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Mustache template engine for Erlang.

branch: master
README.md

Mustache for Erlang Build Status

An Erlang port of Mustache for Ruby. Mustache is a framework-agnostic templating system that enforces separation of view logic from the template file. Indeed, it is not even possible to embed logic in the template. This allows templates to be reused across language boundaries and for other language independent uses.

This project uses Semantic Versioning for release numbering.

Working with Mustache means dealing with templates, views, and contexts. Templates contain HTML (or some other format) and Mustache tags that specify what data to pull in. A template can be either a string or a file (usually ending in .mustache). Views are Erlang modules that can define functions that are called and provide the data for the template tags. A context is an Erlang dict that contains the current context from which tags can pull data. A few examples will clarify how these items interact.

NOTE: This is alpha software. Do not use it in production without extensive testing. The API may change at any time. It still lacks some of the features of Mustache for Ruby and the performance (even with compiled templates) is not yet where I'd like it to be.

Installation

To compile the code, navigate to the Mustache.erl project root and issue:

make

This will produce a mustache.beam file in the ebin directory that must be included in the code path of projects that need it.

The Simplest Example

The simplest example involves using a string template and a context from the REPL.

1> Ctx = dict:from_list([{planet, "World!"}]).
{dict,1,16,16,8,80,48,...}

2> mustache:render("Hello {{planet}}", Ctx).
"Hello World!"

In line 1 we created a context that contains a value bound to the planet tag. In line 2 we render a string template by passing in the template and the context.

Two-File Example

A more complex example consists of two files: the view and the template. The view (logic) file is an Erlang module (simple.erl):

-module(simple).
-compile(export_all).

name() ->
  "Tom".

value() ->
  10000.

taxed_value() ->
  value() - (value() * 0.4).

in_ca() ->
  true.

In the view we define functions that will be called by the template. The names of the functions correspond to the tag names that will be used in the template. Some functions reference others, some return values, and some return only booleans.

The template file (simple.mustache) looks like so:

Hello {{name}}
You have just won ${{value}}!
{{#in_ca}}
Well, ${{ taxed_value }}, after taxes.
{{/in_ca}}

Notice that the template references the functions in the view module. The return values from the view dictate how the template will be rendered. To get the HTML output, make sure the simple.beam bytecode file is in your code path and call the following function:

mustache:render(simple)

This tells Mustache to use the simple view and to look for a template named simple.mustache in the same directory as the simple.beam bytecode file. If all goes well, it returns the rendered HTML:

Hello Tom
You have just won $10000!
Well, $6000.00, after taxes.

Compiled Templates (for speed)

In order to boost performance for templates that will be called many times in the lifetime of a runtime, Mustache allows you to compile a template and then provide that to the render function (instead of having to implicitly recompile the template on each call).

1> TFun = mustache:compile(simple).
2> mustache:render(simple, TFun).

Now, each call to render will use the compiled template (TFun) instead of compiling the template on its own.

The Power of Context

You will often want to provide additional data to your template and view. You can do this by passing in an initial context to the render function. During rendering, tag lookups always hit the context first before looking for a view function. In this way, the context can be used to override view functions. Using the same template and view as above, we can replace the name tag with different data by constructing a context and passing it to render:

1> Ctx = dict:from_list([{name, "Chris"}]).
1> TFun = mustache:compile(simple).
2> mustache:render(simple, TFun, Ctx).

This will produce the following output:

Hello Chris
You have just won $10000!
Well, $6000.00, after taxes.

The context is also accessible from view functions, making it easy to pass in initialization data. Consider a case where we want to pass in a user ID:

Ctx = dict:from_list([{id, 42}])

View functions can get access to the context by accepting a single argument:

name(Ctx) ->
  ...

Now when this function is called, it will be handed the context. In order to fetch data from the context, use mustache:get/2:

name(Ctx) ->
  Id = mustache:get(id, Ctx),
  ...

If the requested key does not exist in the context, the empty list [] will be returned.

Tag Types

Tags are indicated by the double mustaches. {{name}} is a tag. Let's talk about the different types of tags.

Variables

The most basic tag is the variable. A {{name}} tag in a basic template will try to call the name function on your view. By default a variable "miss" returns an empty string.

All variables are HTML escaped by default. If you want to return unescaped HTML, use the triple mustache: {{{name}}}.

Boolean Sections

A section begins with a pound and ends with a slash. That is, {{#person}} begins a "person" section while {{/person}} ends it.

If the person method exists and calling it returns false, the HTML between the pound and slash will not be displayed.

If the person method exists and calling it returns true, the HTML between the pound and slash will be rendered and displayed.

List Sections

List sections are syntactically identical to boolean sections in that they begin with a pound and end with a slash. The difference, however, is in the view: if the function called returns a list, the section is repeated as the list is iterated over.

Each item in the enumerable is expected to be a dict that will then become the context of the corresponding iteration. In this way we can construct loops.

For example, imagine this template:

{{#repo}}
  <b>{{name}}</b>
{{/repo}}

And this view code:

repo() ->
  [dict:from_list([{name, Name}]) || Name <- ["Tom", "Chris", "PJ"]].

When rendered, our view will contain a list of each of the names in the source list.

Comments

Comments begin with a bang and are ignored. The following template:

<h1>Today{{! ignore me }}.</h1>

Will render as follows:

<h1>Today.</h1>

TODO

  • Support partials
  • Learn some things from erlydtl (speed improvments, perhaps)

Meta

  • Code: git clone git://github.com/mojombo/mustache.erl.git
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