f178305 May 17, 2013
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module API

The module object is available within each module and passed to loader and compiler middleware for decoration. The module from other modules can be obtained by calling require.getModuleDescriptor(id).

The module object has the following properties:

  • id: the identifier of the module within its containing package
  • exports: the interface of the module, if it has been instantiated
  • location: the URL from which the module is or will be loaded. Equivalent to __filename in Node.
  • directory: the directory URL, including trailing slash, containing the module. Equivalent to __dirname in Node.
  • display: the location and id of a module separated by an hash (#), for display purposes
  • require: the package containing the module
  • text: the text of the module, only available in development. After optimization, a module is declared with its factory as a JavaScript function and has no corresponding text. The text is useful for compiler middleware.
  • factory: a function that, when called with the arguments require, exports, and module, either populates exports, reassigns module.exports, or returns exports to instantiate the module.
  • dependencies: an array of module identifiers of modules that must be loaded before calling the factory, produced by parseDependencies.
  • extraDependencies: an array of additional module identifiers for modules that must be loaded before calling the factory that may be specified through other means than parseDependencies.
  • dependees: an object with a key for every module that declares this module as a dependency, populated automatically by deepLoad.
  • redirect: the identifier of a module that stands in for this module, so require returns its exports instead. A redirect is an implied dependency. Redirect cycles should be avoided.
  • mappingRedirect: the identifier of a module in another package that provides this module, so require returns its exports instead.
  • mappingRequire: the require function of the package that provides this module.
  • injected: whether this module's exports were injected by require.inject(id, exports).

returnable exports

A module can return an exports object.


return function (a, b) {
    return a + b;


// the exports of add is the returned function
var add = require("add");

module.exports = add(29, 13);

Note: This would make the module incompatible with NodeJS, where the idiom module.exports = prevails.