported'
'with %s="empirical"' % (name,))
for p, v in _method_params.items():
if v.get('assume_centered', None) is False:
raise ValueError('`assume_centered` must be True'
' if `keep_sample_mean` is False')
return method, _method_params
@verbose
def compute_covariance(epochs, keep_sample_mean=True, tmin=None, tmax=None,
projs=None, method='empirical', method_params=None,
cv=3, scalings=None, n_jobs=1, return_estimators=False,
on_mismatch='raise', rank=None, verbose=None):
"""Estimate noise covariance matrix from epochs.
The noise covariance is typically estimated on pre-stimulus periods
when the stimulus onset is defined from events.
If the covariance is computed for multiple event types (events
with different IDs), the following two options can be used and combined:
1. either an Epochs object for each event type is created and
a list of Epochs is passed to this function.
2. an Epochs object is created for multiple events and passed
to this function.
Parameters
----------
epochs : instance of Epochs, or list of Epochs
The epochs.
keep_sample_mean : bool (default True)
If False, the average response over epochs is computed for
each event type and subtracted during the covariance
computation. This is useful if the evoked response from a
previous stimulus extends into the baseline period of the next.
Note. This option is only implemented for method='empirical'.
tmin : float | None (default None)
Start time for baseline. If None start at first sample.
tmax : float | None (default None)
End time for baseline. If None end at last sample.
projs : list of Projection | None (default None)
List of projectors to use in covariance calculation, or None
to indicate that the projectors from the epochs should be
inherited. If None, then projectors from all epochs must match.
method : str | list | None (default 'empirical')
The method used for covariance estimation. If 'empirical' (default),
the sample covariance will be computed. A list can be passed to
perform estimates using multiple methods.
If 'auto' or a list of methods, the best estimator will be determined
based on log-likelihood and cross-validation on unseen data as
described in [1]_. Valid methods are 'empirical', 'diagonal_fixed',
'shrunk', 'oas', 'ledoit_wolf', 'factor_analysis', 'shrinkage',
and 'pca' (see Notes). If ``'auto'``, it expands to::
['shrunk', 'diagonal_fixed', 'empirical', 'factor_analysis']
``'factor_analysis'`` is removed when ``rank`` is not 'full'.
The ``'auto'`` mode is not recommended if there are many
segments of data, since computation can take a long time.
.. versionadded:: 0.9.0
method_params : dict | None (default None)
Additional parameters to the estimation procedure. Only considered if
method is not None. Keys must correspond to the value(s) of ``method``.
If None (default), expands to the following (with the addition of
``{'store_precision': False, 'assume_centered': True} for all methods
except ``'factor_analysis'`` and ``'pca'``)::
{'diagonal_fixed': {'grad': 0.1, 'mag': 0.1, 'eeg': 0.1, ...},
'shrinkage': {'shrikage': 0.1},
'shrunk': {'shrinkage': np.logspace(-4, 0, 30)},
'pca': {'iter_n_components': None},
'factor_analysis': {'iter_n_components': None}}
cv : int | sklearn.model_selection object (default 3)
The cross validation method. Defaults to 3, which will
internally trigger by default :class:`sklearn.model_selection.KFold`
with 3 splits.
scalings : dict | None (default None)
Defaults to ``dict(mag=1e15, grad=1e13, eeg=1e6)``.
These defaults will scale data to roughly the same order of
magnitude.
%(n_jobs)s
return_estimators : bool (default False)
Whether to return all estimators or the best. Only considered if
method equals 'auto' or is a list of str. Defaults to False
on_mismatch : str
What to do when the MEG<->Head transformations do not match between
epochs. If "raise" (default) an error is raised, if "warn" then a
warning is emitted, if "ignore" then nothing is printed. Having
mismatched transforms can in some cases lead to unexpected or
unstable results in covariance calculation, e.g. when data
have been processed with Maxwell filtering but not transformed
to the same head position.
%(rank_None)s
.. versionadded:: 0.17
.. versionadded:: 0.18
Support for 'info' mode.
%(verbose)s
Returns
-------
cov : instance of Covariance | list
The computed covariance. If method equals 'auto' or is a list of str
and return_estimators equals True, a list of covariance estimators is
returned (sorted by log-likelihood, from high to low, i.e. from best
to worst).
See Also
--------
compute_raw_covariance : Estimate noise covariance from raw data
Notes
-----
Baseline correction or sufficient high-passing should be used
when creating the :class:`Epochs` to ensure that the data are zero mean,
otherwise the computed covariance matrix will be inaccurate.
Valid ``method`` strings are:
* ``'empirical'``
The empirical or sample covariance (default)
* ``'diagonal_fixed'``
A diagonal regularization based on channel types as in
:func:`mne.cov.regularize`.
* ``'shrinkage'``
Fixed shrinkage.
.. versionadded:: 0.16
* ``'ledoit_wolf'``
The Ledoit-Wolf estimator, which uses an
empirical formula for the optimal shrinkage value [2]_.
* ``'oas'``
The OAS estimator [5]_, which uses a different
empricial formula for the optimal shrinkage value.
.. versionadded:: 0.16
* ``'shrunk'``
Like 'ledoit_wolf', but with cross-validation
for optimal alpha.
* ``'pca'``
Probabilistic PCA with low rank [3]_.
* ``'factor_analysis'``
Factor analysis with low rank [4]_.
``'ledoit_wolf'`` and ``'pca'`` are similar to ``'shrunk'`` and
``'factor_analysis'``, respectively, except that they use
cross validation (which is useful when samples are correlated, which
is often the case for M/EEG data). The former two are not included in
the ``'auto'`` mode to avoid redundancy.
For multiple event types, it is also possible to create a
single :class:`Epochs` object with events obtained using
:func:`mne.merge_events`. However, the resulting covariance matrix
will only be correct if ``keep_sample_mean is True``.
The covariance can be unstable if the number of samples is small.
In that case it is common to regularize the covariance estimate.
The ``method`` parameter allows to regularize the covariance in an
automated way. It also allows to select between different alternative
estimation algorithms which themselves achieve regularization.
Details are described in [1]_.
