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<?php // $Id$
/**
* Code for handling and processing questions
*
* This is code that is module independent, i.e., can be used by any module that
* uses questions, like quiz, lesson, ..
* This script also loads the questiontype classes
* Code for handling the editing of questions is in {@link question/editlib.php}
*
* TODO: separate those functions which form part of the API
* from the helper functions.
*
* @version $Id$
* @author Martin Dougiamas and many others. This has recently been completely
* rewritten by Alex Smith, Julian Sedding and Gustav Delius as part of
* the Serving Mathematics project
* {@link http://maths.york.ac.uk/serving_maths}
* @license http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html GNU Public License
* @package question
*/

/// CONSTANTS ///////////////////////////////////

/**#@+
* The different types of events that can create question states
*/
define('QUESTION_EVENTOPEN', '0'); // The state was created by Moodle
define('QUESTION_EVENTNAVIGATE', '1'); // The responses were saved because the student navigated to another page (this is not currently used)
define('QUESTION_EVENTSAVE', '2'); // The student has requested that the responses should be saved but not submitted or validated
define('QUESTION_EVENTGRADE', '3'); // Moodle has graded the responses. A SUBMIT event can be changed to a GRADE event by Moodle.
define('QUESTION_EVENTDUPLICATE', '4'); // The responses submitted were the same as previously
define('QUESTION_EVENTVALIDATE', '5'); // The student has requested a validation. This causes the responses to be saved as well, but not graded.
define('QUESTION_EVENTCLOSEANDGRADE', '6'); // Moodle has graded the responses. A CLOSE event can be changed to a CLOSEANDGRADE event by Moodle.
define('QUESTION_EVENTSUBMIT', '7'); // The student response has been submitted but it has not yet been marked
define('QUESTION_EVENTCLOSE', '8'); // The response has been submitted and the session has been closed, either because the student requested it or because Moodle did it (e.g. because of a timelimit). The responses have not been graded.
define('QUESTION_EVENTMANUALGRADE', '9'); // Grade was entered by teacher
/**#@-*/

/**#@+
* The core question types
*/
define("SHORTANSWER", "shortanswer");
define("TRUEFALSE", "truefalse");
define("MULTICHOICE", "multichoice");
define("RANDOM", "random");
define("MATCH", "match");
define("RANDOMSAMATCH", "randomsamatch");
define("DESCRIPTION", "description");
define("NUMERICAL", "numerical");
define("MULTIANSWER", "multianswer");
define("CALCULATED", "calculated");
define("RQP", "rqp");
define("ESSAY", "essay");
/**#@-*/

/**
* Constant determines the number of answer boxes supplied in the editing
* form for multiple choice and similar question types.
*/
define("QUESTION_NUMANS", "10");


/**#@+
* Option flags for ->optionflags
* The options are read out via bitwise operation using these constants
*/
/**
* Whether the questions is to be run in adaptive mode. If this is not set then
* a question closes immediately after the first submission of responses. This
* is how question is Moodle always worked before version 1.5
*/
define('QUESTION_ADAPTIVE', 1);

/**#@-*/

/// QTYPES INITIATION //////////////////

/**
* Array holding question type objects
*/
global $QTYPES;
$QTYPES = array(); // This array will be populated when the questiontype.php files are loaded below

/**
* Array of question types names translated to the user's language
*
* The $QTYPE_MENU array holds the names of all the question types that the user should
* be able to create directly. Some internal question types like random questions are excluded.
* The complete list of question types can be found in {@link $QTYPES}.
*/
$QTYPE_MENU = array(); // This array will be populated when the questiontype.php files are loaded

require_once("$CFG->dirroot/question/type/questiontype.php");

/*
* Load the questiontype.php file for each question type
* These files in turn instantiate the corresponding question type class
* and add them to the $QTYPES array
*/
$qtypenames= get_list_of_plugins('question/type');
foreach($qtypenames as $qtypename) {
    // Instanciates all plug-in question types
    $qtypefilepath= "$CFG->dirroot/question/type/$qtypename/questiontype.php";

    // echo "Loading $qtypename<br/>"; // Uncomment for debugging
    if (is_readable($qtypefilepath)) {
        require_once($qtypefilepath);
    }
}

/// OTHER CLASSES /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

/**
* This holds the options that are set by the course module
*/
class cmoptions {
    /**
* Whether a new attempt should be based on the previous one. If true
* then a new attempt will start in a state where all responses are set
* to the last responses from the previous attempt.
*/
    var $attemptonlast = false;

    /**
* Various option flags. The flags are accessed via bitwise operations
* using the constants defined in the CONSTANTS section above.
*/
    var $optionflags = QUESTION_ADAPTIVE;

    /**
* Determines whether in the calculation of the score for a question
* penalties for earlier wrong responses within the same attempt will
* be subtracted.
*/
    var $penaltyscheme = true;

    /**
* The maximum time the user is allowed to answer the questions withing
* an attempt. This is measured in minutes so needs to be multiplied by
* 60 before compared to timestamps. If set to 0 no timelimit will be applied
*/
    var $timelimit = 0;

