Tooling for the Java 9 Module System
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README.md

ModiTect - Tooling for the Java 9 Module System

Version 1.0.0.Beta1 - 2018-03-18

The ModiTect project aims at providing productivity tools for working with the Java 9 module system ("Jigsaw").

Currently the following tasks are supported:

  • Generating module-info.java descriptors for given artifacts (Maven dependencies or local JAR files)
  • Adding module descriptors to your project's JAR as well as existing JAR files (dependencies)
  • Creating module runtime images

Compared to authoring module descriptors by hand, using ModiTect saves you work by defining dependence clauses based on your project's dependencies, describing exported and opened packages with patterns (instead of listing all packages separately), auto-detecting service usages and more. You also can use ModiTect to add a module descriptor to your project JAR while staying on Java 8 with your own build.

In future versions functionality may be added to work with other tools like jmod etc. under Maven and other dependency management tools in a comfortable manner.

Usage

ModiTect's functionality is currently exclusively exposed through a Maven plug-in. The core implementation is a separate module, though, so that plug-ins for other build systems such as Gradle could be written, too.

Generating module-info.java descriptors

To create a module-info.java descriptor for a given artifact, configure the generate-module-info goal as follows:

...
<plugin>
    <groupId>org.moditect</groupId>
    <artifactId>moditect-maven-plugin</artifactId>
    <version>1.0.0.Beta1</version>
    <executions>
        <execution>
            <id>generate-module-info</id>
            <phase>generate-sources</phase>
            <goals>
                <goal>generate-module-info</goal>
            </goals>
            <configuration>
                <modules>
                    <module>
                        <artifact>
                            <groupId>com.example</groupId>
                            <artifactId>example-core</artifactId>
                            <version>1.0.0.Final</version>
                        </artifact>
                        <additionalDependencies>
                            <dependency>
                                <groupId>com.example</groupId>
                                <artifactId>example-extended</artifactId>
                                <version>1.0.0.Final</version>
                            </dependency>
                        </additionalDependencies>
                        <moduleInfo>
                            <name>com.example.core</name>
                            <exports>
                                !com.example.core.internal*;
                                *;
                            </exports>
                            <requires>
                                static com.some.optional.dependency;
                                !com.excluded.dependency;
                                *;
                            </requires>
                            <uses>
                                 com.example.SomeService;
                            </uses>
                            <addServiceUses>true</addServiceUses>
                        </moduleInfo>
                    </module>
                    <module>
                        ...
                    </module>
                </modules>
            </configuration>
        </execution>
    </executions>
</plugin>
...

This will generate a module descriptor at target/generated-sources/com.example.core/module-info.java.

For each module to be processed, the following configuration options exist:

  • artifact: The GAV coordinates of the artifact for which a descriptor should be generated (required)
  • additionalDependencies: Additional artifacts to be processed; useful if the main artifact depends on code from another artifact but doesn't declare a dependency to that one (optional)
  • moduleInfo: Allows fine-grained configuration of the generated module descriptor (optional); has the following sub-elements:
    • name: Name to be used within the descriptor; if not given the name will be derived from the JAR name as per the naming rules for automatic modules (optional)
    • open: Whether the descriptor should be an open module or not (optional, defaults to false)
    • exports: List of name patterns for describing the exported packages of the module, separated by ";". Patterns can be inclusive or exclusive (starting with "!") and may contain the "*" as a wildcard. Inclusive patterns may be qualified exports ("to xyz"). For each package from the module, the given patterns are processed in the order they are given. As soon a package is matched by an inclusive pattern, the package will be added to the list of exported packages and no further patterns will be applied. As soon as a package is matched by an exclusive pattern, this package will not be added to the list of exported packages and no further patterns will be applied. (optional; the default value is "*;", i.e. all packages will be exported)
    • opens: List of name patterns for describing the open packages of the module, separated by ";". Patterns can be inclusive or exclusive (starting with "!") and may contain the "*" as a wildcard. Inclusive patterns may be qualified exports ("to xyz"). For each package from the module, the given patterns are processed in the order they are given. As soon a package is matched by an inclusive pattern, the package will be added to the list of open packages and no further patterns will be applied. As soon as a package is matched by an exclusive pattern, this package will not be added to the list of open packages and no further patterns will be applied. (optional; the default value is "!*;", i.e. no packages will be opened)
    • requires: List of name patterns for describing the dependences of the module, based on the automatically determined dependences. Patterns are inclusive or exclusive (starting with "!") and may contain the "*" character as a wildcard. Inclusive patterns may contain the static and transitive modifiers, in which case those modifiers will override the modifiers of the automatically determined dependence. For each of the automatically determined dependences of the module, the given patterns are processed in the order they are given. As soon as a dependence is matched by a pattern, the dependence will be added to the list of dependences (if the pattern is inclusive) or the dependence will be filtered out (for exclusive patterns) and no further patterns will be applied. Usually, only a few dependences will be given explicitly in order to override their modifiers, followed by a *; pattern to add all remaining automatically determined dependences.
    • addServiceUses: If true, the given artifact will be scanned for usages of ServiceLoader#load() and if usages passing a class literal are found (load( MyService.class )), an equivalent uses() clause will be added to the generated descriptor; usages of load() where a non-literal class object is passed, are ignored (optional, defaults to false)
    • uses: List of names of used services, separated by ";" only required if addServiceUses cannot be used due to dynamic invocations of ServiceLoader#load(), i.e. no class literal is passed (optional)