For more information on the advanced estimation methods, see
:ref:`the sklearn manual <sklearn:covariance>`.
References
----------
.. [1] Engemann D. and Gramfort A. (2015) Automated model selection in
covariance estimation and spatial whitening of MEG and EEG
signals, vol. 108, 328-342, NeuroImage.
.. [2] Ledoit, O., Wolf, M., (2004). A well-conditioned estimator for
large-dimensional covariance matrices. Journal of Multivariate
Analysis 88 (2), 365 - 411.
.. [3] Tipping, M. E., Bishop, C. M., (1999). Probabilistic principal
component analysis. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society:
Series B (Statistical Methodology) 61 (3), 611 - 622.
.. [4] Barber, D., (2012). Bayesian reasoning and machine learning.
Cambridge University Press., Algorithm 21.1
.. [5] Chen et al. (2010). Shrinkage Algorithms for MMSE Covariance
Estimation. IEEE Trans. on Sign. Proc., Volume 58, Issue 10,
October 2010.
"""
# scale to natural unit for best stability with MEG/EEG
scalings = _check_scalings_user(scalings)
method, _method_params = _check_method_params(
method, method_params, keep_sample_mean, rank=rank)
del method_params
# for multi condition support epochs is required to refer to a list of
# epochs objects
def _unpack_epochs(epochs):
if len(epochs.event_id) > 1:
epochs = [epochs[k] for k in epochs.event_id]
else:
epochs = [epochs]
return epochs
if not isinstance(epochs, list):
epochs = _unpack_epochs(epochs)
else:
epochs = sum([_unpack_epochs(epoch) for epoch in epochs], [])
# check for baseline correction
if any(epochs_t.baseline is None and epochs_t.info['highpass'] < 0.5 and
keep_sample_mean for epochs_t in epochs):
warn('Epochs are not baseline corrected, covariance '
'matrix may be inaccurate')
orig = epochs[0].info['dev_head_t']
_check_option('on_mismatch', on_mismatch, ['raise', 'warn', 'ignore'])
for ei, epoch in enumerate(epochs):
epoch.info._check_consistency()
if (orig is None) != (epoch.info['dev_head_t'] is None) or \
(orig is not None and not
np.allclose(orig['trans'],
epoch.info['dev_head_t']['trans'])):
msg = ('MEG<->Head transform mismatch between epochs[0]:\n%s\n\n'
'and epochs[%s]:\n%s'
% (orig, ei, epoch.info['dev_head_t']))
if on_mismatch == 'raise':
raise ValueError(msg)
elif on_mismatch == 'warn':
warn(msg)
bads = epochs[0].info['bads']
if projs is None:
projs = epochs[0].info['projs']
# make sure Epochs are compatible
for epochs_t in epochs[1:]:
if epochs_t.proj != epochs[0].proj:
raise ValueError('Epochs must agree on the use of projections')
for proj_a, proj_b in zip(epochs_t.info['projs'], projs):
if not _proj_equal(proj_a, proj_b):
raise ValueError('Epochs must have same projectors')
projs = _check_projs(projs)
ch_names = epochs[0].ch_names
# make sure Epochs are compatible
for epochs_t in epochs[1:]:
if epochs_t.info['bads'] != bads:
raise ValueError('Epochs must have same bad channels')
if epochs_t.ch_names != ch_names:
raise ValueError('Epochs must have same channel names')
picks_list = _picks_by_type(epochs[0].info)
picks_meeg = np.concatenate([b for _, b in picks_list])
picks_meeg = np.sort(picks_meeg)
ch_names = [epochs[0].ch_names[k] for k in picks_meeg]
info = epochs[0].info # we will overwrite 'epochs'
if not keep_sample_mean:
# prepare mean covs
n_epoch_types = len(epochs)
data_mean = [0] * n_epoch_types
n_samples = np.zeros(n_epoch_types, dtype=np.int)
n_epochs = np.zeros(n_epoch_types, dtype=np.int)
for ii, epochs_t in enumerate(epochs):
tslice = _get_tslice(epochs_t, tmin, tmax)
for e in epochs_t:
e = e[picks_meeg, tslice]
if not keep_sample_mean:
data_mean[ii] += e
n_samples[ii] += e.shape[1]
n_epochs[ii] += 1
n_samples_epoch = n_samples // n_epochs
norm_const = np.sum(n_samples_epoch * (n_epochs - 1))
data_mean = [1.0 / n_epoch * np.dot(mean, mean.T) for n_epoch, mean
in zip(n_epochs, data_mean)]
info = pick_info(info, picks_meeg)
tslice = _get_tslice(epochs[0], tmin, tmax)
epochs = [ee.get_data(picks=picks_meeg)[..., tslice] for ee in epochs]
picks_meeg = np.arange(len(picks_meeg))
picks_list = _picks_by_type(info)
if len(epochs) > 1:
epochs = np.concatenate(epochs, 0)
else:
epochs = epochs[0]
epochs = np.hstack(epochs)
n_samples_tot = epochs.shape[-1]
_check_n_samples(n_samples_tot, len(picks_meeg))
epochs = epochs.T # sklearn | C-order
cov_data = _compute_covariance_auto(
epochs, method=method, method_params=_method_params, info=info,
cv=cv, n_jobs=n_jobs, stop_early=True, picks_list=picks_list,
scalings=scalings, rank=rank)
if keep_sample_mean is False:
cov = cov_data['empirical']['data']
# undo scaling
cov *= n_samples_tot
# ... apply pre-computed class-wise normalization
for mean_cov in data_mean:
cov -= mean_cov
cov /= norm_const
covs = list()
for this_method, data in cov_data.items():
cov = Covariance(data.pop('data'), ch_names, info['bads'], projs,
nfree=n_samples_tot)
# add extra info
cov.update(method=this_method, **data)
covs.append(cov)
logger.info('Number of samples used : %d' % n_samples_tot)
covs.sort(key=lambda c: c['loglik'], reverse=True)
if len(covs) > 1:
msg = ['log-likelihood on unseen data (descending order):']
for c in covs:
msg.append('%s: %0.3f' % (c['method'], c['loglik']))
logger.info('\n '.join(msg))
if return_estimators:
out = covs
else:
out = covs[0]
logger.info('selecting best estimator: {}'.format(out['method']))
else:
out = covs[0]
logger.info('[done]')
return out
def _check_scalings_user(scalings):
if isinstance(scalings, dict):
for k, v in scalings.items():
_check_option('the keys in `scalings`', k, ['mag', 'grad', 'eeg'])
elif scalings is not None and not isinstance(scalings, np.ndarray):
raise TypeError('scalings must be a dict, ndarray, or None, got %s'
% type(scalings))
scalings = _handle_default('scalings', scalings)
return scalings
def _eigvec_subspace(eig, eigvec, mask):
"""Compute the subspace from a subset of eigenvectors."""