    /**
* Timestamp for the closing time. Responses submitted after this time will
* be saved but no credit will be given for them.
*/
    var $timeclose = 9999999999;

    /**
* The id of the course from withing which the question is currently being used
*/
    var $course = SITEID;

    /**
* Whether the answers in a multiple choice question should be randomly
* shuffled when a new attempt is started.
*/
    var $shuffleanswers = true;

    /**
* The number of decimals to be shown when scores are printed
*/
    var $decimalpoints = 2;
}


/// FUNCTIONS //////////////////////////////////////////////////////

/**
* Returns an array of names of activity modules that use this question
*
* @param object $questionid
* @return array of strings
*/
function question_list_instances($questionid) {
    $instances = array();
    $modules = get_records('modules');
    foreach ($modules as $module) {
        $fn = $module->name.'_question_list_instances';
        if (function_exists($fn)) {
            $instances = $instances + $fn($questionid);
        }
    }
    return $instances;
}


/**
* Returns list of 'allowed' grades for grade selection
* formatted suitably for dropdown box function
* @return object ->gradeoptionsfull full array ->gradeoptions +ve only
*/
function get_grade_options() {
    // define basic array of grades
    $grades = array(
        1,
        0.9,
        0.8,
        0.75,
        0.70,
        0.66666,
        0.60,
        0.50,
        0.40,
        0.33333,
        0.30,
        0.25,
        0.20,
        0.16666,
        0.142857,
        0.125,
        0.11111,
        0.10,
        0.05,
        0);

    // iterate through grades generating full range of options
    $gradeoptionsfull = array();
    $gradeoptions = array();
    foreach ($grades as $grade) {
        $percentage = 100 * $grade;
        $neggrade = -$grade;
        $gradeoptions["$grade"] = "$percentage %";
        $gradeoptionsfull["$grade"] = "$percentage %";
        $gradeoptionsfull["$neggrade"] = -$percentage." %";
    }
    $gradeoptionsfull["0"] = $gradeoptions["0"] = get_string("none");

    // sort lists
    arsort($gradeoptions, SORT_NUMERIC);
    arsort($gradeoptionsfull, SORT_NUMERIC);

    // construct return object
    $grades = new stdClass;
    $grades->gradeoptions = $gradeoptions;
    $grades->gradeoptionsfull = $gradeoptionsfull;

    return $grades;
}

/**
* match grade options
* if no match return error or match nearest
* @param array $gradeoptionsfull list of valid options
* @param int $grade grade to be tested
* @param string $matchgrades 'error' or 'nearest'
* @return mixed either 'fixed' value or false if erro
*/
function match_grade_options($gradeoptionsfull, $grade, $matchgrades='error') {
    // if we just need an error...
    if ($matchgrades=='error') {
        foreach($gradeoptionsfull as $value => $option) {
            // slightly fuzzy test, never check floats for equality :-)
            if (abs($grade-$value)<0.00001) {
                return $grade;
            }
        }
        // didn't find a match so that's an error
        return false;
    }
    // work out nearest value
    else if ($matchgrades=='nearest') {
        $hownear = array();
        foreach($gradeoptionsfull as $value => $option) {
            if ($grade==$value) {
                return $grade;
            }
            $hownear[ $value ] = abs( $grade - $value );
        }
        // reverse sort list of deltas and grab the last (smallest)
        asort( $hownear, SORT_NUMERIC );
        reset( $hownear );
        return key( $hownear );
    }
    else {
        return false;
    }
}

/**
* Tests whether a category is in use by any activity module
*
* @return boolean
* @param integer $categoryid
* @param boolean $recursive Whether to examine category children recursively
*/
function question_category_isused($categoryid, $recursive = false) {

    //Look at each question in the category
    if ($questions = get_records('question', 'category', $categoryid)) {
        foreach ($questions as $question) {
            if (count(question_list_instances($question->id))) {
                return true;
            }
        }
    }

    //Look under child categories recursively
    if ($recursive) {
        if ($children = get_records('question_categories', 'parent', $categoryid)) {
            foreach ($children as $child) {
                if (question_category_isused($child->id, $recursive)) {
                    return true;
                }
            }
        }
    }

    return false;
}

/**
* Deletes all data associated to an attempt from the database
*
* @param object $question The question being deleted
*/
function delete_attempt($attemptid) {
    global $QTYPES;

    $states = get_records('question_states', 'attempt', $attemptid);
    $stateslist = implode(',', array_keys($states));

    // delete questiontype-specific data
    foreach ($QTYPES as $qtype) {
        $qtype->delete_states($stateslist);
    }

    // delete entries from all other question tables
    // It is important that this is done only after calling the questiontype functions
    delete_records("question_states", "attempt", $attemptid);
    delete_records("question_sessions", "attemptid", $attemptid);
    delete_records("question_attempts", "id", $attemptid);

    return;
}

/**
* Deletes question and all associated data from the database
*
* It will not delete a question if it is used by an activity module
* @param object $question The question being deleted
*/
function delete_question($questionid) {
    global $QTYPES;
    
    // Do not delete a question if it is used by an activity module
    if (count(question_list_instances($questionid))) {
        return;
    }

