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%% @author Bob Ippolito <bob@mochimedia.com>
%% @copyright 2007 Mochi Media, Inc.
%% @doc Yet another JSON (RFC 4627) library for Erlang. mochijson2 works
%% with binaries as strings, arrays as lists (without an {array, _})
%% wrapper and it only knows how to decode UTF-8 (and ASCII).
-module(mochijson2).
-author('bob@mochimedia.com').
-export([encoder/1, encode/1]).
-export([decoder/1, decode/1]).
-export([test/0]).
% This is a macro to placate syntax highlighters..
-define(Q, $\").
-define(ADV_COL(S, N), S#decoder{offset=N+S#decoder.offset,
column=N+S#decoder.column}).
-define(INC_COL(S), S#decoder{offset=1+S#decoder.offset,
column=1+S#decoder.column}).
-define(INC_LINE(S), S#decoder{offset=1+S#decoder.offset,
column=1,
line=1+S#decoder.line}).
-define(INC_CHAR(S, C),
case C of
$\n ->
S#decoder{column=1,
line=1+S#decoder.line,
offset=1+S#decoder.offset};
_ ->
S#decoder{column=1+S#decoder.column,
offset=1+S#decoder.offset}
end).
-define(IS_WHITESPACE(C),
(C =:= $\s orelse C =:= $\t orelse C =:= $\r orelse C =:= $\n)).
%% @type iolist() = [char() | binary() | iolist()]
%% @type iodata() = iolist() | binary()
%% @type json_string() = atom | binary()
%% @type json_number() = integer() | float()
%% @type json_array() = [json_term()]
%% @type json_object() = {struct, [{json_string(), json_term()}]}
%% @type json_term() = json_string() | json_number() | json_array() |
%% json_object()
-record(encoder, {handler=null,
utf8=false}).
-record(decoder, {object_hook=null,
offset=0,
line=1,
column=1,
state=null}).
%% @spec encoder([encoder_option()]) -> function()
%% @doc Create an encoder/1 with the given options.
%% @type encoder_option() = handler_option() | utf8_option()
%% @type utf8_option() = boolean(). Emit unicode as utf8 (default - false)
encoder(Options) ->
State = parse_encoder_options(Options, #encoder{}),
fun (O) -> json_encode(O, State) end.
%% @spec encode(json_term()) -> iolist()
%% @doc Encode the given as JSON to an iolist.
encode(Any) ->
json_encode(Any, #encoder{}).
%% @spec decoder([decoder_option()]) -> function()
%% @doc Create a decoder/1 with the given options.
decoder(Options) ->
State = parse_decoder_options(Options, #decoder{}),
fun (O) -> json_decode(O, State) end.
%% @spec decode(iolist()) -> json_term()
%% @doc Decode the given iolist to Erlang terms.
decode(S) ->
json_decode(S, #decoder{}).
test() ->
test_all().
%% Internal API
parse_encoder_options([], State) ->
State;
parse_encoder_options([{handler, Handler} | Rest], State) ->
parse_encoder_options(Rest, State#encoder{handler=Handler});
parse_encoder_options([{utf8, Switch} | Rest], State) ->
parse_encoder_options(Rest, State#encoder{utf8=Switch}).
parse_decoder_options([], State) ->
State;
parse_decoder_options([{object_hook, Hook} | Rest], State) ->
parse_decoder_options(Rest, State#decoder{object_hook=Hook}).
json_encode(true, _State) ->
<<"true">>;
json_encode(false, _State) ->
<<"false">>;
json_encode(null, _State) ->
<<"null">>;
json_encode(I, _State) when is_integer(I) andalso I >= -2147483648 andalso I =< 2147483647 ->
%% Anything outside of 32-bit integers should be encoded as a float
integer_to_list(I);
json_encode(I, _State) when is_integer(I) ->
mochinum:digits(float(I));
json_encode(F, _State) when is_float(F) ->
mochinum:digits(F);
json_encode(S, State) when is_binary(S); is_atom(S) ->
json_encode_string(S, State);
json_encode(Array, State) when is_list(Array) ->
json_encode_array(Array, State);
json_encode({struct, Props}, State) when is_list(Props) ->
json_encode_proplist(Props, State);
json_encode(Bad, #encoder{handler=null}) ->
exit({json_encode, {bad_term, Bad}});
json_encode(Bad, State=#encoder{handler=Handler}) ->
json_encode(Handler(Bad), State).