# We do the same thing we do with projectors:
P = np.eye(len(eigvec)) - np.dot(eigvec[~mask].T, eigvec[~mask])
eig, eigvec = eigh(P)
eigvec = eigvec.T
return eig, eigvec
def _get_iid_kwargs():
import sklearn
kwargs = dict()
if LooseVersion(sklearn.__version__) < LooseVersion('0.22'):
kwargs['iid'] = False
return kwargs
def _compute_covariance_auto(data, method, info, method_params, cv,
scalings, n_jobs, stop_early, picks_list, rank):
"""Compute covariance auto mode."""
# rescale to improve numerical stability
orig_rank = rank
rank = compute_rank(RawArray(data.T, info, copy=None, verbose=False),
rank, scalings, info)
with _scaled_array(data.T, picks_list, scalings):
C = np.dot(data.T, data)
_, eigvec, mask = _smart_eigh(C, info, rank, proj_subspace=True,
do_compute_rank=False)
eigvec = eigvec[mask]
data = np.dot(data, eigvec.T)
used = np.where(mask)[0]
sub_picks_list = [(key, np.searchsorted(used, picks))
for key, picks in picks_list]
sub_info = pick_info(info, used) if len(used) != len(mask) else info
logger.info('Reducing data rank from %s -> %s'
% (len(mask), eigvec.shape[0]))
estimator_cov_info = list()
msg = 'Estimating covariance using %s'
ok_sklearn = check_version('sklearn', '0.15')
if not ok_sklearn and (len(method) != 1 or method[0] != 'empirical'):
raise ValueError('scikit-learn is not installed, `method` must be '
'`empirical`, got %s' % (method,))
for method_ in method:
data_ = data.copy()
name = method_.__name__ if callable(method_) else method_
logger.info(msg % name.upper())
mp = method_params[method_]
_info = {}
if method_ == 'empirical':
est = EmpiricalCovariance(**mp)
est.fit(data_)
estimator_cov_info.append((est, est.covariance_, _info))
del est
elif method_ == 'diagonal_fixed':
est = _RegCovariance(info=sub_info, **mp)
est.fit(data_)
estimator_cov_info.append((est, est.covariance_, _info))
del est
elif method_ == 'ledoit_wolf':
from sklearn.covariance import LedoitWolf
shrinkages = []
lw = LedoitWolf(**mp)
for ch_type, picks in sub_picks_list:
lw.fit(data_[:, picks])
shrinkages.append((ch_type, lw.shrinkage_, picks))
sc = _ShrunkCovariance(shrinkage=shrinkages, **mp)
sc.fit(data_)
estimator_cov_info.append((sc, sc.covariance_, _info))
del lw, sc
elif method_ == 'oas':
from sklearn.covariance import OAS
shrinkages = []
oas = OAS(**mp)
for ch_type, picks in sub_picks_list:
oas.fit(data_[:, picks])
shrinkages.append((ch_type, oas.shrinkage_, picks))
sc = _ShrunkCovariance(shrinkage=shrinkages, **mp)
sc.fit(data_)
estimator_cov_info.append((sc, sc.covariance_, _info))
del oas, sc
elif method_ == 'shrinkage':
sc = _ShrunkCovariance(**mp)
sc.fit(data_)
estimator_cov_info.append((sc, sc.covariance_, _info))
del sc
elif method_ == 'shrunk':
try:
from sklearn.model_selection import GridSearchCV
except Exception: # support sklearn < 0.18
from sklearn.grid_search import GridSearchCV
from sklearn.covariance import ShrunkCovariance
shrinkage = mp.pop('shrinkage')
tuned_parameters = [{'shrinkage': shrinkage}]
shrinkages = []
gs = GridSearchCV(ShrunkCovariance(**mp),
tuned_parameters, cv=cv, **_get_iid_kwargs())
for ch_type, picks in sub_picks_list:
gs.fit(data_[:, picks])
shrinkages.append((ch_type, gs.best_estimator_.shrinkage,
picks))
shrinkages = [c[0] for c in zip(shrinkages)]
sc = _ShrunkCovariance(shrinkage=shrinkages, **mp)
sc.fit(data_)
estimator_cov_info.append((sc, sc.covariance_, _info))
del shrinkage, sc
elif method_ == 'pca':
assert orig_rank == 'full'
pca, _info = _auto_low_rank_model(
data_, method_, n_jobs=n_jobs, method_params=mp, cv=cv,
stop_early=stop_early)
pca.fit(data_)
estimator_cov_info.append((pca, pca.get_covariance(), _info))
del pca
elif method_ == 'factor_analysis':
assert orig_rank == 'full'
fa, _info = _auto_low_rank_model(
data_, method_, n_jobs=n_jobs, method_params=mp, cv=cv,
stop_early=stop_early)
fa.fit(data_)
estimator_cov_info.append((fa, fa.get_covariance(), _info))
del fa
else:
raise ValueError('Oh no! Your estimator does not have'
' a .fit method')
logger.info('Done.')
if len(method) > 1:
logger.info('Using cross-validation to select the best estimator.')
out = dict()
for ei, (estimator, cov, runtime_info) in \
enumerate(estimator_cov_info):
if len(method) > 1:
loglik = _cross_val(data, estimator, cv, n_jobs)
else:
loglik = None
# project back
cov = np.dot(eigvec.T, np.dot(cov, eigvec))
# undo scaling
_undo_scaling_cov(cov, picks_list, scalings)
method_ = method[ei]
name = method_.__name__ if callable(method_) else method_
out[name] = dict(loglik=loglik, data=cov, estimator=estimator)
out[name].update(runtime_info)
return out
def _gaussian_loglik_scorer(est, X, y=None):
"""Compute the Gaussian log likelihood of X under the model in est."""