It is also possible to run this goal directly, specifying the different options as JVM parameters like this:

mvn moditect:generate-module-info \
    -Dmoditect.artifact=com.example:example-core:1.0.0.Final \
    -Dmoditect.moduleName=com.example.core \
    -Dmoditect.additionalDependencies=com.example:example-extended:1.0.0.Final \ -Dmoditect.exportExcludes=com\.example\.core\.internal\..* \
    -Dmoditect.addServiceUses=true

Adding a module descriptor to the project JAR

To add a module descriptor to the JAR produced by the current Maven project, configure the add-module-info goal as follows:

...
<plugin>
    <groupId>org.moditect</groupId>
    <artifactId>moditect-maven-plugin</artifactId>
    <version>1.0.0.Beta1</version>
    <executions>
        <execution>
            <id>add-module-infos</id>
            <phase>package</phase>
            <goals>
                <goal>add-module-info</goal>
            </goals>
            <configuration>
                <jvmVersion>9</jvmVersion>
                <module>
                    <moduleInfo>
                        <name>com.example</name>
                        <exports>
                            !com.example.internal.*;
                            *;
                        </exports>
                    </moduleInfo>
                </module>
            </configuration>
        </execution>
    </executions>
</plugin>
...

The optional jvmVersion element allows to define for which JVM version the module descriptor should be created. When defined, the module descriptor will be put into META-INF/versions/${jvmVersion}, otherwise it will be put into the root of the final JAR.

The following configuration options exist for the <module> configuration element:

  • moduleInfoSource: Inline representation of a module-info.java descriptor (optional; either this or moduleInfoFile or moduleInfo must be given)
  • moduleInfoFile: Path to a module-info.java descriptor (optional; either this or moduleInfoSource or moduleInfo must be given)
  • moduleInfo: A moduleInfo configuration as used with the generate-module-info goal (optional; either this or moduleInfoSource or moduleInfoFile must be given)
  • mainClass: The fully-qualified name of the main class to be added to the module descriptor (optional)

Note that moduleInfoSource and moduleInfoFile can be used on Java 8, allowing to add a Java 9 module descriptor to your JAR also if you did not move to Java 9 for your own build yet. moduleInfo can only be used on Java 9 or later.

Adding module descriptors to existing JAR files

To add a module descriptor for a given dependency, configure the add-module-info goal as follows:

...
<plugin>
    <groupId>org.moditect</groupId>
    <artifactId>moditect-maven-plugin</artifactId>
    <version>1.0.0.Beta1</version>
    <executions>
        <execution>
            <id>add-module-infos</id>
            <phase>generate-resources</phase>
            <goals>
                <goal>add-module-info</goal>
            </goals>
            <configuration>
                <outputDirectory>${project.build.directory}/modules</outputDirectory>
                <modules>
                    <module>
                        <artifact>
                            <groupId>com.example</groupId>
                            <artifactId>example-core</artifactId>
                            <version>1.0.0.Final</version>
                        </artifact>
                        <moduleInfoSource>
                            module com.example.core {
                                requires java.logging;
                                exports com.example.api;
                                provides com.example.api.SomeService
                                    with com.example.internal.SomeServiceImpl;
                            }
                        </moduleInfoSource>
                    </module>
                    <module>
                        ...
                    </module>
                </modules>
            </configuration>
        </execution>
    </executions>
</plugin>
...

For each module to be processed, the following configuration options exist:

  • artifact: The GAV coordinates of the artifact for which a descriptor should be generated (either this or file must be given)
  • file: Path to the file for which a descriptor should be generated (either this or artifact must be given)
  • moduleInfoSource: Inline representation of a module-info.java descriptor (optional; either this or moduleInfoFile or moduleInfo must be given)
  • moduleInfoFile: Path to a module-info.java descriptor (optional; either this or moduleInfoSource or moduleInfo must be given)
  • moduleInfo: A moduleInfo configuration as used with the generate-module-info goal (optional; either this or moduleInfoSource or moduleInfoFile must be given)
  • mainClass: The fully-qualified name of the main class to be added to the module descriptor (optional)
  • version: The version to be added to the module descriptor; if not given and artifact is given, the artifact's version will be used; otherwise no version will be added (optional)

The modularized JARs can be found in the folder given via outputDirectory.