    // delete questiontype-specific data
    if ($question = get_record('question', 'id', $questionid)) {
        if (isset($QTYPES[$question->qtype])) {
            $QTYPES[$question->qtype]->delete_question($questionid);
        }
    } else {
        echo "Question with id $questionid does not exist.<br />";
    }

    if ($states = get_records('question_states', 'question', $questionid)) {
        $stateslist = implode(',', array_keys($states));
    
        // delete questiontype-specific data
        foreach ($QTYPES as $qtype) {
            $qtype->delete_states($stateslist);
        }
    }

    // delete entries from all other question tables
    // It is important that this is done only after calling the questiontype functions
    delete_records("question_answers", "question", $questionid);
    delete_records("question_states", "question", $questionid);
    delete_records("question_sessions", "questionid", $questionid);

    // Now recursively delete all child questions
    if ($children = get_records('question', 'parent', $questionid)) {
        foreach ($children as $child) {
            if ($child->id != $questionid) {
                delete_question($child->id);
            }
        }
    }
    
    // Finally delete the question record itself
    delete_records('question', 'id', $questionid);

    return;
}

/**
* All non-used question categories and their questions are deleted and
* categories still used by other courses are moved to the site course.
*
* @param object $course an object representing the course
* @param boolean $feedback to specify if the process must output a summary of its work
* @return boolean
*/
function question_delete_course($course, $feedback=true) {

    global $CFG, $QTYPES;

    //To detect if we have created the "container category"
    $concatid = 0;

    //The "container" category we'll create if we need if
    $contcat = new object;

    //To temporary store changes performed with parents
    $parentchanged = array();

    //To store feedback to be showed at the end of the process
    $feedbackdata = array();

    //Cache some strings
    $strcatcontainer=get_string('containercategorycreated', 'quiz');
    $strcatmoved = get_string('usedcategorymoved', 'quiz');
    $strcatdeleted = get_string('unusedcategorydeleted', 'quiz');

    if ($categories = get_records('question_categories', 'course', $course->id, 'parent', 'id, parent, name, course')) {

        //Sort categories following their tree (parent-child) relationships
        $categories = sort_categories_by_tree($categories);

        foreach ($categories as $cat) {

            //Get the full record
            $category = get_record('question_categories', 'id', $cat->id);

            //Check if the category is being used anywhere
            if(question_category_isused($category->id, true)) {
                //It's being used. Cannot delete it, so:
                //Create a container category in SITEID course if it doesn't exist
                if (!$concatid) {
                    $concat = new stdClass;
                    $concat->course = SITEID;
                    if (!isset($course->shortname)) {
                        $course->shortname = 'id=' . $course->id;
                    }
                    $concat->name = get_string('savedfromdeletedcourse', 'quiz', $course->shortname);
                    $concat->info = $concat->name;
                    $concat->publish = 1;
                    $concat->stamp = make_unique_id_code();
                    $concatid = insert_record('question_categories', $concat);

                    //Fill feedback
                    $feedbackdata[] = array($concat->name, $strcatcontainer);
                }
                //Move the category to the container category in SITEID course
                $category->course = SITEID;
                //Assign to container if the category hasn't parent or if the parent is wrong (not belongs to the course)
                if (!$category->parent || !isset($categories[$category->parent])) {
                    $category->parent = $concatid;
                }
                //If it's being used, its publish field should be 1
                $category->publish = 1;
                //Let's update it
                update_record('question_categories', $category);

                //Save this parent change for future use
                $parentchanged[$category->id] = $category->parent;

                //Fill feedback
                $feedbackdata[] = array($category->name, $strcatmoved);

            } else {
                //Category isn't being used so:
                //Delete it completely (questions and category itself)
                //deleting questions
                if ($questions = get_records("question", "category", $category->id)) {
                    foreach ($questions as $question) {
                        delete_question($question->id);
                    }
                    delete_records("question", "category", $category->id);
                }
                //delete the category
                delete_records('question_categories', 'id', $category->id);

                //Save this parent change for future use
                if (!empty($category->parent)) {
                    $parentchanged[$category->id] = $category->parent;
                } else {
                    $parentchanged[$category->id] = $concatid;
                }

                //Update all its child categories to re-parent them to grandparent.
                set_field ('question_categories', 'parent', $parentchanged[$category->id], 'parent', $category->id);

                //Fill feedback
                $feedbackdata[] = array($category->name, $strcatdeleted);
            }
        }
        //Inform about changes performed if feedback is enabled
        if ($feedback) {
            $table = new stdClass;
            $table->head = array(get_string('category','quiz'), get_string('action'));
            $table->data = $feedbackdata;
            print_table($table);
        }
    }
    return true;
}

/**
* Private function to factor common code out of get_question_options().
*
* @param object $question the question to tidy.
* @return boolean true if successful, else false.
*/
function _tidy_question(&$question) {
    global $QTYPES;
    if (!array_key_exists($question->qtype, $QTYPES)) {
        $question->qtype = 'missingtype';
        $question->questiontext = '<p>' . get_string('warningmissingtype', 'quiz') . '</p>' . $question->questiontext;
    }
    $question->name_prefix = question_make_name_prefix($question->id);
    return $QTYPES[$question->qtype]->get_question_options($question);
}