# compute empirical covariance of the test set
precision = est.get_precision()
n_samples, n_features = X.shape
log_like = -.5 * (X * (np.dot(X, precision))).sum(axis=1)
log_like -= .5 * (n_features * log(2. * np.pi) - _logdet(precision))
out = np.mean(log_like)
return out
def _cross_val(data, est, cv, n_jobs):
"""Compute cross validation."""
try:
from sklearn.model_selection import cross_val_score
except ImportError:
# XXX support sklearn < 0.18
from sklearn.cross_validation import cross_val_score
return np.mean(cross_val_score(est, data, cv=cv, n_jobs=n_jobs,
scoring=_gaussian_loglik_scorer))
def _auto_low_rank_model(data, mode, n_jobs, method_params, cv,
stop_early=True, verbose=None):
"""Compute latent variable models."""
method_params = deepcopy(method_params)
iter_n_components = method_params.pop('iter_n_components')
if iter_n_components is None:
iter_n_components = np.arange(5, data.shape[1], 5)
from sklearn.decomposition import PCA, FactorAnalysis
if mode == 'factor_analysis':
est = FactorAnalysis
else:
assert mode == 'pca'
est = PCA
est = est(**method_params)
est.n_components = 1
scores = np.empty_like(iter_n_components, dtype=np.float64)
scores.fill(np.nan)
# make sure we don't empty the thing if it's a generator
max_n = max(list(deepcopy(iter_n_components)))
if max_n > data.shape[1]:
warn('You are trying to estimate %i components on matrix '
'with %i features.' % (max_n, data.shape[1]))
for ii, n in enumerate(iter_n_components):
est.n_components = n
try: # this may fail depending on rank and split
score = _cross_val(data=data, est=est, cv=cv, n_jobs=n_jobs)
except ValueError:
score = np.inf
if np.isinf(score) or score > 0:
logger.info('... infinite values encountered. stopping estimation')
break
logger.info('... rank: %i - loglik: %0.3f' % (n, score))
if score != -np.inf:
scores[ii] = score
if (ii >= 3 and np.all(np.diff(scores[ii - 3:ii]) < 0) and stop_early):
# early stop search when loglik has been going down 3 times
logger.info('early stopping parameter search.')
break
# happens if rank is too low right form the beginning
if np.isnan(scores).all():
raise RuntimeError('Oh no! Could not estimate covariance because all '
'scores were NaN. Please contact the MNE-Python '
'developers.')
i_score = np.nanargmax(scores)
best = est.n_components = iter_n_components[i_score]
logger.info('... best model at rank = %i' % best)
runtime_info = {'ranks': np.array(iter_n_components),
'scores': scores,
'best': best,
'cv': cv}
return est, runtime_info
###############################################################################
# Sklearn Estimators
class _RegCovariance(BaseEstimator):
"""Aux class."""
def __init__(self, info, grad=0.1, mag=0.1, eeg=0.1, seeg=0.1, ecog=0.1,
hbo=0.1, hbr=0.1, fnirs_raw=0.1, fnirs_od=0.1,
store_precision=False, assume_centered=False):
self.info = info
# For sklearn compat, these cannot (easily?) be combined into
# a single dictionary
self.grad = grad
self.mag = mag
self.eeg = eeg
self.seeg = seeg
self.ecog = ecog
self.hbo = hbo
self.hbr = hbr
self.fnirs_raw = fnirs_raw
self.fnirs_od = fnirs_od
self.store_precision = store_precision
self.assume_centered = assume_centered
def fit(self, X):
"""Fit covariance model with classical diagonal regularization."""
from sklearn.covariance import EmpiricalCovariance
self.estimator_ = EmpiricalCovariance(
store_precision=self.store_precision,
assume_centered=self.assume_centered)
self.covariance_ = self.estimator_.fit(X).covariance_
self.covariance_ = 0.5 * (self.covariance_ + self.covariance_.T)
cov_ = Covariance(
data=self.covariance_, names=self.info['ch_names'],
bads=self.info['bads'], projs=self.info['projs'],
nfree=len(self.covariance_))
cov_ = regularize(
cov_, self.info, proj=False, exclude='bads',
grad=self.grad, mag=self.mag, eeg=self.eeg,
ecog=self.ecog, seeg=self.seeg,
hbo=self.hbo, hbr=self.hbr, rank='full')
self.estimator_.covariance_ = self.covariance_ = cov_.data
return self
def score(self, X_test, y=None):
"""Delegate call to modified EmpiricalCovariance instance."""
return self.estimator_.score(X_test, y=y)
def get_precision(self):
"""Delegate call to modified EmpiricalCovariance instance."""
return self.estimator_.get_precision()
class _ShrunkCovariance(BaseEstimator):
"""Aux class."""
def __init__(self, store_precision, assume_centered,
shrinkage=0.1):
self.store_precision = store_precision
self.assume_centered = assume_centered
self.shrinkage = shrinkage
def fit(self, X):
"""Fit covariance model with oracle shrinkage regularization."""
