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.\"
.\" mdoc(5) manual page.
.\" (C) 2008 Jonathan Pryor
.\" Author:
.\" Jonathan Pryor (jpryor@novell.com)
.\"
.de Sp \" Vertical space (when we can't use .PP)
.if t .sp .5v
.if n .sp
..
.TH "mdoc" 5
.SH NAME
mdoc \- Mono Documentation XML Format
.SH DESCRIPTION
The assorted Mono documentation programs generate or manipulate XML files
following the mono documentation schema:
.TP
.I mdoc update
Creates or updates mono documentation XML for a set of assemblies.
.TP
.I mdoc validate
Validates the mono documentation XML against the mono documentation XML
schema.
.TP
.I mdoc assemble
Converts the mono documentation XML within a directory structure into a set
of files for use with \fBmonodoc\fR(1).
.TP
.I mdoc export-html
Converts the mono documentation XML within a directory structure into a set
of HTML files that can be viewed with a web browser.
.PP
All of these tools (and more) use the common XML schema described in this man
page.
.SH FILE/DIRECTORY STRUCTURE
There are three sets of Mono documentation XML files:
.TP
.B *
.B index.xml:
contains a list of all assemblies within the containing directory, and all
types and namespaces within those assemblies.
.TP
.B *
.B ns\-*.xml:
There is one ns-*.xml file for each namespace within the assembly; these
files are siblings to
.I index.xml
\&.
.Sp
Examples of
.I ns\-*.xml
files include: \fIns-System.xml\fR, \fIns-System.Collections.xml\fR, and
\fIns-.xml\fR (for the root namespace, though it is recommended to NOT place
types into the root namespace, as \fBmonodoc\fR(1) doesn't display them).
.Sp
The
.I ns\-*.xml
files contain per-namespace documentation.
.TP
.B *
.B NamespaceName/TypeName.xml:
These files are within a dotted
.I NamespaceName
directory, and
.I TypeName
is the name of the type.
.Sp
Examples include:
.I RootType.xml
(if the type has no namespace),
\fISystem/String.xml\fR,
\fISystem.Collections/IEnumerable.xml\fR, and
\fISystem.Collections.Generic/List`1+Enumerator.xml\fR
(the
.I `1
is the number of generic type parameters the type accepts, and everything
after the
.I +
is a nested type).
.PP
Thus, typical directory contents would resemble:
.nf
index.xml
ns-System.xml
ns-System.Collections.Generic.xml
System/String.xml
System.Collections.Generic/List`1.xml
.fi
.SH DOCUMENTATION FORMAT
.SS "\fBindex.xml File Format\fR"
.PP
The
.I index.xml
file contains a list of the assemblies nested under the directory containing
.I index.xml
and all namespaces and types within those assemblies. It looks something like
this:
.nf
<Overview>
<Assemblies>
<Assembly Name="mscorlib" Version="2.0.0.0" />
<!-- other <Assembly/> elements... -->
</Assemblies>
<Remarks>To be added.</Remarks>
<Copyright>To be added.</Copyright>
<Types>
<Namespace Name="System">
<Type Name="String" />
<!-- Other <Type/> elements -->
</Namespace>
<Namespace Name="System.Collections.Generic">
<Type Name="List`1" DisplayName="List&lt;T&gt;" />
<!-- Other <Type/> elements -->
</Namespace>
<!-- other <Namespace/> elements -->
</Types>
<Title>DocTest</Title>
</Overview>
.fi
Most of this is maintained automatically, in particular the
.I /Overview/Assemblies
and
.I /Overview/Types
elements.
.PP
The
.I //Namespace/@Name
attribute corresponds to a directory which contains files named
\fI//Type/@Name\fR.xml, while the \fI//Type/@DisplayName\fR attribute contains
a C# type name (if \fI//Type/@DisplayName\fR isn't found, then
\fI//Type/@Name\fR is used as the display name). There should also be a
\fIns-[//Namespace/@Name].xml\fR file.
.PP
There are three elements of interest to authors:
\fI/Overview/Remarks\fR, \fI/Overview/Copyright\fR, and
\fI/Overview/Title\fR, which contain assembly-level documentation.