json_encode_array([], _State) ->
<<"[]">>;
json_encode_array(L, State) ->
F = fun (O, Acc) ->
[$,, json_encode(O, State) | Acc]
end,
[$, | Acc1] = lists:foldl(F, "[", L),
lists:reverse([$\] | Acc1]).
json_encode_proplist([], _State) ->
<<"{}">>;
json_encode_proplist(Props, State) ->
F = fun ({K, V}, Acc) ->
KS = json_encode_string(K, State),
VS = json_encode(V, State),
[$,, VS, $:, KS | Acc]
end,
[$, | Acc1] = lists:foldl(F, "{", Props),
lists:reverse([$\} | Acc1]).
json_encode_string(A, State) when is_atom(A) ->
L = atom_to_list(A),
case json_string_is_safe(L) of
true ->
[?Q, L, ?Q];
false ->
json_encode_string_unicode(xmerl_ucs:from_utf8(L), State, [?Q])
end;
json_encode_string(B, State) when is_binary(B) ->
case json_bin_is_safe(B) of
true ->
[?Q, B, ?Q];
false ->
json_encode_string_unicode(xmerl_ucs:from_utf8(B), State, [?Q])
end;
json_encode_string(I, _State) when is_integer(I) ->
[?Q, integer_to_list(I), ?Q];
json_encode_string(L, State) when is_list(L) ->
case json_string_is_safe(L) of
true ->
[?Q, L, ?Q];
false ->
json_encode_string_unicode(L, State, [?Q])
end.
json_string_is_safe([]) ->
true;
json_string_is_safe([C | Rest]) ->
case C of
?Q ->
false;
$\\ ->
false;
$\b ->
false;
$\f ->
false;
$\n ->
false;
$\r ->
false;
$\t ->
false;
C when C >= 0, C < $\s; C >= 16#7f, C =< 16#10FFFF ->
false;
C when C < 16#7f ->
json_string_is_safe(Rest);
_ ->
false
end.
json_bin_is_safe(<<>>) ->
true;
json_bin_is_safe(<<C, Rest/binary>>) ->
case C of
?Q ->
false;
$\\ ->
false;
$\b ->
false;
$\f ->
false;
$\n ->
false;
$\r ->
false;
$\t ->
false;
C when C >= 0, C < $\s; C >= 16#7f, C =< 16#10FFFF ->
false;
C when C < 16#7f ->
json_bin_is_safe(Rest);
_ ->
false
end.
json_encode_string_unicode([], _State, Acc) ->
lists:reverse([$\" | Acc]);
json_encode_string_unicode([C | Cs], State, Acc) ->
Acc1 = case C of
?Q ->
[?Q, $\\ | Acc];
%% Escaping solidus is only useful when trying to protect
%% against "</script>" injection attacks which are only
%% possible when JSON is inserted into a HTML document
%% in-line. mochijson2 does not protect you from this, so
%% if you do insert directly into HTML then you need to
%% uncomment the following case or escape the output of encode.
%%
%% $/ ->
%% [$/, $\\ | Acc];
%%
$\\ ->
[$\\, $\\ | Acc];
$\b ->
[$b, $\\ | Acc];
$\f ->
[$f, $\\ | Acc];
$\n ->
[$n, $\\ | Acc];
$\r ->
[$r, $\\ | Acc];
$\t ->
[$t, $\\ | Acc];
C when C >= 0, C < $\s ->
[unihex(C) | Acc];
C when C >= 16#7f, C =< 16#10FFFF, State#encoder.utf8 ->
[xmerl_ucs:to_utf8(C) | Acc];
C when C >= 16#7f, C =< 16#10FFFF, not State#encoder.utf8 ->
[unihex(C) | Acc];
C when C < 16#7f ->
[C | Acc];
_ ->
exit({json_encode, {bad_char, C}})
end,
json_encode_string_unicode(Cs, State, Acc1).
hexdigit(C) when C >= 0, C =< 9 ->
C + $0;
hexdigit(C) when C =< 15 ->
C + $a - 10.
unihex(C) when C < 16#10000 ->
<<D3:4, D2:4, D1:4, D0:4>> = <<C:16>>,
Digits = [hexdigit(D) || D <- [D3, D2, D1, D0]],
[$\\, $u | Digits];
unihex(C) when C =< 16#10FFFF ->
N = C - 16#10000,
S1 = 16#d800 bor ((N bsr 10) band 16#3ff),
S2 = 16#dc00 bor (N band 16#3ff),
[unihex(S1), unihex(S2)].