from sklearn.covariance import shrunk_covariance
from sklearn.covariance import EmpiricalCovariance
self.estimator_ = EmpiricalCovariance(
store_precision=self.store_precision,
assume_centered=self.assume_centered)
cov = self.estimator_.fit(X).covariance_
if not isinstance(self.shrinkage, (list, tuple)):
shrinkage = [('all', self.shrinkage, np.arange(len(cov)))]
else:
shrinkage = self.shrinkage
zero_cross_cov = np.zeros_like(cov, dtype=bool)
for a, b in itt.combinations(shrinkage, 2):
picks_i, picks_j = a[2], b[2]
ch_ = a[0], b[0]
if 'eeg' in ch_:
zero_cross_cov[np.ix_(picks_i, picks_j)] = True
zero_cross_cov[np.ix_(picks_j, picks_i)] = True
self.zero_cross_cov_ = zero_cross_cov
# Apply shrinkage to blocks
for ch_type, c, picks in shrinkage:
sub_cov = cov[np.ix_(picks, picks)]
cov[np.ix_(picks, picks)] = shrunk_covariance(sub_cov,
shrinkage=c)
# Apply shrinkage to cross-cov
for a, b in itt.combinations(shrinkage, 2):
shrinkage_i, shrinkage_j = a[1], b[1]
picks_i, picks_j = a[2], b[2]
c_ij = np.sqrt((1. - shrinkage_i) * (1. - shrinkage_j))
cov[np.ix_(picks_i, picks_j)] *= c_ij
cov[np.ix_(picks_j, picks_i)] *= c_ij
# Set to zero the necessary cross-cov
if np.any(zero_cross_cov):
cov[zero_cross_cov] = 0.0
self.estimator_.covariance_ = self.covariance_ = cov
return self
def score(self, X_test, y=None):
"""Delegate to modified EmpiricalCovariance instance."""
from sklearn.covariance import empirical_covariance, log_likelihood
# compute empirical covariance of the test set
test_cov = empirical_covariance(X_test - self.estimator_.location_,
assume_centered=True)
if np.any(self.zero_cross_cov_):
test_cov[self.zero_cross_cov_] = 0.
res = log_likelihood(test_cov, self.estimator_.get_precision())
return res
def get_precision(self):
"""Delegate to modified EmpiricalCovariance instance."""
return self.estimator_.get_precision()
###############################################################################
# Writing
def write_cov(fname, cov):
"""Write a noise covariance matrix.
Parameters
----------
fname : string
The name of the file. It should end with -cov.fif or -cov.fif.gz.
cov : Covariance
The noise covariance matrix
See Also
--------
read_cov
"""
cov.save(fname)
###############################################################################
# Prepare for inverse modeling
def _unpack_epochs(epochs):
"""Aux Function."""
if len(epochs.event_id) > 1:
epochs = [epochs[k] for k in epochs.event_id]
else:
epochs = [epochs]
return epochs
def _get_ch_whitener(A, pca, ch_type, rank):
"""Get whitener params for a set of channels."""
# whitening operator
eig, eigvec = eigh(A, overwrite_a=True)
eigvec = eigvec.T
mask = np.ones(len(eig), bool)
eig[:-rank] = 0.0
mask[:-rank] = False
logger.info(' Setting small %s eigenvalues to zero (%s)'
% (ch_type, 'using PCA' if pca else 'without PCA'))
if pca: # No PCA case.
# This line will reduce the actual number of variables in data
# and leadfield to the true rank.
eigvec = eigvec[:-rank].copy()
return eig, eigvec, mask
@verbose
def prepare_noise_cov(noise_cov, info, ch_names=None, rank=None,
scalings=None, verbose=None):
"""Prepare noise covariance matrix.
Parameters
----------
noise_cov : instance of Covariance
The noise covariance to process.
info : dict
The measurement info (used to get channel types and bad channels).
ch_names : list | None
The channel names to be considered. Can be None to use
``info['ch_names']``.
%(rank_None)s
.. versionadded:: 0.18
Support for 'info' mode.
scalings : dict | None
Data will be rescaled before rank estimation to improve accuracy.
If dict, it will override the following dict (default if None)::
dict(mag=1e12, grad=1e11, eeg=1e5)
%(verbose)s
Returns
-------
cov : instance of Covariance
A copy of the covariance with the good channels subselected
and parameters updated.
"""
# reorder C and info to match ch_names order
noise_cov_idx = list()
missing = list()
ch_names = info['ch_names'] if ch_names is None else ch_names
for c in ch_names:
# this could be try/except ValueError, but it is not the preferred way
if c in noise_cov.ch_names:
noise_cov_idx.append(noise_cov.ch_names.index(c))
else:
missing.append(c)
if len(missing):
raise RuntimeError('Not all channels present in noise covariance:\n%s'
% missing)
if not noise_cov['diag']:
C = noise_cov.data[np.ix_(noise_cov_idx, noise_cov_idx)]
else:
C = np.diag(noise_cov.data[noise_cov_idx])
info = pick_info(info, pick_channels(info['ch_names'], ch_names))
projs = info['projs'] + noise_cov['projs']
noise_cov = Covariance(
data=C, names=ch_names, bads=list(noise_cov['bads']),
projs=deepcopy(noise_cov['projs']), nfree=noise_cov['nfree'],
method=noise_cov.get('method', None),
loglik=noise_cov.get('loglik', None))
eig, eigvec, _ = _smart_eigh(noise_cov, info, rank, scalings, projs,
ch_names)
noise_cov.update(eig=eig, eigvec=eigvec)
return noise_cov
@verbose
def _smart_eigh(C, info, rank, scalings=None, projs=None,
ch_names=None, proj_subspace=False, do_compute_rank=True,
verbose=None):
"""Compute eigh of C taking into account rank and ch_type scalings."""