These elements can contain any of the following XML elements (documented in
the \fBDocumentation XML Elements\fR section):
\fIblock\fR,
\fIcode\fR,
\fIexample\fR,
\fIlist\fR,
\fIpara\fR,
\fIparamref\fR,
\fItypeparamref\fR,
\fIsee\fR, and
\fIul\fR.
.SS "\fBns-*.xml File Format\fR"
The \fIns-*.xml\fR files contain namespace documentation:
.nf
<Namespace Name="System">
<Docs>
<summary>To be added.</summary>
<remarks>To be added.</remarks>
</Docs>
</Namespace>
.fi
The \fI/Namespace/Docs/summary\fR and \fI/Namespace/Docs/remarks\fR elements
should contain namespace documentation.
.PP
The \fIremarks\fR and \fIsummary\fR elements are documented in the
\fBDocumentation XML Elements\fR section.
.SS "\fBNamespaceName/TypeName.xml File Format\fR"
The
.I mono documentation format
is similar to the Ecma documentation format, as described
in ECMA-335 3rd Edition, Partition IV, Chapter 7.
The principal difference from the ECMA format is that each type gets its own
file, within a directory identical to the namespace of the type. There is a
lot of information that is maintained automatically by \fBmdoc\fR(1);
Most of the information within the documentation should
.I not
be edited. This includes the type name (\fI/Type/@FullName\fR), implemented
interfaces (\fI/Type/Interfaces\fR), member information
(\fI/Type/Members/Member/@MemberName\fR,
\fI/Type/Members/Member/MemberSignature\fR,
\fI/Type/Members/Member/MemberType\fR,
\fI/Type/Members/Member/Parameters\fR, etc.).
.nf
<Type Name="DocAttribute" FullName="Mono.DocTest.DocAttribute">
<TypeSignature Language="C#" Value="public class DocAttribute : Attribute" />
<AssemblyInfo>
<AssemblyName>DocTest</AssemblyName>
<AssemblyVersion>0.0.0.0</AssemblyVersion>
</AssemblyInfo>
<Base>
<BaseTypeName>System.Attribute</BaseTypeName>
</Base>
<Interfaces />
<Attributes>
<Attribute>
<AttributeName>System.AttributeUsage(System.AttributeTargets.All)</AttributeName>
</Attribute>
</Attributes>
<Docs>
<summary>To be added.</summary>
<remarks>To be added.</remarks>
</Docs>
<Members>
<Member MemberName=".ctor">
<MemberSignature Language="C#" Value="public DocAttribute (string docs);" />
<MemberType>Constructor</MemberType>
<AssemblyInfo>
<AssemblyVersion>0.0.0.0</AssemblyVersion>
</AssemblyInfo>
<Parameters>
<Parameter Name="docs" Type="System.String" />
</Parameters>
<Docs>
<param name="docs">To be added.</param>
<summary>To be added.</summary>
<remarks>To be added.</remarks>
</Docs>
</Member>
</Members>
</Type>
.fi
The only elements that normally need to be edited are children of the
\fI//Docs\fR elements, which usually contain the text
.I To be added.
The \fI/Type/Docs\fR element contains type-level documentation, while the
\fI/Type/Members/Member/Docs\fR element contains per-member documentation.
.PP
The \fI//Docs\fR elements can contain the following elements:
\fIaltcompliant\fR,
\fIaltmember\fR,
\fIexample\fR,
\fIexception\fR,
\fIparam\fR,
\fIpermission\fR,
\fIremarks\fR,
\fIreturns\fR,
\fIsince\fR,
\fIsummary\fR,
\fIthreadsafe\fR,
\fItypeparam\fR, and
\fIvalue\fR.
.PP
Nested types are not members; they are types, and are documented in their own
file. Consequently, the \fINamespaceName/TypeName.xml\fR files are not
recursive; you do not store a \fI<Type/>\fR element within a \fI<Type/>\fR
element.
.SS "\fBDocumentation XML Elements\fR"
The contents of the \fIDocs\fR element is \fIidentical\fR
in semantics and structure to the inline C# documentation format, consisting
of these elements (listed in ECMA-334 3rd Edition, Annex E, Section 2). The
following are used within the element descriptions:
.TP
.I CREF
Refers to a class (or member) reference, and is a string in the format
described below in the \fBCREF FORMAT\fR section.