json_decode(L, S) when is_list(L) ->
json_decode(iolist_to_binary(L), S);
json_decode(B, S) ->
{Res, S1} = decode1(B, S),
{eof, _} = tokenize(B, S1#decoder{state=trim}),
Res.
decode1(B, S=#decoder{state=null}) ->
case tokenize(B, S#decoder{state=any}) of
{{const, C}, S1} ->
{C, S1};
{start_array, S1} ->
decode_array(B, S1);
{start_object, S1} ->
decode_object(B, S1)
end.
make_object(V, #decoder{object_hook=null}) ->
V;
make_object(V, #decoder{object_hook=Hook}) ->
Hook(V).
decode_object(B, S) ->
decode_object(B, S#decoder{state=key}, []).
decode_object(B, S=#decoder{state=key}, Acc) ->
case tokenize(B, S) of
{end_object, S1} ->
V = make_object({struct, lists:reverse(Acc)}, S1),
{V, S1#decoder{state=null}};
{{const, K}, S1} ->
{colon, S2} = tokenize(B, S1),
{V, S3} = decode1(B, S2#decoder{state=null}),
decode_object(B, S3#decoder{state=comma}, [{K, V} | Acc])
end;
decode_object(B, S=#decoder{state=comma}, Acc) ->
case tokenize(B, S) of
{end_object, S1} ->
V = make_object({struct, lists:reverse(Acc)}, S1),
{V, S1#decoder{state=null}};
{comma, S1} ->
decode_object(B, S1#decoder{state=key}, Acc)
end.
decode_array(B, S) ->
decode_array(B, S#decoder{state=any}, []).
decode_array(B, S=#decoder{state=any}, Acc) ->
case tokenize(B, S) of
{end_array, S1} ->
{lists:reverse(Acc), S1#decoder{state=null}};
{start_array, S1} ->
{Array, S2} = decode_array(B, S1),
decode_array(B, S2#decoder{state=comma}, [Array | Acc]);
{start_object, S1} ->
{Array, S2} = decode_object(B, S1),
decode_array(B, S2#decoder{state=comma}, [Array | Acc]);
{{const, Const}, S1} ->
decode_array(B, S1#decoder{state=comma}, [Const | Acc])
end;
decode_array(B, S=#decoder{state=comma}, Acc) ->
case tokenize(B, S) of
{end_array, S1} ->
{lists:reverse(Acc), S1#decoder{state=null}};
{comma, S1} ->
decode_array(B, S1#decoder{state=any}, Acc)
end.
tokenize_string(B, S=#decoder{offset=O}) ->
case tokenize_string_fast(B, O) of
{escape, O1} ->
Length = O1 - O,
S1 = ?ADV_COL(S, Length),
<<_:O/binary, Head:Length/binary, _/binary>> = B,
tokenize_string(B, S1, lists:reverse(binary_to_list(Head)));
O1 ->
Length = O1 - O,
<<_:O/binary, String:Length/binary, ?Q, _/binary>> = B,
{{const, String}, ?ADV_COL(S, Length + 1)}
end.
tokenize_string_fast(B, O) ->
case B of
<<_:O/binary, ?Q, _/binary>> ->
O;
<<_:O/binary, $\\, _/binary>> ->
{escape, O};
<<_:O/binary, C1, _/binary>> when C1 < 128 ->
tokenize_string_fast(B, 1 + O);
<<_:O/binary, C1, C2, _/binary>> when C1 >= 194, C1 =< 223,
C2 >= 128, C2 =< 191 ->
tokenize_string_fast(B, 2 + O);
<<_:O/binary, C1, C2, C3, _/binary>> when C1 >= 224, C1 =< 239,
C2 >= 128, C2 =< 191,
C3 >= 128, C3 =< 191 ->
tokenize_string_fast(B, 3 + O);
<<_:O/binary, C1, C2, C3, C4, _/binary>> when C1 >= 240, C1 =< 244,
C2 >= 128, C2 =< 191,
C3 >= 128, C3 =< 191,
C4 >= 128, C4 =< 191 ->
tokenize_string_fast(B, 4 + O);
_ ->
throw(invalid_utf8)
end.
