Copyright (c) 2008-2010 Yahoo! Inc. See src/director.py for license.
Director is a Squid add-on that allows you to easily:
- Canonicalise URLs - to increase cache efficiency. For example, you can sort query terms, normalise typed query arguments, and drop ones that aren't recognised.
- Rewrite URLs - to provide deployment flexibility. For example, you can change path segments (index.html to index.php) and change origin servers based on path segments (e.g., rewrite example.com/foo to another.example.com/foo while leaving the rest of example.com alone).
- Provide URL-based access control and processing - to implement things like signed URLs, appid enforcement, etc (coming soon).
Director does this by reading a map for the site in question and using that to change URIs before they're looked up in Squid's cache.
Maps are simple XML files that describe the layout of the origin server. They can be loaded from a directory on the Squid server, or they can be loaded from the origin server site itself, in a well-known location (by default, /map.xml; e.g., http://example.com/map.xml).
Local maps have precedence over remote ones; if a local map is present, the remote map for that origin server will be ignored.
To use Director with your Squid installation, add the following to your squid.conf:
# setup Director url_rewrite_program /usr/local/libexec/squid/director.py /usr/local/etc/squid/director.conf url_rewrite_children 1 # we run with a large concurrency in case fetching a map for a popular site is slow. url_rewrite_concurrency 10000 # setup an urlgroup acl to allow Director to refuse requests. acl director_deny urlgroup deny http_access2 deny director_deny
adjusting the paths in the url_rewrite_program line as necessary.
The second argument to url_rewrite_program should point to the director.conf file; a sample is included. Make sure that it is readable by the Squid user, and that the paths refered to in the configuration file are writiable by the Squid user as appropriate.
Then, restart your Squid:
> /usr/local/bin/squid -k shutdown [wait] > /usr/local/bin/squid
After that, you can start writing maps for your sites. If you're using Director in a proxy deployment, remote maps may be best for you; if you're using it in an accelerator, try a local map with a base of default (see below).
Director Configuration Settings
- How much detail to log. One of ( DEBUG, INFO, WARNING, ERROR, CRITICAL ). Default is INFO.
- How often to check the local map director for updates. Integer number of seconds; default is 60.
- Whether to look for remote maps. Default is on.
- Where to look for remote maps on origin servers. Default is /map.xml.
- Whether to wait for remote maps to be loaded; otherwise, URLs for a given site will pass through without rewriting until the map is loaded, when rewriting will commence. Boolean (on=/=off), default is on.
Note that if you change any of these settings after starting Squid, you must restart it (not just reconfigure).
Maps are simple XML files (i.e., they don't even use namespaces). The root element is map. If the map file is local (i.e., loaded from the Squid box's filesystem), it MUST have a base attribute that indicates the base URI of the site it applies to (including the port, if it's not the default port). E.g.:
Note that the trailing slash must be included, as must the port number if it isn't 80.
There is one special value for base; default. when base="default', the nominated local map will be used for all requests that don't have a local map; remote maps won't be used. base is ignored when the map is loaded from a remote server.
map can contain directives (see below), as well as one or more path elements. A path element represents a single path segment in the URI space of that server, as indicated by the seg attribute, and can contain more path elements, as well as directives. For example:
<map base="http://example.com:80/"> <path seg="images"> </path> <path seg="scripts"> <path seg="old"> <path seg="prototype.js"> </path> </path> </path> </map>
This indicates that on http://example.com:80, the following paths are interesting: /images, /scripts, /scripts/old, /scripts/old/prototype.js. Note that the trailing '/' isn't significant; the innermost path will match /scripts/old/prototype.js/ as well.
Map directives indicate what processing Director should apply to URIs that match that path. Currently, the following directives are supported;
Matching URIs will have their authority (i.e., hostname and port) rewritten to the specified values. MUST have a host attribute, and MAY have a port attribute. E.g.:
<map base="http://example.com:80/"> <path seg="images"> <authority host="images.example.com" port="8000"/> </path> </map>
will rewrite the URIs http://example.com:4080/images, http://example.com/images/, http://example.com/images/foo.jpg and http://example.com/images/foo/bar.jpg to all use the origin server images.example.com, port 8000.