.TP
.I TEXT
Non-XML text, and XML should not be nested.
.I
.TP
.I XML
Only XML elements should be nested (which indirectly may contain text), but
non-whitespace text should not be an immediate child node.
.TP
.I XML_TEXT
Free-form text and XML, so that other XML elements may be nested.
.PP
The following elements are used in documentation:
.TP
.I <altmember cref="CREF" />
.I <altmember/>
is a top-level element, and should be nested directly under the
.I <Docs/>
element.
.Sp
Allows an entry to be generated for the \fISee Also\fR section. Use
\fI<see/>\fR to specify a link from within text.
.nf
<altmember cref="P:System.Exception.Message" />
.fi
.TP
.I <block subset="SUBSET" type="TYPE">XML_TEXT</block>
Create a block of text, similar in concept to a paragraph, but is used to
create divisions within the text. To some extent, a <block/> is equivalent to
the HTML <h2/> tag.
.Sp
.I SUBSET
should always be the value \fI"none"\fR.
.Sp
.I TYPE
specifies the heading and formatting to use. Recognized types are:
.Sp
.I behaviors
Creates a section with the heading \fIOperation\fR.
.Sp
.I note
Creates a section with the heading \fINote:\fR.
.Sp
.I overrides
Creates a section with the heading \fINote to Inheritors\fR.
.Sp
.I usage
Creates a section with the heading \fIUsage\fR.
.Sp
The \fIblock\fR element can contain the following elements:
\fIblock\fR,
\fIc\fR,
\fIcode\fR,
\fIlist\fR,
\fIpara\fR,
\fIparamref\fR,
\fIsee\fR,
\fIsubscript\fR,
\fIsup\fR, and
\fItypeparamref\fR.
.TP
.I <c>XML_TEXT</c>
Set text in a code-like font (similar to the HTML <tt/> element).
.Sp
The \fIc\fR element can contain the following elements:
\fIcode\fR,
\fIpara\fR,
\fIparamref\fR,
\fIsee\fR, and
\fItypeparamref\fR.
.TP
.I <code lang="LANGUAGE" src="SOURCE">TEXT</code>
Display multiple lines of text in a code-like font (similar to the HTML <pre/>
element).
.Sp
.I LANGUAGE
is the language this code block is for. For example, if \fILANGUAGE\fR is
\fBC#\fR, then \fITEXT\fR will get syntax highlighting for the C# language
within the Mono Documentation Browser.
.Sp
.I SOURCE
is only interpreted by \fBmdoc-update\fR(1). If the \fIsrc\fR attribute is
present when \fBmdoc-update\fR(1) is run, then \fISOURCE\fR is a file
(relative to \fBmdoc-update\fR(1)'s \fB--out\fR directory) that
should be inserted as the value for \fITEXT\fR.
The contents of \fITEXT\fR will be ignored by \fBmdoc-update\fR(1)
and replaced on every invocation. \fISOURCE\fR can also contain an "anchor",
e.g. \fIsrc="path/to/file.cs#RegionMarker"\fR. If an anchor is present,
\fIand\fR \fILANGUAGE\fR is \fIC#\fR, then \fI#region RegionMarker\fR will be
searched for, and the contents between the \fI#region\fR and the following
\fI#endregion\fR will be inserted as the value for \fITEXT\fR element.
.TP
.I <example>XML_TEXT</example>
Indicates an example that should be displayed specially. For example:
.nf
<example>
<para>An introductory paragraph.</para>
<code lang="C#">
class Example {
public static void Main ()
{
System.Console.WriteLine ("Hello, World!");
}
}
</code>
</example>
.fi
The \fIexample\fR element can contain the following elements:
\fIc\fR,
\fIcode\fR,
\fIlist\fR,
\fIpara\fR, and
\fIsee\fR.
.TP
.I <exception cref="CREF">XML_TEXT</exception>
Identifies an exception that can be thrown by the documented member.
.Sp
.I <exception/>
is a top-level element, and should be nested directly under the
.I <Docs/>
element.
.Sp
.I CREF
is the exception type that is thrown, while
.I XML_TEXT
contains the circumstances that would cause
.I CREF
to be thrown.
.nf
<exception cref="T:System.ArgumentNullException">
<paramref name="foo" /> was <see langword="null" />.