scalings = _handle_default('scalings_cov_rank', scalings)
projs = info['projs'] if projs is None else projs
ch_names = info['ch_names'] if ch_names is None else ch_names
if info['ch_names'] != ch_names:
info = pick_info(info, [info['ch_names'].index(c) for c in ch_names])
assert info['ch_names'] == ch_names
n_chan = len(ch_names)
# Create the projection operator
proj, ncomp, _ = make_projector(projs, ch_names)
if isinstance(C, Covariance):
C = C['data']
if ncomp > 0:
logger.info(' Created an SSP operator (subspace dimension = %d)'
% ncomp)
C = np.dot(proj, np.dot(C, proj.T))
noise_cov = Covariance(C, ch_names, [], projs, 0)
if do_compute_rank: # if necessary
rank = compute_rank(noise_cov, rank, scalings, info)
assert C.ndim == 2 and C.shape[0] == C.shape[1]
# time saving short-circuit
if proj_subspace and sum(rank.values()) == C.shape[0]:
return np.ones(n_chan), np.eye(n_chan), np.ones(n_chan, bool)
eig = np.zeros(n_chan)
eigvec = np.zeros((n_chan, n_chan))
mask = np.zeros(n_chan, bool)
for ch_type, picks in _picks_by_type(info, meg_combined=True,
ref_meg=False, exclude='bads'):
if len(picks) == 0:
continue
this_C = C[np.ix_(picks, picks)]
if ch_type not in rank and ch_type in ('mag', 'grad'):
this_rank = rank['meg'] # if there is only one or the other
else:
this_rank = rank[ch_type]
e, ev, m = _get_ch_whitener(this_C, False, ch_type.upper(), this_rank)
if proj_subspace:
# Choose the subspace the same way we do for projections
e, ev = _eigvec_subspace(e, ev, m)
eig[picks], eigvec[np.ix_(picks, picks)], mask[picks] = e, ev, m
# XXX : also handle ref for sEEG and ECoG
if ch_type == 'eeg' and _needs_eeg_average_ref_proj(info) and not \
_has_eeg_average_ref_proj(projs):
warn('No average EEG reference present in info["projs"], '
'covariance may be adversely affected. Consider recomputing '
'covariance using with an average eeg reference projector '
'added.')
return eig, eigvec, mask
@verbose
def regularize(cov, info, mag=0.1, grad=0.1, eeg=0.1, exclude='bads',
proj=True, seeg=0.1, ecog=0.1, hbo=0.1, hbr=0.1,
fnirs_raw=0.1, fnirs_od=0.1,
rank=None, scalings=None, verbose=None):
"""Regularize noise covariance matrix.
This method works by adding a constant to the diagonal for each
channel type separately. Special care is taken to keep the
rank of the data constant.
.. note:: This function is kept for reasons of backward-compatibility.
Please consider explicitly using the ``method`` parameter in
:func:`mne.compute_covariance` to directly combine estimation
with regularization in a data-driven fashion. See the `faq
<http://mne.tools/dev/overview/faq.html#how-should-i-regularize-the-covariance-matrix>`_
for more information.
Parameters
----------
cov : Covariance
The noise covariance matrix.
info : dict
The measurement info (used to get channel types and bad channels).
mag : float (default 0.1)
Regularization factor for MEG magnetometers.
grad : float (default 0.1)
Regularization factor for MEG gradiometers. Must be the same as
`mag` if data have been processed with SSS.
eeg : float (default 0.1)
Regularization factor for EEG.
exclude : list | 'bads' (default 'bads')
List of channels to mark as bad. If 'bads', bads channels
are extracted from both info['bads'] and cov['bads'].
proj : bool (default True)
Apply projections to keep rank of data.
seeg : float (default 0.1)
Regularization factor for sEEG signals.
ecog : float (default 0.1)
Regularization factor for ECoG signals.
hbo : float (default 0.1)
Regularization factor for HBO signals.
hbr : float (default 0.1)
Regularization factor for HBR signals.
fnirs_raw : float (default 0.1)
Regularization factor for fNIRS raw signals.
fnirs_od : float (default 0.1)
Regularization factor for fNIRS optical density signals.
%(rank_None)s
.. versionadded:: 0.17
.. versionadded:: 0.18
Support for 'info' mode.
scalings : dict | None
Data will be rescaled before rank estimation to improve accuracy.
See :func:`mne.compute_covariance`.
.. versionadded:: 0.17
%(verbose)s
Returns
-------
reg_cov : Covariance
The regularized covariance matrix.
See Also
--------
mne.compute_covariance
""" # noqa: E501
cov = cov.copy()
info._check_consistency()
scalings = _handle_default('scalings_cov_rank', scalings)
regs = dict(eeg=eeg, seeg=seeg, ecog=ecog, hbo=hbo, hbr=hbr)
if exclude is None:
raise ValueError('exclude must be a list of strings or "bads"')
if exclude == 'bads':
exclude = info['bads'] + cov['bads']
picks_dict = {ch_type: [] for ch_type in _DATA_CH_TYPES_SPLIT}
meg_combined = 'auto' if rank != 'full' else False
picks_dict.update(dict(_picks_by_type(
info, meg_combined=meg_combined, exclude=exclude, ref_meg=False)))
if len(picks_dict.get('meg', [])) > 0 and rank != 'full': # combined
if mag != grad:
raise ValueError('On data where magnetometers and gradiometers '
'are dependent (e.g., SSSed data), mag (%s) must '
'equal grad (%s)' % (mag, grad))
logger.info('Regularizing MEG channels jointly')
regs['meg'] = mag
else:
regs.update(mag=mag, grad=grad)
if rank != 'full':
rank = compute_rank(cov, rank, scalings, info)
info_ch_names = info['ch_names']
ch_names_by_type = dict()
for ch_type, picks_type in picks_dict.items():
ch_names_by_type[ch_type] = [info_ch_names[i] for i in picks_type]
# This actually removes bad channels from the cov, which is not backward
# compatible, so let's leave all channels in
cov_good = pick_channels_cov(cov, include=info_ch_names, exclude=exclude)
ch_names = cov_good.ch_names
# Now get the indices for each channel type in the cov
idx_cov = {ch_type: [] for ch_type in ch_names_by_type}
for i, ch in enumerate(ch_names):
for ch_type in ch_names_by_type:
if ch in ch_names_by_type[ch_type]:
idx_cov[ch_type].append(i)
break
else:
raise Exception('channel %s is unknown type' % ch)
C = cov_good['data']
assert len(C) == sum(map(len, idx_cov.values()))
if proj:
projs = info['projs'] + cov_good['projs']
projs = activate_proj(projs)
for ch_type in idx_cov:
desc = ch_type.upper()
idx = idx_cov[ch_type]
if len(idx) == 0:
continue
reg = regs[ch_type]
if reg == 0.0:
logger.info(" %s regularization : None" % desc)
continue
logger.info(" %s regularization : %s" % (desc, reg))
this_C = C[np.ix_(idx, idx)]
U = np.eye(this_C.shape[0])
this_ch_names = [ch_names[k] for k in idx]
if rank == 'full':
if proj:
P, ncomp, _ = make_projector(projs, this_ch_names)
if ncomp > 0:
# This adjustment ends up being redundant if rank is None:
U = linalg.svd(P)[0][:, :-ncomp]
logger.info(' Created an SSP operator for %s '
'(dimension = %d)' % (desc, ncomp))
else:
this_picks = pick_channels(info['ch_names'], this_ch_names)
this_info = pick_info(info, this_picks)
# Here we could use proj_subspace=True, but this should not matter
# since this is already in a loop over channel types
_, eigvec, mask = _smart_eigh(this_C, this_info, rank)
U = eigvec[mask].T
this_C = np.dot(U.T, np.dot(this_C, U))
sigma = np.mean(np.diag(this_C))
this_C.flat[::len(this_C) + 1] += reg * sigma # modify diag inplace
this_C = np.dot(U, np.dot(this_C, U.T))
C[np.ix_(idx, idx)] = this_C
# Put data back in correct locations
idx = pick_channels(cov.ch_names, info_ch_names, exclude=exclude)
cov['data'][np.ix_(idx, idx)] = C
return cov
def _regularized_covariance(data, reg=None, method_params=None, info=None,
rank=None):
"""Compute a regularized covariance from data using sklearn.
