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Rootless mode (Experimental)

Requirements:

  • runc a00bf0190895aa465a5fbed0268888e2c8ddfe85 (Oct 15, 2018) or later
  • Some distros such as Debian (excluding Ubuntu) and Arch Linux require sudo sh -c "echo 1 > /proc/sys/kernel/unprivileged_userns_clone".
  • RHEL/CentOS 7 requires sudo sh -c "echo 28633 > /proc/sys/user/max_user_namespaces". You may also need sudo grubby --args="namespace.unpriv_enable=1 user_namespace.enable=1" --update-kernel="$(grubby --default-kernel)".
  • newuidmap and newgidmap need to be installed on the host. These commands are provided by the uidmap package. For RHEL/CentOS 7, RPM is not officially provided but available at https://copr.fedorainfracloud.org/coprs/vbatts/shadow-utils-newxidmap/ .
  • /etc/subuid and /etc/subgid should contain >= 65536 sub-IDs. e.g. penguin:231072:65536.

Set up

Setting up rootless mode also requires some bothersome steps as follows, but you can also use rootlesskit for automating these steps.

Terminal 1:

$ unshare -U -m
unshared$ echo $$ > /tmp/pid

Unsharing mountns (and userns) is required for mounting filesystems without real root privileges.

Terminal 2:

$ id -u
1001
$ grep $(whoami) /etc/subuid
penguin:231072:65536
$ grep $(whoami) /etc/subgid
penguin:231072:65536
$ newuidmap $(cat /tmp/pid) 0 1001 1 1 231072 65536
$ newgidmap $(cat /tmp/pid) 0 1001 1 1 231072 65536

Terminal 1:

unshared# buildkitd

Terminal 2:

$ go get ./examples/build-using-dockerfile
$ build-using-dockerfile --buildkit-addr unix:///run/user/1001/buildkit/buildkitd.sock -t foo /path/to/somewhere

Set up (using a container)

Docker image is available as moby/buildkit:rootless.

$ docker run --name buildkitd -d --privileged -p 1234:1234  moby/buildkit:rootless --addr tcp://0.0.0.0:1234
$ go get ./examples/build-using-dockerfile
$ build-using-dockerfile --buildkit-addr tcp://127.0.0.1:1234 -t foo /path/to/somewhere

Security consideration

Although moby/buildkit:rootless executes the BuildKit daemon as a normal user, docker run still requires --privileged. This is to allow build executor containers to mount /proc, by providing "unmasked" /proc to the BuildKit daemon container.

See docker/cli#1347 for the ongoing work to remove this requirement. See also Disabling process sandbox.

UID/GID

The moby/buildkit:rootless image has the following UID/GID configuration:

Actual ID (shown in the host and the BuildKit daemon container) Mapped ID (shown in build executor containers)
1000 0
100000 1
... ...
165535 65536
$ docker exec buildkitd id
uid=1000(user) gid=1000(user)
$ docker exec buildkitd ps aux
PID   USER     TIME   COMMAND
    1 user       0:00 rootlesskit buildkitd --addr tcp://0.0.0.0:1234
   13 user       0:00 /proc/self/exe buildkitd --addr tcp://0.0.0.0:1234
   21 user       0:00 buildkitd --addr tcp://0.0.0.0:1234
   29 user       0:00 ps aux
$ docker exec cat /etc/subuid
user:100000:65536

To change the UID/GID configuration, you need to modify and build the BuildKit image manually.

$ vi hack/dockerfiles/test.Dockerfile
$ docker build -t buildkit-rootless-custom --target rootless -f hack/dockerfiles/test.Dockerfile .

Disabling process sandbox

By passing --oci-worker-no-process-sandbox to the buildkitd arguments, BuildKit can be executed in a container without --privileged. However, you still need to pass --security-opt seccomp=unconfined --security-opt apparmor=unconfined to docker run.

$ docker run --name buildkitd -d --security-opt seccomp=unconfined --security-opt apparmor=unconfined -p 1234:1234 moby/buildkit:rootless --addr tcp://0.0.0.0:1234 --oci-worker-no-process-sandbox

Note that --oci-worker-no-process-sandbox allows build executor containers to kill (and potentially ptrace depending on the seccomp configuration) an arbitrary process in the BuildKit daemon container.

Set up (using Kubernetes)

With securityContext

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  labels:
    app: buildkitd
  name: buildkitd
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: buildkitd
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: buildkitd
    spec:
      containers:
      - image: moby/buildkit:rootless
        args:
        - --addr
        - tcp://0.0.0.0:1234
        name: buildkitd
        ports:
        - containerPort: 1234
        securityContext:
          privileged: true

This configuration requires privileged containers to be enabled.

If you are using Kubernetes v1.12+ with either Docker v18.06+, containerd v1.2+, or CRI-O v1.12+ as the CRI runtime, you can replace privileged: true with procMount: Unmasked.

Without securityContext but with --oci-worker-no-process-sandbox

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  labels:
    app: buildkitd
  name: buildkitd
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: buildkitd
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: buildkitd
    spec:
      containers:
      - image: moby/buildkit:rootless
        args:
        - --addr
        - tcp://0.0.0.0:1234
        - --oci-worker-no-process-sandbox
        name: buildkitd
        ports:
        - containerPort: 1234

See Disabling process sandbox for security notice.