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.. This page uses "we" throughout. I tried replacing the third-person,
as I'd done on other pages, but doing so became too unwieldy on this page.
.. _rackspace-cloud:
Rackspace Cloud
.. default-domain:: mongodb
.. contents:: On this page
:backlinks: none
:depth: 1
:class: singlecol
This guide is intended to provide instructions on getting started with
MongoDB using `Rackspace Cloud Servers <>`_.
First we'll step through deployment planning (instance sizes, topology,
security) and then we'll set up a single MongoDB node. We'll use the
same steps to create a multi-node replica set and cover the steps needed
to backup your database.
Deployment Planning
Instance Sizes
Rackspace Cloud offers instances with RAM ranging from 256 MB up to 64
GB. When considering instances for initial development purposes, those
with 256 or 512 MB are an appropriate starting point. As development
progresses towards production-level deployments we recommend moving to
higher memory instances. The top-end Cloud instances are appropriate for
pre-production and some production deployments. If you need to grow your
deployment beyond the Cloud instances, Rackspace also offers managed
dedicated servers that can be scaled to increase database performance
and throughput.
When planning your deployment, it's important to account for your
resource needs for today and into the future. If you plan on growing
your production systems into Rackspace's dedicated services then it may
be useful to consider using RackConnect. This is a service that bridges
Rackspace's public cloud infrastructure with their private dedicated
servers. It makes migrating from Cloud to dedicated much easier and is
also useful when creating a hybrid deployment solution combining
resources from both. For more information refer to
Rackspace's `RackConnect <>`_ site.
The following are example deployment scenarios for MongoDB built on
Rackspace servers.
The single node example is the simplest; a single MongoDB instance can
be deployed in Rackspace Cloud or Managed hosting. This deployment is
useful for development and early app testing.
.. image:: /figures/rackspace-cloud-single-node.png
For production-level deployments, we'll move to a three node Replica Set
running in Rackspace Cloud.
.. image:: /figures/rackspace-cloud-replica-set.png
Depending on the size of your database deployment or if your app
requires greater levels of database performance, another option is a
hybrid deployment. In this case, a Replica Set which spans Rackspace
Cloud and Managed hosting can be deployed. Cloud and Managed hosting are
"connected" via RackConnect, providing a faster interconnect between the
two hosting services.
.. image:: /figures/rackspace-cloud-replica-set-hybrid.png
.. _rackspace-cloud-security:
When deploying onto Rackspace Cloud, you'll need to secure access to
your instances so that MongoDB is only available to known safe systems.
To secure your instances we'll use the ``iptables`` command-line tool to
control access to the system with a firewall. Once we've completed
securing our instance, it will be using the following firewall
port 22 (SSH) will accept any incoming TCP connections
All other ports will reject incoming TCP connections
Later on when we deploy multiple instances we'll open up port 27017 (for
mongod) to other specific IP addresses in order to facilitate a working
replica set. The ports required for sharding (27018 and 27019) aren't
required immediately since we'll be setting up a single node and replica
set however just remember to open them up later if necessary.
Monitoring is a critical component of all database servers. MongoDB
includes several tools to help gather statistics about data sizes,
index sizes and analyze queries.
Consider the |mms-home|, a cloud-hosted deployment, monitoring, and backup
solution, that provides custom dashboards and reporting for your MongoDB
instances. For more information, refer to the |mms-docs|.
.. include:: /includes/replacement-mms.rst
In addition, there are several :ref:`third-party tools
<third-party-tools>` that exist to help integrate MongoDB information
into other monitoring solutions.
Deploy a Single Node
Create an Instance
Log in to the Rackspace Cloud control panel and navigate to
``Hosting > Cloud Servers > Add Server``. In this example we used Ubuntu 11.10
(Oneiric Ocelot) as the OS image for our instance. Once selected, enter
a server name, select a server size and continue. Be sure to record your
root password or you'll have to reset it later. Once the instance is
available, connect to it via SSH to secure it. By default, you'll be
connecting to the server as ``root``. If you'd like to create additional
users/groups to use with your instance, consult the documentation for
the chosen OS. For our configuration, we used the ``admin`` group and added
an additional user, per the
`Ubuntu 11.10 server guide <>`_.
First we added a new user (``admin``) to the ``admin`` group:
.. code-block:: sh
root# adduser admin --ingroup admin
After stepping through the prompts to set a password (and other account
information), the ``admin`` user will be created and added to the ``admin``
At this point, log out of the server as ``root`` and login as ``admin``.
Secure Your Instance
As discussed above in :ref:`rackspace-cloud-security`, we'll use a
simple firewall setup to secure access to the instances running MongoDB.
The built-in ``ufw`` command provides a simple mechanism to configure the
system firewall. First off, enable the firewall and add a rule to allow
SSH access:
.. code-block:: sh
sudo ufw enable
sudo ufw allow 22
Now the only port that will allow connections is port 22, attempts to
connect on any other port will be dropped. With this firewall setup, the
instance is secure and we can proceed with configuring MongoDB. For more
information, refer to the
`Rackspace Introduction to IPTables <>`_
and the
`Ubuntu firewall guide <>`_.
Install MongoDB
Using the instructions from the MongoDB documentation on
:manual:`Ubuntu and Debian packages </tutorial/install-mongodb-on-debian-or-ubuntu-linux>`
we added an additional ``apt-get`` source and installed DB.