Creating modular runtime images

To create a modular runtime image (see JEP 220), configure the create-runtime-image goal as follows:

...
<plugin>
    <groupId>org.moditect</groupId>
    <artifactId>moditect-maven-plugin</artifactId>
    <version>1.0.0.Beta1</version>
    <executions>
        <execution>
            <id>create-runtime-image</id>
            <phase>package</phase>
            <goals>
                <goal>create-runtime-image</goal>
            </goals>
            <configuration>
                <modulePath>
                    <path>${project.build.directory}/modules</path>
                </modulePath>
                <modules>
                    <module>com.example.module1</module>
                    <module>com.example.module2</module>
                </modules>
                <excludedResources>
                    <pattern>glob:/com.example/**</pattern>
                </excludedResources>
                <baseJdk>version=9,vendor=openjdk,platform=linux-x64</baseJdk>
                <launcher>
                    <name>helloWorld</name>
                    <module>com.example.module1</module>
                </launcher>
                <outputDirectory>
                    ${project.build.directory}/jlink-image
                </outputDirectory>
            </configuration>
        </execution>
    </executions>
</plugin>
...

The following configuration options exist:

  • modulePath: One or more directories with modules to be considered for creating the image (required); the jmods directory of the current JVM will be added implicitly, so it doesn't have to be given here
  • modules: The module(s) to be used as the root for resolving the modules to be added to the image (required)
  • outputDirectory: Directory in which the runtime image should be created (required)
  • launcher: file name and main module for creating a launcher file (optional)
  • stripDebug whether to strip debug symbols or not (optional, defaults to false)
  • excludedResources list of patterns for excluding matching resources from the created runtime image
  • baseJdk: requirements for identifying a JDK in ~/.m2/toolchains.xml whose jmod files will be used when creating the runtime image (optional; if not given the JDK running the current build will be used). Must unambiguously identify one toolchain entry of type jdk that matches all given requirements in its <provides> configuration. This can be used for creating runtime images on one platform (e.g. OS X) while targeting another (e.g. Linux).
  • ignoreSigningInformation: Suppresses a fatal error when signed modular JARs are linked in the runtime image. The signature-related files of the signed modular JARs aren’t copied to the runtime image.

Once the image has been created, it can be executed by running:

./<outputDirectory>/bin/java --module com.example

Or, if a launcher has been configured:

./<outputDirectory>/bin/<launcherName>

Examples

Undertow

The POM file in integrationtest/undertow shows a more complete example. It adds module descriptors for Undertow Core and its dependencies, i.e. it allows to run the Undertow web server based on Java 9 modules.

Run

cd integrationtest/undertow
mvn clean install

to build the example. You then can start Undertow by executing

java --module-path target/modules --module com.example

Alternatively, you can run the modular runtime image created by the example:

./target/jlink-image/bin/helloWorld

Then visit http://localhost:8080/?name=YourName in your browser for the canonical "Hello World" example.

Vert.x

The POM file in integrationtest/vertx shows a more complete example. It adds module descriptors for Vert.x and its dependencies (Netty, Jackson) and creates a modular runtime image with a "hello world" verticle.

Execute

cd integrationtest/vert.x
mvn clean install -Pjlink

to build the example.

You can then run the modular runtime image like so:

./target/jlink-image/bin/helloWorld

Then visit http://localhost:8080/?name=YourName in your browser for the canonical "Hello World" example.

The runtime image has a size of 45 MB, which could be further improved by a few adjustments to the involved libraries. E.g. jackson-databind pulls in java.sql unconditionally which could be avoided by making data converters related to java.sql types an optional feature.

Using Docker

The Vert.x example can also be run on Docker. To do so, run the build with the "docker-base" profile:

mvn clean install -Pdocker-base

This will create an image named moditect/vertx-helloworld-base which contains the jlink image. To run that image execute

docker run --rm -t -i -p 8080:8080 moditect/vertx-helloworld-base

Changes to the application will require to rebuild the entire jlink image which actually isn't needed if just the app itself changed but not its dependencies (used JDK modules or 3rd-party modules). Therefore another image can be build using the "docker" profile:

mvn clean install -Pdocker

This will create an image named _moditect/vertx-helloworld which extends the base image and just adds the application module (com.example) on the upgrade module path. Hence that image is very quick to be built (and distributed) once the base image is in place. To run that image execute

docker run --rm -t -i -p 8080:8080 moditect/vertx-helloworld

Status

ModiTect is at an early stage of development and it still has some rough edges. Use it at your own risk.

Further Planned Features

Adding module descriptors to existing JARs is the first functionality implemented in ModiTect. Potential future developments include:

  • Update existing module descriptors (e.g. to remove/replace a requires clause)
  • Better support for generating and adding a module descriptor to the JAR produced by a build itself (i.e. not a JAR it depends on)
  • Install/Deploy updated (modularized) JARs with a new name/classifier etc.
  • Adding transitive modifier to dependences based on whether their types are exposed in a module's exported API or not
  • YOUR ideas :)

Related Work

ModuleTools by Remi Forax shows how to assemble module descriptors using ASM.

License

ModiTect is licensed under the Apache License version 2.0. ASM (which is contained within the ModiTect JAR in the org/moditect/internal/shaded/asm/ package) is licensed under the 3 clause BSD license (see etc/LICENSE_ASM.txt).