Note that when Squid is running as an accelerator, rewriting the authority will only have an effect if you don't specify any accelerator origin servers as cache_peers. If you do this, you MUST set remote_map_lookup to off, so that the accelerator can't be used as a proxy.
Matching URIs will have the segment this directive occurs in replaced with the specified value. MUST have a path attribute; e.g.:
<map base="http://example.com:80/"> <path seg="images"> <rewrite path="pix"> </path> </map>
will rewrite the URIs:
- http://example.com/images to http://example.com/pix
- http://example.com/images/ to http://example.com/pix/
- http://example.com/images/foo.jpg to http://example.com/pix/foo.jpg
- http://example.com/images/foo/bar.jpg to http://example.com/pix/foo/bar.jpg
Matching URIs will have their query arguments rewritten and canonicalised as directed. This includes the following attributes:
- sort attribute
- if true, will alphabetically sort the query arguments (using their keys, and values for identical keys). E.g., foo=1&bar=2 to bar=2&foo=1.
- lower_keys attribute
- if true, will lowercase all query argument keys; e.g., FOo=bar to foo=bar.
- delete attribute
- if true, will delete any query arguments that aren't specified in element children (see below).
Additionally, you can normalize query values by specifying element children of query. For example:
<map base="http://example.com:80/"> <query lower_keys="true"> <foo type="bool"/> <bar type="lower"/> </query> </map>
This indicates that the foo attribute, when present, is a boolean, and will be normalised to 0 or 1 (from a variety of values), while the bar attribute, when present, should be lowercase-normalised.
The following value type normalisations are available;
- bool: 0 or 1 (e.g., foo=yes to foo=1)
- lower lowercase (e.g., foo=Bar to foo=bar)
- upper: uppercase (e.g., foo=Bar to foo=BAR)
- int: convert to integer (e.g., foo=04.3 to foo=4)
- fixed use a fixed value (e.g., foo=abc to foo=def)
- none omit the value (e.g., foo=123 to foo)
Note that if a query argument is not present in the request-URI, it will not be added (this includes fixed values, presently). If the delete attribute on query is true, any arguments that aren't specified in this manner will be deleted.
Also, note that only the most specifically matching query will be applied; e.g., the following map:
<map base="http://example.com:80/"> <query lower_keys="true"/> <path seg="images"> <query sort="true"> </path> </map>
will only apply the innermost path to /http://example.com:80/images (etc.).
Frequently Asked Questions
Why should I put maps on my origin servers?
There are two reasons;
- Separating the configuration from the application it applies to is more likely to lead to them becoming out-of-sync; it's easy to forget configuration on another box.
- If other parties consume your services and also use Director, they can benefit from increased efficiency -- lessening load on your servers.
What will happen when the map isn't loaded? Will users get errors?
If a local map is present, it will always be loaded, so this isn't a concern. However, if you're using remote maps, the first request kicks off the request for the map. In this case, Director can operate in two different modes;
- always_wait=on - Director will wait for the map to load, so it can rewrite the URL. This is the default, and may result in added latency while the map is loaded.
- always_wait=off - Director will start loading the map in the background, but immediately reply without modifying the URL, to avoid latency.
If your site depends on Director to rewrite URIs (e.g., in a accelerator configuration), and the back-end server can't cope with URLs that aren't rewritten, the best strategy is to use local maps, so that users are always sent to the correct place.
However, if you're using Director for canonicalisation or other more forgiving transformations, try using remote maps, and consider turning always_wait off.
How do I test my maps with Director?
Director has a command-line test mode; use it like this:
> /usr/local/libexec/squid/director.py -t /usr/local/etc/squid/director.conf
Then, you can type in only the URI to be redirected; it will respond with the rewritten URI. When doing this, you can see what's happening in the log. Try setting log_level=DEBUG (reloading Ssquid afterwards) if you want more information.
How often are maps refreshed?
Local maps will be re-checked every local_map_check seconds.