First add the MongoDB GPG key to ``apt-get`` to create a "trusted" source:
.. code-block:: sh
sudo apt-key adv --keyserver --recv 7F0CEB10
Next, add the following line to ``/etc/apt/sources.list``:
.. code-block:: sh
sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list
deb dist 10gen
Now update ``apt-get`` to pick up the new packages:
.. code-block:: sh
sudo apt-get update
Finally, install MongoDB:
.. code-block:: sh
sudo apt-get install mongodb-10gen
At this point MongoDB will be installed and started, which we can
confirm via the service utility:
.. code-block:: sh
sudo service mongodb status
mongodb start/running, process 2308
You can also check the status by using ``tail`` to examine the MongoDB log:
.. code-block:: sh
sudo tail -f /var/log/mongodb/mongodb.log
Configure MongoDB
By default, MongoDB is set to use ``/var/lib/mongodb`` as the data path. If
you'd like to amend that, or update the log path, shutdown the MongoDB
instance and update ``/etc/mongodb.conf`` with any changes.
If you change the MongoDB ``dbpath`` or ``logpath``, be sure to set the proper
ownership, etc. For example, to change MongoDB to use ``/data`` as the data
path, use the following steps.
First, shutdown the MongoDB service:
.. code-block:: sh
sudo service mongodb stop
Next, update the MongoDB configuration file:
.. code-block:: sh
sudo nano /etc/mongodb.conf
Now create the ``/data`` directory and update it's ownership:
.. code-block:: sh
sudo mkdir /data
sudo chown mongodb:mongodb /data
Restart MongoDB with
.. code-block:: sh
sudo service mongodb start
Replica Sets
:manual:`MongoDB Replica Sets </replication>` are a form of asynchronous
data replication between primary/secondary instances of MongoDB, adding
automatic failover and automatic recovery of secondary nodes. In
addition, Replica Sets can also provide the ability to distribute the
read workload of your data.
To create a Replica Set, first create three instances of MongoDB. Next
install and configure MongoDB on each instance. (See
:manual:`/tutorial/deploy-replica-set`.) Just before starting MongoDB,
edit the ``/etc/mongodb.conf`` configuration file, adding the ``replSet``
.. code-block:: sh
sudo nano /etc/mongodb.conf
Before proceeding, note that our current security setup has blocked
access to all incoming ports (other than port 22 for SSH) therefore the
MongoDB instances won't be accessible. We'll need to add rule to each
instance that allows access to port 27017 (the standard ``mongod`` port)
from the other instances in our replica set.
Collect the IP addresses of the instances in your Replica Set and
execute the following ``ufw`` commands on each instance:
.. code-block:: sh
sudo ufw allow proto tcp from [IP Address 1] to any port 27017
sudo ufw allow proto tcp from [IP Address 2] to any port 27017
sudo ufw allow proto tcp from [IP Address 3] to any port 27017
Then start MongoDB with
.. code-block:: sh
sudo service mongodb start
Once MongoDB has started and is running on each instance we'll connect
to the desired primary node, initialize the Replica Set and add the
secondary nodes. First connect to the desired primary node and launch
the :program:`mongo` shell:
.. code-block:: sh
MongoDB shell version: 2.0.4
connecting to: test
Now initialize the Replica Set:
.. code-block:: sh
"info2" : "no configuration explicitly specified -- making one",
"me" : "",
"info" : "Config now saved locally. Should come online in about a minute.",
"ok" : 1
Next add the other nodes to the Replica Set. If you're executing this on
the first configured instance, add the other 2 instances here:
.. code-block:: sh
rs.add("[IP Address 2]");
{ "ok" : 1 }
rs.add("[IP Address 3]");
{ "ok" : 1 }
Finally, you can check the status of the Replica Set from the
:program:`mongo` shell with the following:
.. code-block:: sh
In the output of the ``rs.status()`` command, you should see three entries,
one for each instance. Each one should provide information about it's
current status within the Replica Set. For more information, see
:manual:`MongoDB Replica Sets </replication>`.
To facilitate backups there are two main options: Cloud Servers images
or MongoDB built-in backup tools.
Cloud Servers Images
Cloud Servers images are snapshots of an entire instance which are saved
in Rackspace Cloud Files. Images can be created from any running
instance and the process can be completed via the Rackspace Cloud
control panel. When creating backups from instances in a Replica Set, be
sure to image a SECONDARY instance to avoid any interruptions for your
applications or data. To image a SECONDARY, first lock it against
database writes from within the Replica Set, create the image and then
unlock it to rejoin the Replica Set.
To lock the SECONDARY database, connect with the :program:`mongo` shell and use the
following command:
.. code-block:: sh
SECONDARY> db.fsyncLock()
"info" : "now locked against writes, use db.fsyncUnlock() to unlock",
"seeAlso" : "",
"ok" : 1
While the database is locked it will not accept any incoming writes from
the PRIMARY instance. Once locked, go to the Rackspace Cloud control
panel and create a "New On-Demand Image". Once the image has been
created and is complete, go back to the :program:`mongo` shell and issue the
"unlock" command:
.. code-block:: sh
SECONDARY> db.fsyncUnlock()
{ "ok" : 1, "info" : "unlock completed" }
Once unlocked, any data that was written to the PRIMARY while the
SECONDARY was locked will asynchronously replicate to the newly unlocked
Built-in Tools
MongoDB ships with several built-in command line tools to help with
database administration. One of those tools mongodump can be used to
create file-based backups of the running database. Mongodump can be used
on a live database instance however for the sake of data consistency, it
is wise to use the ``--oplog`` option when calling mongodump. This allows
for point-in-time backups that catch any data that was written while
``mongodump`` was working. For more information about live data backups,
see the `mongodump <>`_ documentation.