tokenize_string(B, S=#decoder{offset=O}, Acc) ->
case B of
<<_:O/binary, ?Q, _/binary>> ->
{{const, iolist_to_binary(lists:reverse(Acc))}, ?INC_COL(S)};
<<_:O/binary, "\\\"", _/binary>> ->
tokenize_string(B, ?ADV_COL(S, 2), [$\" | Acc]);
<<_:O/binary, "\\\\", _/binary>> ->
tokenize_string(B, ?ADV_COL(S, 2), [$\\ | Acc]);
<<_:O/binary, "\\/", _/binary>> ->
tokenize_string(B, ?ADV_COL(S, 2), [$/ | Acc]);
<<_:O/binary, "\\b", _/binary>> ->
tokenize_string(B, ?ADV_COL(S, 2), [$\b | Acc]);
<<_:O/binary, "\\f", _/binary>> ->
tokenize_string(B, ?ADV_COL(S, 2), [$\f | Acc]);
<<_:O/binary, "\\n", _/binary>> ->
tokenize_string(B, ?ADV_COL(S, 2), [$\n | Acc]);
<<_:O/binary, "\\r", _/binary>> ->
tokenize_string(B, ?ADV_COL(S, 2), [$\r | Acc]);
<<_:O/binary, "\\t", _/binary>> ->
tokenize_string(B, ?ADV_COL(S, 2), [$\t | Acc]);
<<_:O/binary, "\\u", C3, C2, C1, C0, Rest/binary>> ->
C = erlang:list_to_integer([C3, C2, C1, C0], 16),
if C > 16#D7FF, C < 16#DC00 ->
%% coalesce UTF-16 surrogate pair
<<"\\u", D3, D2, D1, D0, _/binary>> = Rest,
D = erlang:list_to_integer([D3,D2,D1,D0], 16),
[CodePoint] = xmerl_ucs:from_utf16be(<<C:16/big-unsigned-integer,
D:16/big-unsigned-integer>>),
Acc1 = lists:reverse(xmerl_ucs:to_utf8(CodePoint), Acc),
tokenize_string(B, ?ADV_COL(S, 12), Acc1);
true ->
Acc1 = lists:reverse(xmerl_ucs:to_utf8(C), Acc),
tokenize_string(B, ?ADV_COL(S, 6), Acc1)
end;
<<_:O/binary, C, _/binary>> ->
tokenize_string(B, ?INC_CHAR(S, C), [C | Acc])
end.
tokenize_number(B, S) ->
case tokenize_number(B, sign, S, []) of
{{int, Int}, S1} ->
{{const, list_to_integer(Int)}, S1};
{{float, Float}, S1} ->
{{const, list_to_float(Float)}, S1}
end.
tokenize_number(B, sign, S=#decoder{offset=O}, []) ->
case B of
<<_:O/binary, $-, _/binary>> ->
tokenize_number(B, int, ?INC_COL(S), [$-]);
_ ->
tokenize_number(B, int, S, [])
end;
tokenize_number(B, int, S=#decoder{offset=O}, Acc) ->
case B of
<<_:O/binary, $0, _/binary>> ->
tokenize_number(B, frac, ?INC_COL(S), [$0 | Acc]);
<<_:O/binary, C, _/binary>> when C >= $1 andalso C =< $9 ->
tokenize_number(B, int1, ?INC_COL(S), [C | Acc])
end;
tokenize_number(B, int1, S=#decoder{offset=O}, Acc) ->
case B of
<<_:O/binary, C, _/binary>> when C >= $0 andalso C =< $9 ->
tokenize_number(B, int1, ?INC_COL(S), [C | Acc]);
_ ->
tokenize_number(B, frac, S, Acc)
end;
tokenize_number(B, frac, S=#decoder{offset=O}, Acc) ->
case B of
<<_:O/binary, $., C, _/binary>> when C >= $0, C =< $9 ->
tokenize_number(B, frac1, ?ADV_COL(S, 2), [C, $. | Acc]);
<<_:O/binary, E, _/binary>> when E =:= $e orelse E =:= $E ->
tokenize_number(B, esign, ?INC_COL(S), [$e, $0, $. | Acc]);
_ ->
{{int, lists:reverse(Acc)}, S}
end;
tokenize_number(B, frac1, S=#decoder{offset=O}, Acc) ->
case B of
<<_:O/binary, C, _/binary>> when C >= $0 andalso C =< $9 ->
tokenize_number(B, frac1, ?INC_COL(S), [C | Acc]);
<<_:O/binary, E, _/binary>> when E =:= $e orelse E =:= $E ->
tokenize_number(B, esign, ?INC_COL(S), [$e | Acc]);
_ ->
{{float, lists:reverse(Acc)}, S}
end;
tokenize_number(B, esign, S=#decoder{offset=O}, Acc) ->
case B of
<<_:O/binary, C, _/binary>> when C =:= $- orelse C=:= $+ ->
tokenize_number(B, eint, ?INC_COL(S), [C | Acc]);
_ ->
tokenize_number(B, eint, S, Acc)
end;
tokenize_number(B, eint, S=#decoder{offset=O}, Acc) ->
case B of
<<_:O/binary, C, _/binary>> when C >= $0 andalso C =< $9 ->
tokenize_number(B, eint1, ?INC_COL(S), [C | Acc])
end;
tokenize_number(B, eint1, S=#decoder{offset=O}, Acc) ->
case B of
<<_:O/binary, C, _/binary>> when C >= $0 andalso C =< $9 ->
tokenize_number(B, eint1, ?INC_COL(S), [C | Acc]);
_ ->
{{float, lists:reverse(Acc)}, S}
end.