Remote maps will be refreshed according to their Cache-Control: max-age response header. If one isn't present, or if it's too low, it will be checked every 60 seconds.
In both cases, maps will also be refreshed each time Squid is reloaded or restarted.
How does Director handle errors?
There are a variety of errors that may happen in the process of handling URIs from Squid, as well as working with maps.
Generally, Director will fall back to regurgitating the original request-URI in the event of an error in communicating with Squid (which is very unlikely).
In the event of a problem getting a map file (e.g., DNS problems, TCP errors, XML parsing issues), Director will schedule a re-check in the near future, and then regurgitate the request-URI.
In both cases, the problem will be noted in Director's log.
Director doesn't do what I need. Can I get something added to it?
Probably. We're very open to feature requests and new functionality, provided that they don't affect overall performance.
Features that may be coming up (feedback appreciated!) include:
- More flexible rewriting (e.g., rewriting the path base, not just the current segment, or rewriting all *.html to *.php)
- Handling appid checks and signed URLs
- Generating redirects for clients
- Generating urlgroups that can be used with Squid ACLs
- Rewriting, etc. based upon request headers (e.g., Cookie), request method, etc.
- Per-IP (or even ynet) access control in the map
- Matrix URI canonicalisation
- Bucket (A/B) testing
Additionally, there are a number of things we can do to improve its performance and manageability.
How does Director work?
Director is a Squid "helper process"; when squid starts, it launches an instance of the helper and communicates with it on STDIN and STDOUT. It's written in Python using the Twisted event-driven framework.
How much overhead does Director add to a Squid box?
Director does use some CPU; in pathological circumstances, it may even use nearly as much CPU as Squid itself. However, since most modern deployments are on dual-CPU or multi-core boxes, it shouldn't compete with Squid for resources.
Running a redirector of any kind does impose some overhead on Squid processing; in our testing, for example, a 4K response out of memory gets around 6,000 requests per second without Director being used; when used with a redirector, this drops to about 4,500 requests/sec. Although this is an absolute drop in capacity, it's in pathological circumstances, where all responses are served out of memory cache. In real-world deployments, where the hit rate is lower because URLs aren't canonicalised, Director can help increase the throughput and cache efficiency you'll see.
Director shouldn't use noticable amounts of memory unless you have a very large number of maps in active use.
How much latency does Director add to requests?
Popular URLs are cached in Director, to provide the fastest possible service. In these cases, much less than a millisecond of latency will be added to requests.
If a URL isn't cached, but the relevant map is already loaded in Director, service is still very fast, often still far less than a millisecond.
It is only when a map isn't loaded that Director may introduce noticeable amounts of latency. There are a few ways to mitigate this;
- Use local maps; they are loaded at startup and therefore always available.
- Set always_wait to off; this will cause Director to return the request-URI as-is immediately if it doesn't have the map loaded.
- Set Cache-Control: max-age as high as you can tolerate, to reduce the frequency of map reloads.
Why not just implement Apache's mod_rewrite in Squid?
mod_rewrite is very powerful -- much more so than Director -- but because of this is it often difficult to configure, and more importantly, CPU-intensive. While Apache boxes are usually too busy to notice the overhead of evaluating lots of regexen, Squid boxes -- which can easily handle thousands of requests a second -- would quickly be bogged down if they had that much to do.
This is why the map is designed as a tree that can be walked on a per-request basis with little overhead.
How does Director compare with other Squid redirectors (e.g., Squirm, Jesred)?
Most existing redirectors use regex, which is fine if you only have one or two rules. However, regex doesn't scale well when you have a large number of rules; each rule has to be evaluated for each request, until a match is found. This is why Director takes a tree-based approach.
Director is also somewhat specialised for URL canonicalisation; while this is possible using regex, it's hard to get right every time.
Also, Director's ability to get site maps from the origin server on demand makes it easier to use optimistically with a large number of clients that you don't control, especially for URL canonicalisation.
This isn't to say that these other redirectors don't have their uses; they may be faster or more flexible than Director in some scenarios.