/**
* Updates the question objects with question type specific
* information by calling {@link get_question_options()}
*
* Can be called either with an array of question objects or with a single
* question object.
*
* @param mixed $questions Either an array of question objects to be updated
* or just a single question object
* @return bool Indicates success or failure.
*/
function get_question_options(&$questions) {
    if (is_array($questions)) { // deal with an array of questions
        foreach ($questions as $i => $notused) {
            if (!_tidy_question($questions[$i])) {
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    } else { // deal with single question
        return _tidy_question($questions);
    }
}

/**
* Loads the most recent state of each question session from the database
* or create new one.
*
* For each question the most recent session state for the current attempt
* is loaded from the question_states table and the question type specific data and
* responses are added by calling {@link restore_question_state()} which in turn
* calls {@link restore_session_and_responses()} for each question.
* If no states exist for the question instance an empty state object is
* created representing the start of a session and empty question
* type specific information and responses are created by calling
* {@link create_session_and_responses()}.
*
* @return array An array of state objects representing the most recent
* states of the question sessions.
* @param array $questions The questions for which sessions are to be restored or
* created.
* @param object $cmoptions
* @param object $attempt The attempt for which the question sessions are
* to be restored or created.
*/
function get_question_states(&$questions, $cmoptions, $attempt) {
    global $CFG, $QTYPES;

    // get the question ids
    $ids = array_keys($questions);
    $questionlist = implode(',', $ids);

    // The question field must be listed first so that it is used as the
    // array index in the array returned by get_records_sql
    $statefields = 'n.questionid as question, s.*, n.sumpenalty, n.comment';
    // Load the newest states for the questions
    $sql = "SELECT $statefields".
           " FROM {$CFG->prefix}question_states s,".
           " {$CFG->prefix}question_sessions n".
           " WHERE s.id = n.newest".
           " AND n.attemptid = '$attempt->uniqueid'".
           " AND n.questionid IN ($questionlist)";
    $states = get_records_sql($sql);

    // Load the newest graded states for the questions
    $sql = "SELECT $statefields".
           " FROM {$CFG->prefix}question_states s,".
           " {$CFG->prefix}question_sessions n".
           " WHERE s.id = n.newgraded".
           " AND n.attemptid = '$attempt->uniqueid'".
           " AND n.questionid IN ($questionlist)";
    $gradedstates = get_records_sql($sql);

    // loop through all questions and set the last_graded states
    foreach ($ids as $i) {
        if (isset($states[$i])) {
            restore_question_state($questions[$i], $states[$i]);
            if (isset($gradedstates[$i])) {
                restore_question_state($questions[$i], $gradedstates[$i]);
                $states[$i]->last_graded = $gradedstates[$i];
            } else {
                $states[$i]->last_graded = clone($states[$i]);
            }
        } else {
            // create a new empty state
            $states[$i] = new object;
            $states[$i]->attempt = $attempt->uniqueid;
            $states[$i]->question = (int) $i;
            $states[$i]->seq_number = 0;
            $states[$i]->timestamp = $attempt->timestart;
            $states[$i]->event = ($attempt->timefinish) ? QUESTION_EVENTCLOSE : QUESTION_EVENTOPEN;
            $states[$i]->grade = 0;
            $states[$i]->raw_grade = 0;
            $states[$i]->penalty = 0;
            $states[$i]->sumpenalty = 0;
            $states[$i]->comment = '';
            $states[$i]->responses = array('' => '');
            // Prevent further changes to the session from incrementing the
            // sequence number
            $states[$i]->changed = true;

            // Create the empty question type specific information
            if (!$QTYPES[$questions[$i]->qtype]
             ->create_session_and_responses($questions[$i], $states[$i], $cmoptions, $attempt)) {
                return false;
            }
            $states[$i]->last_graded = clone($states[$i]);
        }
    }
    return $states;
}


/**
* Creates the run-time fields for the states
*
* Extends the state objects for a question by calling
* {@link restore_session_and_responses()}
* @param object $question The question for which the state is needed
* @param object $state The state as loaded from the database
* @return boolean Represents success or failure
*/
function restore_question_state(&$question, &$state) {
    global $QTYPES;

    // initialise response to the value in the answer field
    $state->responses = array('' => addslashes($state->answer));
    unset($state->answer);
    $state->comment = isset($state->comment) ? addslashes($state->comment) : '';

    // Set the changed field to false; any code which changes the
    // question session must set this to true and must increment
    // ->seq_number. The save_question_session
    // function will save the new state object to the database if the field is
    // set to true.
    $state->changed = false;

    // Load the question type specific data
    return $QTYPES[$question->qtype]
            ->restore_session_and_responses($question, $state);

}

/**
* Saves the current state of the question session to the database
*
* The state object representing the current state of the session for the
* question is saved to the question_states table with ->responses[''] saved
* to the answer field of the database table. The information in the
* question_sessions table is updated.
* The question type specific data is then saved.
* @return mixed The id of the saved or updated state or false
* @param object $question The question for which session is to be saved.
* @param object $state The state information to be saved. In particular the
* most recent responses are in ->responses. The object
* is updated to hold the new ->id.
*/
function save_question_session(&$question, &$state) {
    global $QTYPES;
    // Check if the state has changed
    if (!$state->changed && isset($state->id)) {
        return $state->id;
    }
    // Set the legacy answer field
    $state->answer = isset($state->responses['']) ? $state->responses[''] : '';