This is a convenience wrapper for mne.decoding functions, which
adopted a slightly different covariance API.
Returns
-------
cov : ndarray, shape (n_channels, n_channels)
The covariance matrix.
"""
if reg is None:
reg = 'empirical'
try:
reg = float(reg)
except ValueError:
pass
if isinstance(reg, float):
if method_params is not None:
raise ValueError('If reg is a float, method_params must be None '
'(got %s)' % (type(method_params),))
method_params = dict(shrinkage=dict(
shrinkage=reg, assume_centered=True, store_precision=False))
reg = 'shrinkage'
elif not isinstance(reg, str):
raise ValueError('reg must be a float, str, or None, got %s (%s)'
% (reg, type(reg)))
method, method_params = _check_method_params(
reg, method_params, name='reg', allow_auto=False, rank=rank)
# use mag instead of eeg here to avoid the cov EEG projection warning
info = create_info(data.shape[-2], 1000., 'mag') if info is None else info
picks_list = _picks_by_type(info)
scalings = _handle_default('scalings_cov_rank', None)
cov = _compute_covariance_auto(
data.T, method=method, method_params=method_params,
info=info, cv=None, n_jobs=1, stop_early=True,
picks_list=picks_list, scalings=scalings,
rank=rank)[reg]['data']
return cov
@verbose
def compute_whitener(noise_cov, info=None, picks=None, rank=None,
scalings=None, return_rank=False, pca=False,
return_colorer=False, verbose=None):
"""Compute whitening matrix.
Parameters
----------
noise_cov : Covariance
The noise covariance.
info : dict | None
The measurement info. Can be None if `noise_cov` has already been
prepared with :func:`prepare_noise_cov`.
%(picks_good_data_noref)s
%(rank_None)s
.. versionadded:: 0.18
Support for 'info' mode.
scalings : dict | None
The rescaling method to be applied. See documentation of
``prepare_noise_cov`` for details.
return_rank : bool
If True, return the rank used to compute the whitener.
.. versionadded:: 0.15
pca : bool | str
Space to project the data into. Options:
:data:`python:True`
Whitener will be shape (n_nonzero, n_channels).
``'white'``
Whitener will be shape (n_channels, n_channels), potentially rank
deficient, and have the first ``n_channels - n_nonzero`` rows and
columns set to zero.
:data:`python:False` (default)
Whitener will be shape (n_channels, n_channels), potentially rank
deficient, and rotated back to the space of the original data.
.. versionadded:: 0.18
return_colorer : bool
If True, return the colorer as well.
%(verbose)s
Returns
-------
W : ndarray, shape (n_channels, n_channels) or (n_nonzero, n_channels)
The whitening matrix.
ch_names : list
The channel names.
rank : int
Rank reduction of the whitener. Returned only if return_rank is True.
colorer : ndarray, shape (n_channels, n_channels) or (n_channels, n_nonzero)
The coloring matrix.
""" # noqa: E501
_validate_type(pca, (str, bool), 'space')
_valid_pcas = (True, 'white', False)
if pca not in _valid_pcas:
raise ValueError('space must be one of %s, got %s'
% (_valid_pcas, pca))
if info is None:
if 'eig' not in noise_cov:
raise ValueError('info can only be None if the noise cov has '
'already been prepared with prepare_noise_cov')
ch_names = deepcopy(noise_cov['names'])
else:
picks = _picks_to_idx(info, picks, with_ref_meg=False)
ch_names = [info['ch_names'][k] for k in picks]
del picks
noise_cov = prepare_noise_cov(
noise_cov, info, ch_names, rank, scalings)
n_chan = len(ch_names)
assert n_chan == len(noise_cov['eig'])
# Omit the zeroes due to projection
eig = noise_cov['eig'].copy()
nzero = (eig > 0)
eig[~nzero] = 0. # get rid of numerical noise (negative) ones
W = np.zeros((n_chan, 1), dtype=np.float)
W[nzero, 0] = 1.0 / np.sqrt(eig[nzero])
# Rows of eigvec are the eigenvectors
W = W * noise_cov['eigvec'] # C ** -0.5
C = np.sqrt(eig) * noise_cov['eigvec'].T # C ** 0.5
n_nzero = nzero.sum()
logger.info(' Created the whitener using a noise covariance matrix '
'with rank %d (%d small eigenvalues omitted)'
% (n_nzero, noise_cov['dim'] - n_nzero))
# Do the requested projection
if pca is True:
W = W[nzero]
C = C[:, nzero]
elif pca is False:
W = np.dot(noise_cov['eigvec'].T, W)
C = np.dot(C, noise_cov['eigvec'])
# Triage return
out = W, ch_names
if return_rank:
out += (n_nzero,)
if return_colorer:
out += (C,)
return out
@verbose
def whiten_evoked(evoked, noise_cov, picks=None, diag=None, rank=None,
scalings=None, verbose=None):
"""Whiten evoked data using given noise covariance.
