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<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Forum Ratings</B></P>
<P>Individual posts can be rated using a scale based on the theory of
<strong>separate and connected knowing</strong>.
<p>This theory may help you to look at human interactions
in a new way. It describes two different ways that we can evaluate and learn
about the things we see and hear.
<p>Although each of us may use these two methods in different amounts at different
times, it may be useful to imagine two people as examples, one who is a mostly
separate knower (Jim) and the other a mostly connected knower (Mary).</p>
<ul>
<li>Jim likes to remain as 'objective' as possible without including his feelings
and emotions. When in a discussion with other people who may have different
ideas, he likes to defend his own ideas, using logic to find holes in his
opponent's ideas. He is critical of new ideas unless they are proven facts
from reputable sources such as textbooks, respected teachers or his own direct
experience. Jim is a very <strong>separate knower</strong>.<br><br>
</li>
<li>Mary is more sensitive to other people. She is skilled at empathy and tends
to listen and ask questions until she feels she can connect and &quot;understand
things from their point of view&quot;. She learns by trying to share the experiences
that led to the knowledge she finds in other people. When talking to others,
she avoids confrontation and will often try to help the other person if she
can see a way to do so, using logical suggestions. Mary is a very <strong>connected
knower</strong>.</li>
</ul>
<p>Did you notice in these examples that the separate knower is male and the connected
knower is female? Some studies have shown that statistically this tends to be
the case, however individual people can be anywhere in the spectrum between
these two extremes. </p>
<p>For a collaborative and effective group of learners it may be best if everyone
were able to use BOTH ways of knowing.</p>
<p>In a particular situation like an online forum, a single post by a person may
exhibit either of these characteristics, or even both. Someone who is generally
very connected may post a very separate-sounding message, and vice versa. The
purpose of rating each post using this scale is to:</p>
<blockquote>
<p>a) help you think about these issues when reading other posts<br>
b) provide feedback to each author on how they are being seen by others</p>
</blockquote>
<p>The results are not used towards student assessment in any way, they are just
to help improve communication and learning.</p>
<hr>
<p><br>
In case you're interested, here are some references to papers by the authors
who originally developed these ideas:</p>
<ul>
<li>Belenky, M.F., Clinchy, B.M., Goldberger, N.R., &amp; Tarule, J.M. (1986).
Women's ways of knowing: the development of self, voice, and mind. New York,
NY: Basic Books.</li>
<li>Clinchy, B.M. (1989a). The development of thoughtfulness in college women:
Integrating reason and care. American Behavioural Scientist, 32(6), 647-657.</li>
<li>Clinchy, B.M. (1989b). On critical thinking &amp; connected knowing. Liberal
education, 75(5), 14-19.</li>
<li>Clinchy, B.M. (1996). Connected and separate knowing; Toward a marriage
of two minds. In N.R. Goldberger, Tarule, J.M., Clinchy, B.M. &amp;</li>
<li>Belenky, M.F. (Eds.), Knowledge, Difference, and Power; Essays inspired
by &#8220;Women&#8217;s Ways of Knowing&#8221; (pp. 205-247). New York, NY:
Basic Books.</li>
<li>Galotti, K. M., Clinchy, B. M., Ainsworth, K., Lavin, B., &amp; Mansfield,
A. F. (1999). A New Way of Assessing Ways of Knowing: The Attitudes Towards
Thinking and Learning Survey (ATTLS). Sex Roles, 40(9/10), 745-766.</li>
<li>Galotti, K. M., Reimer, R. L., &amp; Drebus, D. W. (2001). Ways of knowing
as learning styles: Learning MAGIC with a partner. Sex Roles, 44(7/8), 419-436.
<br>
</li>
</ul>
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