    // Save the state
    if (!empty($state->update)) { // this forces the old state record to be overwritten
        update_record('question_states', $state);
    } else {
        if (!$state->id = insert_record('question_states', $state)) {
            unset($state->id);
            unset($state->answer);
            return false;
        }
    }

    // create or update the session
    if (!$session = get_record('question_sessions', 'attemptid',
            $state->attempt, 'questionid', $question->id)) {
        $session->attemptid = $state->attempt;
        $session->questionid = $question->id;
        $session->newest = $state->id;
        // The following may seem weird, but the newgraded field needs to be set
        // already even if there is no graded state yet.
        $session->newgraded = $state->id;
        $session->sumpenalty = $state->sumpenalty;
        $session->comment = $state->comment;
        if (!insert_record('question_sessions', $session)) {
            error('Could not insert entry in question_sessions');
        }
    } else {
        $session->newest = $state->id;
        if (question_state_is_graded($state) or $state->event == QUESTION_EVENTOPEN) {
            // this state is graded or newly opened, so it goes into the lastgraded field as well
            $session->newgraded = $state->id;
            $session->sumpenalty = $state->sumpenalty;
            $session->comment = $state->comment;
        } else {
            $session->comment = addslashes($session->comment);
        }
        update_record('question_sessions', $session);
    }

    unset($state->answer);

    // Save the question type specific state information and responses
    if (!$QTYPES[$question->qtype]->save_session_and_responses(
     $question, $state)) {
        return false;
    }
    // Reset the changed flag
    $state->changed = false;
    return $state->id;
}

/**
* Determines whether a state has been graded by looking at the event field
*
* @return boolean true if the state has been graded
* @param object $state
*/
function question_state_is_graded($state) {
    return ($state->event == QUESTION_EVENTGRADE
         or $state->event == QUESTION_EVENTCLOSEANDGRADE
         or $state->event == QUESTION_EVENTMANUALGRADE);
}

/**
* Determines whether a state has been closed by looking at the event field
*
* @return boolean true if the state has been closed
* @param object $state
*/
function question_state_is_closed($state) {
    return ($state->event == QUESTION_EVENTCLOSE
        or $state->event == QUESTION_EVENTCLOSEANDGRADE
        or $state->event == QUESTION_EVENTMANUALGRADE);
}


/**
* Extracts responses from submitted form
*
* This can extract the responses given to one or several questions present on a page
* It returns an array with one entry for each question, indexed by question id
* Each entry is an object with the properties
* ->event The event that has triggered the submission. This is determined by which button
* the user has pressed.
* ->responses An array holding the responses to an individual question, indexed by the
* name of the corresponding form element.
* ->timestamp A unix timestamp
* @return array array of action objects, indexed by question ids.
* @param array $questions an array containing at least all questions that are used on the form
* @param array $formdata the data submitted by the form on the question page
* @param integer $defaultevent the event type used if no 'mark' or 'validate' is submitted
*/
function question_extract_responses($questions, $formdata, $defaultevent=QUESTION_EVENTSAVE) {

    $time = time();
    $actions = array();
    foreach ($formdata as $key => $response) {
        // Get the question id from the response name
        if (false !== ($quid = question_get_id_from_name_prefix($key))) {
            // check if this is a valid id
            if (!isset($questions[$quid])) {
                error('Form contained question that is not in questionids');
            }

            // Remove the name prefix from the name
            //decrypt trying
            $key = substr($key, strlen($questions[$quid]->name_prefix));
            if (false === $key) {
                $key = '';
            }
            // Check for question validate and mark buttons & set events
            if ($key === 'validate') {
                $actions[$quid]->event = QUESTION_EVENTVALIDATE;
            } else if ($key === 'submit') {
                $actions[$quid]->event = QUESTION_EVENTSUBMIT;
            } else {
                $actions[$quid]->event = $defaultevent;
            }

            // Update the state with the new response
            $actions[$quid]->responses[$key] = $response;
            
            // Set the timestamp
            $actions[$quid]->timestamp = $time;
        }
    }
    return $actions;
}



/**
* For a given question in an attempt we walk the complete history of states
* and recalculate the grades as we go along.
*
* This is used when a question is changed and old student
* responses need to be marked with the new version of a question.
*
* TODO: Make sure this is not quiz-specific
*
* @return boolean Indicates whether the grade has changed
* @param object $question A question object
* @param object $attempt The attempt, in which the question needs to be regraded.
* @param object $cmoptions
* @param boolean $verbose Optional. Whether to print progress information or not.
*/
function regrade_question_in_attempt($question, $attempt, $cmoptions, $verbose=false) {

    // load all states for this question in this attempt, ordered in sequence
    if ($states = get_records_select('question_states',
            "attempt = '{$attempt->uniqueid}' AND question = '{$question->id}'",
            'seq_number ASC')) {
        $states = array_values($states);