</exception>
.fi
The \fIexception\fR element can contain the following elements:
\fIblock\fR,
\fIpara\fR,
\fIparamref\fR,
\fIsee\fR, and
\fItypeparamref\fR.
.TP
.I <format type="TYPE">XML_TEXT</format>
The \fI<format/>\fR element is an "escape hatch," for including (possibly XML)
content that is not valid \fBmdoc\fR(5) content. It's the moral equivalent of
\fBperlpod\fR(1) \fI=begin format\fR blocks.
\fITYPE\fR is the mime type of \fIXML_TEXT\fR. \fBmdoc\fR(5) processors may
skip \fIformat/>\fR blocks of they use a type that isn't supported.
For example:
.nf
<format type="text/html">
<table width="100%">
<tr><td style="color:red">Hello, world!</td></tr>
</table>
</format>
.fi
would cause the embedded HTML \fI<table/>\fR element to be inserted inline
into the resulting HTML document when \fBmdoc-export-html\fR(1) processes the
file. (Likewise, it may be skipped if processed by another program.)
\fIformat/>\fR is intended to simplify importing documentation from existing
documentation sources. It should not be relied upon, if at all possible.
.TP
.I <list>XML</list>
Create a list or table of items.
.I <list/>
makes use of nested \fI<item>XML</item>\fR, \fI<listheader>XML</listheader>\fR,
\fI<term>XML_TEXT</term>\fR, and \fI<description>XML_TEXT</description>\fR
elements.
.Sp
\fILists\fR have the syntax:
.nf
<list type="bullet"> <!-- or type="number" -->
<item><term>Bullet 1</term></item>
<item><term>Bullet 2</term></item>
<item><term>Bullet 3</term></item>
</list>
.fi
.Sp
.I Tables
have the syntax:
.nf
<list type="table">
<listheader> <!-- listheader bolds this row -->
<term>Column 1</term>
<description>Column 2</description>
<description>Column 3</description>
</listheader>
<item>
<term>Item 1-A</term>
<description>Item 1-B</description>
<description>Item 1-C</description>
</item>
<item>
<term>Item 2-A</term>
<description>Item 2-B</description>
<description>Item 2-C</description>
</item>
</list>
.fi
The \fIitem\fR and \fIdescription\fR elements can each contain text and
the following elements:
\fIblock\fR,
\fIc\fR,
\fIpara\fR,
\fIparamref\fR,
\fIsee\fR,
\fIsup\fR, and
\fItypeparamref\fR.
.TP
.I <para>XML_TEXT</para>
Insert a paragraph of \fIXML_TEXT\fR.
For example,
.nf
<para>
This is a paragraph of text.
</para>
.fi
The \fIpara\fR element can contain the following elements:
\fIblock\fR,
\fIc\fR,
\fIexample\fR,
\fIlink\fR,
\fIlist\fR,
\fIonequarter\fR,
\fIparamref\fR,
\fIsee\fR,
\fIsub\fR,
\fIsup\fR,
\fItypeparamref\fR, and
\fIul\fR.
.TP
.I <param name="NAME">XML_TEXT</param>
.I <param/>
is a top-level element, and should be nested directly under the
.I <Docs/>
element.
.Sp
Describes the parameter \fINAME\fR of the current constructor, method, or
property:
.nf
<param name="count">
A <see cref="T:System.Int32" /> containing the number
of widgets to process.
</param>
.fi
The \fIparam\fR element can contain the following elements:
\fIblock\fR,
\fIc\fR,
\fIexample\fR,
\fIpara\fR,
\fIparamref\fR,
\fIsee\fR, and
\fItypeparamref\fR.
.TP
.I <paramref name="NAME" />
Indicates that \fINAME\fR is a parameter.
.Sp
This usually renders \fINAME\fR as italic text, so it is frequently
(ab)used as an equivalent to the HTML <i/> element. See the
\fI<exception/>\fR documentation (above) for an example.
.Sp
.TP
.I <permission cref="CREF">XML_TEXT</permission>
Documents the security accessibility requirements of the current member.
.Sp
.I <permission/>
is a top-level element, and should be nested directly under the
.I <Docs/>
element.
