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===========================
Manage ``mongod`` Processes
===========================
.. default-domain:: mongodb
MongoDB runs as a standard program. You can start MongoDB from a
command line by issuing the :program:`mongod` command and specifying
options. For a list of options, see the :program:`mongod`
reference. MongoDB can also run as a Windows service. For details, see
:ref:`manually-create-windows-service`. To install MongoDB, see
:doc:`/installation`.
The following examples assume the directory containing the
:program:`mongod` process is in your system paths. The
:program:`mongod` process is the primary database process that runs on
an individual server. :program:`mongos` provides a coherent MongoDB
interface equivalent to a :program:`mongod` from the perspective of a
client. The :program:`mongo` binary provides the administrative
shell.
This document page discusses the :program:`mongod` process; however,
some portions of this document may be applicable to :program:`mongos`
instances.
Start ``mongod`` Processes
--------------------------
By default, MongoDB stores data in the ``/data/db`` directory. On
Windows, MongoDB stores data in ``C:\data\db``. On all platforms,
MongoDB listens for connections from clients on port ``27017``.
To start MongoDB using all defaults, issue the following command at
the system shell:
.. code-block:: sh
mongod
Specify a Data Directory
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
If you want :program:`mongod` to store data files at a path *other
than* ``/data/db`` you can specify a :setting:`~storage.dbPath`. The
:setting:`~storage.dbPath` must exist before you start :program:`mongod`. If it
does not exist, create the directory and the permissions so that
:program:`mongod` can read and write data to this path. For more
information on permissions, see the :doc:`security operations
documentation </administration/security-checklist>`.
To specify a :setting:`~storage.dbPath` for :program:`mongod` to use as a data
directory, use the :option:`--dbpath <mongod --dbpath>` option. The
following invocation will start a :program:`mongod` instance and store
data in the ``/srv/mongodb`` path
.. code-block:: sh
mongod --dbpath /srv/mongodb/
Specify a TCP Port
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Only a single process can listen for connections on a network
interface at a time. If you run multiple :program:`mongod` processes
on a single machine, or have other processes that must use this port,
you must assign each a different port to listen on for client
connections.
To specify a port to :program:`mongod`, use the :option:`--port
<mongod --port>` option on the command line. The following command
starts :program:`mongod` listening on port ``12345``:
.. code-block:: sh
mongod --port 12345
Use the default port number when possible, to avoid confusion.
Start ``mongod`` as a Daemon
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
To run a :program:`mongod` process as a daemon (i.e. :setting:`~processManagement.fork`),
*and* write its output to a log file, use the :option:`--fork
<mongod --fork>` and :option:`--logpath <mongod --logpath>`
options. You must create the log directory; however, :program:`mongod`
will create the log file if it does not exist.
The following command starts :program:`mongod` as a daemon and records log
output to ``/var/log/mongodb.log``.
.. code-block:: sh
mongod --fork --logpath /var/log/mongodb.log
Additional Configuration Options
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
For an overview of common configurations and common configuration deployments.
configurations for common use cases, see
:doc:`/administration/configuration`.
.. _terminate-mongod-processes:
Stop ``mongod`` Processes
-------------------------
In a clean shutdown a :program:`mongod` completes all pending
operations, flushes all data to data files, and closes all data
files. Other shutdowns are *unclean* and can compromise the validity the
data files.
.. COMMENT add the following to the last sentence when the paragraph
when maintain-valid-data-files is published.
and may lead to corruption. See
:doc:`/tutorial/maintain-valid-data-files` for more information.
To ensure a clean shutdown, always shutdown :program:`mongod`
instances using one of the following methods:
Use ``shutdownServer()``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Shut down the :program:`mongod` from the :program:`mongo` shell using
the :method:`db.shutdownServer()` method as follows:
.. code-block:: javascript
use admin
db.shutdownServer()
Calling the same method from a control script accomplishes the same result.
For systems with :setting:`~security.authorization` enabled, users may only issue
:method:`db.shutdownServer()` when authenticated to the ``admin``
database or via the localhost interface on systems without
authentication enabled.
Use ``--shutdown``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
From the Linux command line, shut down the :program:`mongod` using the
:option:`--shutdown <mongod --shutdown>` option in the following command:
.. code-block:: sh
mongod --shutdown
Use ``CTRL-C``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
When running the :program:`mongod` instance in interactive mode
(i.e. without :option:`--fork <mongod --fork>`), issue ``Control-C``
to perform a clean shutdown.
Use ``kill``
~~~~~~~~~~~~
From the Linux command line, shut down a specific :program:`mongod` instance
using the following command:
.. code-block:: none
kill <mongod process ID>
.. warning::
Never use ``kill -9`` (i.e. ``SIGKILL``) to terminate a mongod instance.
Stop a Replica Set
------------------
Procedure
~~~~~~~~~
If the :program:`mongod` is the :term:`primary` in a :term:`replica
set`, the shutdown process for these :program:`mongod` instances has
the following steps:
#. Check how up-to-date the :term:`secondaries <secondary>` are.
#. If no secondary is within 10 seconds of the primary,
:program:`mongod` will return a message that it will not shut down.
You can pass the :dbcommand:`shutdown` command a ``timeoutSecs``
argument to wait for a secondary to catch up.
#. If there is a secondary within 10 seconds of the primary, the primary
will step down and wait for the secondary to catch up.
#. After 60 seconds or once the secondary has caught up, the primary
will shut down.
Force Replica Set Shutdown
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
If there is no up-to-date secondary and you want the primary to shut
down, issue the :dbcommand:`shutdown` command with the ``force``
argument, as in the following :program:`mongo` shell operation:
.. code-block:: javascript
db.adminCommand({shutdown : 1, force : true})
To keep checking the secondaries for a specified number of seconds if
none are immediately up-to-date, issue :dbcommand:`shutdown` with the
``timeoutSecs`` argument. MongoDB will keep checking the secondaries for
the specified number of seconds if none are immediately up-to-date. If
any of the secondaries catch up within the allotted time, the primary
will shut down. If no secondaries catch up, it will not shut down.
The following command issues :dbcommand:`shutdown` with ``timeoutSecs``
set to ``5``:
.. code-block:: javascript
db.adminCommand({shutdown : 1, timeoutSecs : 5})
Alternately you can use the ``timeoutSecs`` argument with the
:method:`db.shutdownServer()` method:
.. code-block:: javascript
db.shutdownServer({timeoutSecs : 5})
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