        // Subtract the grade for the latest state from $attempt->sumgrades to get the
        // sumgrades for the attempt without this question.
        $attempt->sumgrades -= $states[count($states)-1]->grade;

        // Initialise the replaystate
        $state = clone($states[0]);
        $state->comment = get_field('question_sessions', 'comment', 'attemptid',
                $attempt->uniqueid, 'questionid', $question->id);
        restore_question_state($question, $state);
        $state->sumpenalty = 0.0;
        $replaystate = clone($state);
        $replaystate->last_graded = $state;

        $changed = false;
        for($j = 1; $j < count($states); $j++) {
            restore_question_state($question, $states[$j]);
            $action = new stdClass;
            $action->responses = $states[$j]->responses;
            $action->timestamp = $states[$j]->timestamp;

            // Change event to submit so that it will be reprocessed
            if (QUESTION_EVENTCLOSE == $states[$j]->event
                    or QUESTION_EVENTGRADE == $states[$j]->event
                    or QUESTION_EVENTCLOSEANDGRADE == $states[$j]->event) {
                $action->event = QUESTION_EVENTSUBMIT;

            // By default take the event that was saved in the database
            } else {
                $action->event = $states[$j]->event;
            }

            if ($action->event == QUESTION_EVENTMANUALGRADE) {
                question_process_comment($question, $replaystate, $attempt,
                        $replaystate->comment, $states[$j]->grade);
            } else {

                // Reprocess (regrade) responses
                if (!question_process_responses($question, $replaystate,
                        $action, $cmoptions, $attempt)) {
                    $verbose && notify("Couldn't regrade state #{$state->id}!");
                }
            }

            // We need rounding here because grades in the DB get truncated
            // e.g. 0.33333 != 0.3333333, but we want them to be equal here
            if ((round((float)$replaystate->raw_grade, 5) != round((float)$states[$j]->raw_grade, 5))
                    or (round((float)$replaystate->penalty, 5) != round((float)$states[$j]->penalty, 5))
                    or (round((float)$replaystate->grade, 5) != round((float)$states[$j]->grade, 5))) {
                $changed = true;
            }

            $replaystate->id = $states[$j]->id;
            $replaystate->changed = true;
            $replaystate->update = true; // This will ensure that the existing database entry is updated rather than a new one created
            save_question_session($question, $replaystate);
        }
        if ($changed) {
            update_record('quiz_attempts', $attempt);
        }

        return $changed;
    }
    return false;
}

/**
* Processes an array of student responses, grading and saving them as appropriate
*
* @return boolean Indicates success/failure
* @param object $question Full question object, passed by reference
* @param object $state Full state object, passed by reference
* @param object $action object with the fields ->responses which
* is an array holding the student responses,
* ->action which specifies the action, e.g., QUESTION_EVENTGRADE,
* and ->timestamp which is a timestamp from when the responses
* were submitted by the student.
* @param object $cmoptions
* @param object $attempt The attempt is passed by reference so that
* during grading its ->sumgrades field can be updated
*/
function question_process_responses(&$question, &$state, $action, $cmoptions, &$attempt) {
    global $QTYPES;

    // if no responses are set initialise to empty response
    if (!isset($action->responses)) {
        $action->responses = array('' => '');
    }

    // make sure these are gone!
    unset($action->responses['submit'], $action->responses['validate']);

    // Check the question session is still open
    if (question_state_is_closed($state)) {
        return true;
    }

    // If $action->event is not set that implies saving
    if (! isset($action->event)) {
        $action->event = QUESTION_EVENTSAVE;
    }
    // If submitted then compare against last graded
    // responses, not last given responses in this case
    if (question_isgradingevent($action->event)) {
        $state->responses = $state->last_graded->responses;
    }
    // Check for unchanged responses (exactly unchanged, not equivalent).
    // We also have to catch questions that the student has not yet attempted
    $sameresponses = (($state->responses == $action->responses) or
     ($state->responses == array(''=>'') && array_keys(array_count_values($action->responses))===array('')));

    // If the response has not been changed then we do not have to process it again
    // unless the attempt is closing or validation is requested
    if ($sameresponses and QUESTION_EVENTCLOSE != $action->event
     and QUESTION_EVENTVALIDATE != $action->event) {
        return true;
    }

    // Roll back grading information to last graded state and set the new
    // responses
    $newstate = clone($state->last_graded);
    $newstate->responses = $action->responses;
    $newstate->seq_number = $state->seq_number + 1;
    $newstate->changed = true; // will assure that it gets saved to the database
    $newstate->last_graded = clone($state->last_graded);
    $newstate->timestamp = $action->timestamp;
    $state = $newstate;

    // Set the event to the action we will perform. The question type specific
    // grading code may override this by setting it to QUESTION_EVENTCLOSE if the
    // attempt at the question causes the session to close
    $state->event = $action->event;

    if (!question_isgradingevent($action->event)) {
        // Grade the response but don't update the overall grade
        $QTYPES[$question->qtype]->grade_responses(
         $question, $state, $cmoptions);
        // Don't allow the processing to change the event type
        $state->event = $action->event;