tokenize(B, S=#decoder{offset=O}) ->
case B of
<<_:O/binary, C, _/binary>> when ?IS_WHITESPACE(C) ->
tokenize(B, ?INC_CHAR(S, C));
<<_:O/binary, "{", _/binary>> ->
{start_object, ?INC_COL(S)};
<<_:O/binary, "}", _/binary>> ->
{end_object, ?INC_COL(S)};
<<_:O/binary, "[", _/binary>> ->
{start_array, ?INC_COL(S)};
<<_:O/binary, "]", _/binary>> ->
{end_array, ?INC_COL(S)};
<<_:O/binary, ",", _/binary>> ->
{comma, ?INC_COL(S)};
<<_:O/binary, ":", _/binary>> ->
{colon, ?INC_COL(S)};
<<_:O/binary, "null", _/binary>> ->
{{const, null}, ?ADV_COL(S, 4)};
<<_:O/binary, "true", _/binary>> ->
{{const, true}, ?ADV_COL(S, 4)};
<<_:O/binary, "false", _/binary>> ->
{{const, false}, ?ADV_COL(S, 5)};
<<_:O/binary, "\"", _/binary>> ->
tokenize_string(B, ?INC_COL(S));
<<_:O/binary, C, _/binary>> when (C >= $0 andalso C =< $9)
orelse C =:= $- ->
tokenize_number(B, S);
<<_:O/binary>> ->
trim = S#decoder.state,
{eof, S}
end.
%% testing constructs borrowed from the Yaws JSON implementation.
%% Create an object from a list of Key/Value pairs.
obj_new() ->
{struct, []}.
is_obj({struct, Props}) ->
F = fun ({K, _}) when is_binary(K) ->
true;
(_) ->
false
end,
lists:all(F, Props).
obj_from_list(Props) ->
Obj = {struct, Props},
case is_obj(Obj) of
true -> Obj;
false -> exit({json_bad_object, Obj})
end.
%% Test for equivalence of Erlang terms.
%% Due to arbitrary order of construction, equivalent objects might
%% compare unequal as erlang terms, so we need to carefully recurse
%% through aggregates (tuples and objects).
equiv({struct, Props1}, {struct, Props2}) ->
equiv_object(Props1, Props2);
equiv(L1, L2) when is_list(L1), is_list(L2) ->
equiv_list(L1, L2);
equiv(N1, N2) when is_number(N1), is_number(N2) -> N1 == N2;
equiv(B1, B2) when is_binary(B1), is_binary(B2) -> B1 == B2;
equiv(true, true) -> true;
equiv(false, false) -> true;
equiv(null, null) -> true.
%% Object representation and traversal order is unknown.
%% Use the sledgehammer and sort property lists.
equiv_object(Props1, Props2) ->
L1 = lists:keysort(1, Props1),
L2 = lists:keysort(1, Props2),
Pairs = lists:zip(L1, L2),
true = lists:all(fun({{K1, V1}, {K2, V2}}) ->
equiv(K1, K2) and equiv(V1, V2)
end, Pairs).