.Sp
\fICREF\fR is a type reference to the security permission required, while
\fIXML_TEXT\fR is a description of why the permission is required.
.nf
<permission cref="T:System.Security.Permissions.FileIOPermission">
Requires permission for reading and writing files. See
<see cref="F:System.Security.Permissions.FileIOPermissionAccess.Read" />,
<see cref="F:System.Security.Permissions.FileIOPermissionAccess.Write" />.
</permission>
.fi
The \fIpermission\fR element can contain the following elements:
\fIblock\fR,
\fIpara\fR,
\fIparamref\fR,
\fIsee\fR, and
\fItypeparamref\fR.
.TP
.I <remarks>XML_TEXT</remarks>
Contains detailed information about a member.
.Sp
.I <remarks/>
is a top-level element, and should be nested directly under the
.I <Docs/>
element.
.nf
<remarks>
Insert detailed information here.
</remarks>
.fi
The \fIremarks\fR element can contain the following elements:
\fIblock\fR,
\fIc\fR,
\fIcode\fR,
\fIexample\fR,
\fIlist\fR,
\fIpara\fR,
\fIparamref\fR,
\fIsee\fR, and
\fItypeparamref\fR.
.TP
.I <returns>XML_TEXT</returns>
.Sp
.I <returns/>
is a top-level element, and should be nested directly under the
.I <Docs/>
element.
.Sp
Describes the return value of a method:
.nf
<returns>
A <see cref="T:System.Boolean" /> specifying whether
or not the process can access
<see cref="P:Mono.Unix.UnixFileSystemInfo.FullName" />.
</returns>
.fi
The \fIreturns\fR element can contain the following elements:
\fIc\fR,
\fIformat\fR,
\fIlist\fR,
\fIpara\fR,
\fIparamref\fR,
\fIsee\fR, and
\fItypeparamref\fR.
.TP
\fI<see cref="CREF" />\fR, \fI<see langword="LANGWORD" />\fR
Creates a link to the specified member within the current text:
.nf
<see cref="M:Some.Namespace.With.Type.Method" />
.fi
or specifies that \fILANGWORD\fR is a language keyword:
.nf
<see langword="null" />
.fi
.TP
.I <seealso cref="CREF" />
Do not use \fIseealso\fR, use \fIaltmember\fR.
.TP
.I <since version="VERSION" />
.Sp
.I <since/>
is a top-level element, and should be nested directly under the
\fI<Docs/>\fR element.
.Sp
Permits specification of which version introduced the specified type or
member.
.nf
<since version="Gtk# 2.4" />
.fi
This generally isn't required, as the \fI//AssemblyInfo/AssemblyVersion\fR
elements track which assembly versions contain type or member.
.TP
.I <summary>XML_TEXT</summary>
.Sp
.I <summary/>
is a top-level element, and should be nested directly under the
.I <Docs/>
element.
.Sp
Provides a (brief!) overview about a type or type member.
.Sp
This is usually displayed as part of a class declaration, and should be a
reasonably short description of the type/member. Use
.I <remarks/>
for more detailed information.
.Sp
The \fIsummary\fR element can contain the following elements:
\fIblock\fR,
\fIlist\fR,
\fIpara\fR,
\fIparamref\fR,
\fIsee\fR, and
\fItypeparamref\fR.
.TP
.I <typeparam name="NAME">XML_TEXT</typeparam>
.I <typeparam/>
is a top-level element, and should be nested directly under the
.I <Docs/>
element.
.Sp
This is used to document a type parameter for a generic type or generic method.
.Sp
.I NAME
is the name of the type parameter, while
.I XML_TEXT
contains a description of the parameter (what it's used for, what restrictions
it must meet, etc.).
.nf
<typeparam name="T">
The type of the underlying collection
</typeparam>
.fi
The \fItypeparam\fR element can contain the following elements:
\fIblock\fR,
\fIc\fR,
\fIpara\fR,
\fIparamref\fR,
\fIsee\fR, and
\fItypeparamref\fR.
.TP
.I <typeparamref name="NAME">
Used to indicate that \fINAME\fR is a type parameter.
.TP
.I <value>XML_TEXT</value>
.I <value/>
is a top-level element, and should be nested directly under the
.I <Docs/>
element.
.Sp
Allows a property to be described.