    } else { // grading event

        // Unless the attempt is closing, we want to work out if the current responses
        // (or equivalent responses) were already given in the last graded attempt.
        if((QUESTION_EVENTCLOSE != $action->event) and $QTYPES[$question->qtype]->compare_responses(
         $question, $state, $state->last_graded)) {
            $state->event = QUESTION_EVENTDUPLICATE;
        }

        // If we did not find a duplicate or if the attempt is closing, perform grading
        if ((!$sameresponses and (QUESTION_EVENTDUPLICATE != $state->event)) or (QUESTION_EVENTCLOSE == $action->event)) {
            // Decrease sumgrades by previous grade and then later add new grade
            $attempt->sumgrades -= (float)$state->last_graded->grade;

            $QTYPES[$question->qtype]->grade_responses(
             $question, $state, $cmoptions);
            // Calculate overall grade using correct penalty method
            question_apply_penalty_and_timelimit($question, $state, $attempt, $cmoptions);

            $attempt->sumgrades += (float)$state->grade;
        }

        // If the state was graded we need to update the last_graded field.
        if (question_state_is_graded($state)) {
            unset($state->last_graded);
            $state->last_graded = clone($state);
            unset($state->last_graded->changed);
        }
    }
    $attempt->timemodified = $action->timestamp;

    return true;
}

/**
* Determine if event requires grading
*/
function question_isgradingevent($event) {
    return (QUESTION_EVENTSUBMIT == $event || QUESTION_EVENTCLOSE == $event);
}

/**
* Applies the penalty from the previous graded responses to the raw grade
* for the current responses
*
* The grade for the question in the current state is computed by subtracting the
* penalty accumulated over the previous graded responses at the question from the
* raw grade. If the timestamp is more than 1 minute beyond the end of the attempt
* the grade is set to zero. The ->grade field of the state object is modified to
* reflect the new grade but is never allowed to decrease.
* @param object $question The question for which the penalty is to be applied.
* @param object $state The state for which the grade is to be set from the
* raw grade and the cumulative penalty from the last
* graded state. The ->grade field is updated by applying
* the penalty scheme determined in $cmoptions to the ->raw_grade and
* ->last_graded->penalty fields.
* @param object $cmoptions The options set by the course module.
* The ->penaltyscheme field determines whether penalties
* for incorrect earlier responses are subtracted.
*/
function question_apply_penalty_and_timelimit(&$question, &$state, $attempt, $cmoptions) {
    // deal with penalty
    if ($cmoptions->penaltyscheme) {
            $state->grade = $state->raw_grade - $state->sumpenalty;
            $state->sumpenalty += (float) $state->penalty;
    } else {
        $state->grade = $state->raw_grade;
    }

    // deal with timelimit
    if ($cmoptions->timelimit) {
        // We allow for 5% uncertainty in the following test
        if (($state->timestamp - $attempt->timestart) > ($cmoptions->timelimit * 63)) {
            $state->grade = 0;
        }
    }

    // deal with closing time
    if ($cmoptions->timeclose and $state->timestamp > ($cmoptions->timeclose + 60) // allowing 1 minute lateness
             and !$attempt->preview) { // ignore closing time for previews
        $state->grade = 0;
    }

    // Ensure that the grade does not go down
    $state->grade = max($state->grade, $state->last_graded->grade);
}

/**
* Print the icon for the question type
*
* @param object $question The question object for which the icon is required
* @param boolean $editlink If true then the icon is a link to the question
* edit page.
* @param boolean $return If true the functions returns the link as a string
*/
function print_question_icon($question, $editlink=true, $return = false) {
// returns a question icon

    global $QTYPES, $CFG;

    $namestr = get_string($question->qtype, 'quiz');
    $html = '<img border="0" height="16" width="16" src="'.$CFG->wwwroot.'/question/type/'.
            $question->qtype.'/icon.gif" alt="'.
            $namestr.'" title="'.$namestr.'" />';

    if ($editlink) {
        $html = "<a href=\"$CFG->wwwroot/question/question.php?id=$question->id\" title=\""
                .$question->qtype."\">".
                $html."</a>\n";
    }
    if ($return) {
        return $html;
    } else {
        echo $html;
    }
}

/**
* Returns a html link to the question image if there is one
*
* @return string The html image tag or the empy string if there is no image.
* @param object $question The question object
*/
function get_question_image($question, $courseid) {

    global $CFG;
    $img = '';

    if ($question->image) {

        if (substr(strtolower($question->image), 0, 7) == 'http://') {
            $img .= $question->image;

        } else if ($CFG->slasharguments) { // Use this method if possible for better caching
            $img .= "$CFG->wwwroot/file.php/$courseid/$question->image";

        } else {
            $img .= "$CFG->wwwroot/file.php?file=/$courseid/$question->image";
        }
    }
    return $img;
}

function question_print_comment_box($question, $state, $attempt, $url) {
   global $CFG;