%% Recursively compare tuple elements for equivalence.
equiv_list([], []) ->
true;
equiv_list([V1 | L1], [V2 | L2]) ->
equiv(V1, V2) andalso equiv_list(L1, L2).
test_all() ->
[1199344435545.0, 1] = decode(<<"[1199344435545.0,1]">>),
<<16#F0,16#9D,16#9C,16#95>> = decode([34,"\\ud835","\\udf15",34]),
test_encoder_utf8(),
test_input_validation(),
test_one(e2j_test_vec(utf8), 1).
test_one([], _N) ->
%% io:format("~p tests passed~n", [N-1]),
ok;
test_one([{E, J} | Rest], N) ->
%% io:format("[~p] ~p ~p~n", [N, E, J]),
true = equiv(E, decode(J)),
true = equiv(E, decode(encode(E))),
test_one(Rest, 1+N).
e2j_test_vec(utf8) ->
[
{1, "1"},
{3.1416, "3.14160"}, %% text representation may truncate, trail zeroes
{-1, "-1"},
{-3.1416, "-3.14160"},
{12.0e10, "1.20000e+11"},
{1.234E+10, "1.23400e+10"},
{-1.234E-10, "-1.23400e-10"},
{10.0, "1.0e+01"},
{123.456, "1.23456E+2"},
{10.0, "1e1"},
{<<"foo">>, "\"foo\""},
{<<"foo", 5, "bar">>, "\"foo\\u0005bar\""},
{<<"">>, "\"\""},
{<<"\n\n\n">>, "\"\\n\\n\\n\""},
{<<"\" \b\f\r\n\t\"">>, "\"\\\" \\b\\f\\r\\n\\t\\\"\""},
{obj_new(), "{}"},
{obj_from_list([{<<"foo">>, <<"bar">>}]), "{\"foo\":\"bar\"}"},
{obj_from_list([{<<"foo">>, <<"bar">>}, {<<"baz">>, 123}]),
"{\"foo\":\"bar\",\"baz\":123}"},
{[], "[]"},
{[[]], "[[]]"},
{[1, <<"foo">>], "[1,\"foo\"]"},
%% json array in a json object
{obj_from_list([{<<"foo">>, [123]}]),
"{\"foo\":[123]}"},
%% json object in a json object
{obj_from_list([{<<"foo">>, obj_from_list([{<<"bar">>, true}])}]),
"{\"foo\":{\"bar\":true}}"},
%% fold evaluation order
{obj_from_list([{<<"foo">>, []},
{<<"bar">>, obj_from_list([{<<"baz">>, true}])},
{<<"alice">>, <<"bob">>}]),
"{\"foo\":[],\"bar\":{\"baz\":true},\"alice\":\"bob\"}"},
%% json object in a json array
{[-123, <<"foo">>, obj_from_list([{<<"bar">>, []}]), null],
"[-123,\"foo\",{\"bar\":[]},null]"}
].
%% test utf8 encoding
test_encoder_utf8() ->
%% safe conversion case (default)
[34,"\\u0001","\\u0442","\\u0435","\\u0441","\\u0442",34] =
encode(<<1,"\321\202\320\265\321\201\321\202">>),
%% raw utf8 output (optional)
Enc = mochijson2:encoder([{utf8, true}]),
[34,"\\u0001",[209,130],[208,181],[209,129],[209,130],34] =
Enc(<<1,"\321\202\320\265\321\201\321\202">>).
test_input_validation() ->
Good = [
{16#00A3, <<?Q, 16#C2, 16#A3, ?Q>>}, % pound
{16#20AC, <<?Q, 16#E2, 16#82, 16#AC, ?Q>>}, % euro
{16#10196, <<?Q, 16#F0, 16#90, 16#86, 16#96, ?Q>>} % denarius
],
lists:foreach(fun({CodePoint, UTF8}) ->
Expect = list_to_binary(xmerl_ucs:to_utf8(CodePoint)),
Expect = decode(UTF8)
end, Good),
Bad = [
% 2nd, 3rd, or 4th byte of a multi-byte sequence w/o leading byte
<<?Q, 16#80, ?Q>>,
% missing continuations, last byte in each should be 80-BF
<<?Q, 16#C2, 16#7F, ?Q>>,
<<?Q, 16#E0, 16#80,16#7F, ?Q>>,
<<?Q, 16#F0, 16#80, 16#80, 16#7F, ?Q>>,
% we don't support code points > 10FFFF per RFC 3629
<<?Q, 16#F5, 16#80, 16#80, 16#80, ?Q>>
],
lists:foreach(fun(X) ->
ok = try decode(X) catch invalid_utf8 -> ok end
end, Bad).
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