Parameters
----------
evoked : instance of Evoked
The evoked data
noise_cov : instance of Covariance
The noise covariance
%(picks_good_data)s
diag : bool (default False)
If True, whiten using only the diagonal of the covariance.
%(rank_None)s
.. versionadded:: 0.18
Support for 'info' mode.
scalings : dict | None (default None)
To achieve reliable rank estimation on multiple sensors,
sensors have to be rescaled. This parameter controls the
rescaling. If dict, it will override the
following default dict (default if None):
dict(mag=1e12, grad=1e11, eeg=1e5)
%(verbose)s
Returns
-------
evoked_white : instance of Evoked
The whitened evoked data.
"""
evoked = evoked.copy()
picks = _picks_to_idx(evoked.info, picks)
if diag:
noise_cov = noise_cov.as_diag()
W, _ = compute_whitener(noise_cov, evoked.info, picks=picks,
rank=rank, scalings=scalings)
evoked.data[picks] = np.sqrt(evoked.nave) * np.dot(W, evoked.data[picks])
return evoked
@verbose
def _read_cov(fid, node, cov_kind, limited=False, verbose=None):
"""Read a noise covariance matrix."""
# Find all covariance matrices
covs = dir_tree_find(node, FIFF.FIFFB_MNE_COV)
if len(covs) == 0:
raise ValueError('No covariance matrices found')
# Is any of the covariance matrices a noise covariance
for p in range(len(covs)):
tag = find_tag(fid, covs[p], FIFF.FIFF_MNE_COV_KIND)
if tag is not None and int(tag.data) == cov_kind:
this = covs[p]
# Find all the necessary data
tag = find_tag(fid, this, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_COV_DIM)
if tag is None:
raise ValueError('Covariance matrix dimension not found')
dim = int(tag.data)
tag = find_tag(fid, this, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_COV_NFREE)
if tag is None:
nfree = -1
else:
nfree = int(tag.data)
tag = find_tag(fid, this, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_COV_METHOD)
if tag is None:
method = None
else:
method = tag.data
tag = find_tag(fid, this, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_COV_SCORE)
if tag is None:
score = None
else:
score = tag.data[0]
tag = find_tag(fid, this, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_ROW_NAMES)
if tag is None:
names = []
else:
names = tag.data.split(':')
if len(names) != dim:
raise ValueError('Number of names does not match '
'covariance matrix dimension')
tag = find_tag(fid, this, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_COV)
if tag is None:
tag = find_tag(fid, this, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_COV_DIAG)
if tag is None:
raise ValueError('No covariance matrix data found')
else:
# Diagonal is stored
data = tag.data
diag = True
logger.info(' %d x %d diagonal covariance (kind = '
'%d) found.' % (dim, dim, cov_kind))
else:
if not sparse.issparse(tag.data):
# Lower diagonal is stored
vals = tag.data
data = np.zeros((dim, dim))
data[np.tril(np.ones((dim, dim))) > 0] = vals
data = data + data.T
data.flat[::dim + 1] /= 2.0
diag = False
logger.info(' %d x %d full covariance (kind = %d) '
'found.' % (dim, dim, cov_kind))
else:
diag = False
data = tag.data
logger.info(' %d x %d sparse covariance (kind = %d)'
' found.' % (dim, dim, cov_kind))
# Read the possibly precomputed decomposition
tag1 = find_tag(fid, this, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_COV_EIGENVALUES)
tag2 = find_tag(fid, this, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_COV_EIGENVECTORS)
if tag1 is not None and tag2 is not None:
eig = tag1.data
eigvec = tag2.data
else:
eig = None
eigvec = None
# Read the projection operator
projs = _read_proj(fid, this)
# Read the bad channel list
bads = read_bad_channels(fid, this)
# Put it together
assert dim == len(data)
assert data.ndim == (1 if diag else 2)
cov = dict(kind=cov_kind, diag=diag, dim=dim, names=names,
data=data, projs=projs, bads=bads, nfree=nfree, eig=eig,
eigvec=eigvec)
if score is not None:
cov['loglik'] = score
if method is not None:
cov['method'] = method
if limited:
del cov['kind'], cov['dim'], cov['diag']
return cov
logger.info(' Did not find the desired covariance matrix (kind = %d)'
% cov_kind)
return None
def _write_cov(fid, cov):
"""Write a noise covariance matrix."""
start_block(fid, FIFF.FIFFB_MNE_COV)
# Dimensions etc.
write_int(fid, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_COV_KIND, cov['kind'])
write_int(fid, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_COV_DIM, cov['dim'])
if cov['nfree'] > 0:
write_int(fid, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_COV_NFREE, cov['nfree'])
# Channel names
if cov['names'] is not None and len(cov['names']) > 0:
write_name_list(fid, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_ROW_NAMES, cov['names'])
# Data
if cov['diag']:
write_double(fid, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_COV_DIAG, cov['data'])
else:
# Store only lower part of covariance matrix
dim = cov['dim']
mask = np.tril(np.ones((dim, dim), dtype=np.bool)) > 0
vals = cov['data'][mask].ravel()
write_double(fid, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_COV, vals)
# Eigenvalues and vectors if present
if cov['eig'] is not None and cov['eigvec'] is not None:
write_float_matrix(fid, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_COV_EIGENVECTORS, cov['eigvec'])
write_double(fid, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_COV_EIGENVALUES, cov['eig'])
# Projection operator
if cov['projs'] is not None and len(cov['projs']) > 0:
_write_proj(fid, cov['projs'])
# Bad channels
if cov['bads'] is not None and len(cov['bads']) > 0:
start_block(fid, FIFF.FIFFB_MNE_BAD_CHANNELS)
write_name_list(fid, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_CH_NAME_LIST, cov['bads'])
end_block(fid, FIFF.FIFFB_MNE_BAD_CHANNELS)
# estimator method
if 'method' in cov:
write_string(fid, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_COV_METHOD, cov['method'])
# negative log-likelihood score
if 'loglik' in cov:
write_double(
fid, FIFF.FIFF_MNE_COV_SCORE, np.array(cov['loglik']))
# Done!
end_block(fid, FIFF.FIFFB_MNE_COV)
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