Typhon is a virtual machine for Monte. It loads and executes Kernel-Monte from Monte AST files.
How To Monte
You will need Nix, either by dint of being on NixOS or by installing single-user Nix.
Once you have Nix, you can build a complete toolchain by building the
$ nix-build -A monte
Note: Translation is not cheap. It will require approximately 0.5GiB memory and 5min CPU time on a 64-bit x86 system to translate a non-JIT Typhon executable, or 1GiB memory and 15min CPU time with the JIT enabled. It will take another few minutes to build all of the Monte support libraries.
For development, it can be useful to build only the VM:
$ nix-build -A typhonVm
Contributions are welcome. Please ensure that you're okay with the license!
Unit tests are tested by Travis. You can run them yourself; I recommend the Trial test runner:
$ nix-shell -A typhonVm --run 'trial typhon'
Diffing Typhon Binaries
By default, git won't show diffs of binary files. I don't especially blame it. However, with a bit of a filter, we can give git what it needs:
$ nix-env -iA monte -f default.nix $ git config --replace-all diff.typhon.textconv 'monte dump-mast'
This configuration option, along with the
.gitattributes in the
repository, will let git display textual diffs of the binary ASTs.
Here's what you need to know about RPython and things imported from
Like Monte, RPython values immutable structures. Whenever a class is
immutable, adding the
_immutable_ = True annotation will cause RPython to
enforce an immutability variant: The fields of an instance of that class can
only be assigned to once.
_immutable_ unless the class is totally immutable. It's
possible to make only some fields immutable; just list all the immutable
fields in a tuple with
_immutable_fields_ = "this", "that". To make a
field an immutable list with immutable elements, use a
[*], as in
_immutable_fields_ = "this", "that", "those[*]".
The JIT (
r.r.jit is mostly about hints to inform the JIT about the behavior of code
paths. Some hints are safe and some are not safe.
The JIT colors all values as "red" or "green"; a red value is non-constant and
a green value is constant.
promote accepts a red value and turns it into a
green value. The JIT will reflect this with a guard on the value of the given
object. When a value is expected to have a relatively small number of
promote can be very effective at improving the
performance of the code.
promote is safe; it will never cause the JIT to
generate wrong code, although it can cause the JIT to perform too much
jit_debug() can print one string and up to four integers to the JIT log.
The computation which prepares the debug message is part of the JIT trace, so
it is ideal to have the inputs be green values.
elidable functions must be referentially transparent. In return, the JIT
accepts the promise of referential transparency and will try to reorder or
remove the call to the
elidable function when it can. The function need
not actually be pure; it is sufficient for it to appear pure in all cases. If
the function is not pure, then
elidable is unsafe, since the JIT will not
second-guess a promise of elidability.
Do not mark
elidable if you want the JIT to inline the function. The
JIT will not enter an
elidable_promote changes a function so that it is
elidable and all of
its arguments will be
promote'd before entering the function body. It is
dont_look_inside forces the JIT to not inline calls to a function. It is
sometimes necessary to protect events like GIL handling or I/O. It can also be
a big improvement for calls to functions which don't inline well due to
recursive or other strange behavior. It should be safe.
unroll_safe forces the JIT to consider inlining calls to functions which
were not inlinable due to containing loops. This is important because the JIT
will otherwise refuse to look inside those functions. Usage of
is an informal promise to the JIT that the loops in the function are tightly
bounded in the number of iterations which will be performed. While not unsafe,
unroll_safe can cause exponential amounts of overcompilation and
overtracing, so it should be used sparingly.
How are these used within the codebase? Values that are expected to be green
but aren't green-inferred by the JIT are
promote'd. Functions that do I/O
dont_look_inside. Functions which are pure and called often are
elidable. Lots of factoring has been done to make small chunks of code
If a function has a loop that is conditionally called, it is useful to factor
the loop to a separate function and then consider whether to mark the new
unroll_safe. Even if the function isn't actually safe to
unroll, merely the factorization of code is sufficient to allow the JIT to
look into the original function. This happens with every object which is
defined in RPython; the dispatch function,
callAtom() or similar, is
factored to not have loops within it. Since atoms are (usually) green values
during execution, this means that
callAtom() gets specialized for that
atom, and the actual work can usually be inlined.
We use RPython's Unicode database. The magic incantation:
from rpython.rlib.unicodedata import unicodedb_6_2_0 as unicodedb
unicodedb will have plenty of useful functions, like
isalpha(). These functions are not available as methods on
If you create a new object by subclassing
Object or calling
please give it a docstring. The docstrings will be reflected into Monte, so
please follow these guidelines:
- The first line should describe the object.
- Subsequent lines should describe specifics of the object's nature which
might be helpful to somebody calling
help()on the object.
- Docstrings should refer to their object as "this object".
- In-jokes are sometimes allowed. Ask on IRC.
- Dry language is always allowed.
- Unicode is encouraged; do not be afraid to use symbols which are generally available in Unicode fonts. Ask on IRC if unsure.
▲> help(Any) Result: Object type: AnyGuard A guard which admits the universal set. This object specializes to a guard which admits the union of its subguards: Any[X, Y, Z] =~ X ∪ Y ∪ Z
Also document objects and methods written in Monte. For methods:
- "this method" is the correct self-reference.
- To refer to names defined in the method specification, surround the name in backticks.
- To refer to methods, use atom syntax and backticks: A method with name "meth" and arity 2 would appear as `meth/2`.
Autohelp would like to remind you that subclasses of
decorate themselves with
@autohelp in order to maintain compliance and
To override pretty-printing for an object, add a
toString() method which
should return a Unicode string.