.nf
<value>
A <see cref="T:System.String" /> containing a widget name.
</value>
.fi
The \fIvalue\fR element can contain the following elements:
\fIblock\fR,
\fIc\fR,
\fIexample\fR,
\fIlist\fR,
\fIpara\fR,
\fIparamref\fR,
\fIsee\fR, and
\fItypeparamref\fR.
.PP
.SH CREF FORMAT
String IDs (\fICREF\fRs) are used to refer to a type or member of a type.
String IDs are documented in ECMA-334 3rd Edition, Annex E.3.1. They consist
of a \fImember type prefix\fR, the full type name (namespace + name, separated
by \fI.\fR), possibly followed by the member name and other information.
.PP
Member type prefixes:
.TP
.I "C:"
The CREF refers to a constructor. The (optional) parameter list is
enclosed in parenthesis and follows the type name:
\fIC:System.String(System.Char,System.Int32)\fR.
.TP
.I "E:"
The CREF refers to an event. The event name follows the type name:
\fIE:System.AppDomain.AssemblyLoad\fR.
.TP
.I "F:"
The CREF refers to a field. The field name follows the type name:
\fIF:System.Runtime.InteropServices.DllImportAttribute.SetLastError\fR.
.TP
.I "M:"
Refers to a constructor or method. Constructors may append
.I .ctor
to the type name (instead of using the above
.I C:
constructor format), while methods append the method name and an (optional)
count of the number of generic parameters. Both constructors and methods
may append the method parameter list enclosed in parenthesis.
.Sp
Examples:
\fIM:System.Object..ctor\fR,
\fIM:System.String..ctor(System.Char[])\fR,
\fIM:System.String.Concat(System.Object)\fR,
\fIM:System.Array.Sort``1(``0[])\fR,
\fIM:System.Collections.Generic.List`1..ctor\fR,
\fIM:System.Collections.Generic.List`1.Add(`0)\fR.
.TP
.I "N:"
Refers to a namespace, e.g. \fIN:System\fR.
.TP
.I "P:"
Refers to a property. If the property is an indexer or takes parameters,
the parameter types are appended to the property name and enclosed with
paranthesis:
\fIP:System.String.Length\fR,
\fIP:System.String.Chars(System.Int32)\fR.
.TP
.I "T:"
The CREF refers to a type, with the number of generic types appended:
\fIT:System.String\fR,
\fIT:System.Collections.Generic.List`1\fR,
\fIT:System.Collections.Generic.List`1.Enumerator\fR.
.PP
To make matters more interesting, generic types & members have two
representations: the "unbound" representation (shown in examples above), in
which class names have the count of generic parameters appended to their name.
There is also a "bound" representation, in which the binding of generic
parameters is listed within '{' and '}' or '<' and '>'.
(Use of '<' and '>' is less common, as within an XML document their escaped
character entities must instead be used, leading to '&lt;' and '&gt;'.)
.PP
.B Unbound:
.TP
.B *
.I T:System.Collections.Generic.List`1
.TP
.B *
.I T:System.Collections.Generic.Dictionary`2
.PP
.B Bound:
.TP
.B *
.I T:System.Collections.Generic.List{System.Int32}
.TP
.B *
.I T:System.Collections.Generic.List<System.Int32>
.TP
.B *
.I T:System.Collections.Generic.List&lt;System.Int32&gt;
.TP
.B *
.I T:System.Predicate{System.Action{System.String}}
.PP
As you can see, bound variants can be arbitrarily complex (just like
generics).
.PP
Furthermore, if a generic parameter is bound to the generic parameter of a
type or method, the "index" of the type/method's generic parameter is used
as the binding, so given
.nf
class FooType {
public static void Foo<T> (System.Predicate<T> predicate)
{
}
}
.fi
The CREF for this method is
\fIM:FooType.Foo``1(System.Predicate{``0})\fR,
.I ``0
is the 0th generic parameter index which is bound to
\fISystem.Predicate<T>\fR.
.SH SEE ALSO
mdoc(1), monodocer(1)
.SH MAILING LISTS
.TP
Visit http://lists.ximian.com/mailman/listinfo/mono-docs-list for details.
.SH WEB SITE
Visit http://www.mono-project.com for details
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