   $prefix = 'response';
   $usehtmleditor = can_use_richtext_editor();
   $grade = round($state->last_graded->grade, 3);
   echo '<form method="post" action="'.$url.'">';
   include($CFG->dirroot.'/question/comment.html');
   echo '<input type="hidden" name="attempt" value="'.$attempt->uniqueid.'" />';
   echo '<input type="hidden" name="question" value="'.$question->id.'" />';
   echo '<input type="hidden" name="sesskey" value="'.sesskey().'" />';
   echo '<input type="submit" name="submit" value="'.get_string('save', 'quiz').'" />';
   echo '</form>';

   if ($usehtmleditor) {
       use_html_editor();
   }
}

function question_process_comment($question, &$state, &$attempt, $comment, $grade) {

    // Update the comment and save it in the database
    $state->comment = $comment;
    if (!set_field('question_sessions', 'comment', $comment, 'attemptid', $attempt->uniqueid, 'questionid', $question->id)) {
        error("Cannot save comment");
    }
    // If the teacher has changed the grade then update the attempt and the state
    // The modified attempt is stored to the database, the state not yet but the
    // $state->changed flag is set
    if (abs($state->last_graded->grade - $grade) > 0.002) {
        // the teacher has changed the grade
        $attempt->sumgrades = $attempt->sumgrades - $state->last_graded->grade + $grade;
        $attempt->timemodified = time();
        if (!update_record('quiz_attempts', $attempt)) {
            error('Failed to save the current quiz attempt!');
        }

        $state->raw_grade = $grade;
        $state->grade = $grade;
        $state->penalty = 0;
        $state->timestamp = time();
        $state->seq_number++;
        // We need to indicate that the state has changed in order for it to be saved
        $state->changed = 1;
        // We want to update existing state (rather than creating new one) if it
        // was itself created by a manual grading event
        $state->update = ($state->event == QUESTION_EVENTMANUALGRADE) ? 1 : 0;
        $state->event = QUESTION_EVENTMANUALGRADE;

        // Update the last graded state (don't simplify!)
        unset($state->last_graded);
        $state->last_graded = clone($state);
        unset($state->last_graded->changed);
    }

}

/**
* Construct name prefixes for question form element names
*
* Construct the name prefix that should be used for example in the
* names of form elements created by questions.
* This is called by {@link get_question_options()}
* to set $question->name_prefix.
* This name prefix includes the question id which can be
* extracted from it with {@link question_get_id_from_name_prefix()}.
*
* @return string
* @param integer $id The question id
*/
function question_make_name_prefix($id) {
    return 'resp' . $id . '_';
}

/**
* Extract question id from the prefix of form element names
*
* @return integer The question id
* @param string $name The name that contains a prefix that was
* constructed with {@link question_make_name_prefix()}
*/
function question_get_id_from_name_prefix($name) {
    if (!preg_match('/^resp([0-9]+)_/', $name, $matches))
        return false;
    return (integer) $matches[1];
}

/**
* Returns the unique id for a new attempt
*
* Every module can keep their own attempts table with their own sequential ids but
* the question code needs to also have a unique id by which to identify all these
* attempts. Hence a module, when creating a new attempt, calls this function and
* stores the return value in the 'uniqueid' field of its attempts table.
*/
function question_new_attempt_uniqueid($modulename='quiz') {
    global $CFG;
    $attempt = new stdClass;
    $attempt->modulename = $modulename;
    if (!$id = insert_record('question_attempts', $attempt)) {
        error('Could not create new entry in question_attempts table');
    }

    // The following is really not needed any more and will be removed in 1.7
    set_config('attemptuniqueid', $id);

    return $id;
}

/**
* Creates a stamp that uniquely identifies this version of the question
*
* In future we want this to use a hash of the question data to guarantee that
* identical versions have the same version stamp.
*
* @param object $question
* @return string A unique version stamp
*/
function question_hash($question) {
    return make_unique_id_code();
}


/// FUNCTIONS THAT SIMPLY WRAP QUESTIONTYPE METHODS //////////////////////////////////

 /**
* Prints a question
*
* Simply calls the question type specific print_question() method.
* @param object $question The question to be rendered.
* @param object $state The state to render the question in.
* @param integer $number The number for this question.
* @param object $cmoptions The options specified by the course module
* @param object $options An object specifying the rendering options.
*/
function print_question(&$question, &$state, $number, $cmoptions, $options=null) {
    global $QTYPES;

    $QTYPES[$question->qtype]->print_question($question, $state, $number,
     $cmoptions, $options);
}
/**
* Saves question options
*
* Simply calls the question type specific save_question_options() method.
*/
function save_question_options($question) {
    global $QTYPES;

    $QTYPES[$question->qtype]->save_question_options($question);
}

/**
* Gets all teacher stored answers for a given question
*
* Simply calls the question type specific get_all_responses() method.
*/
// ULPGC ecastro
function get_question_responses($question, $state) {
    global $QTYPES;
    $r = $QTYPES[$question->qtype]->get_all_responses($question, $state);
    return $r;
}


/**
* Gets the response given by the user in a particular state
*
* Simply calls the question type specific get_actual_response() method.
*/
// ULPGC ecastro
function get_question_actual_response($question, $state) {
    global $QTYPES;

    $r = $QTYPES[$question->qtype]->get_actual_response($question, $state);
    return $r;
}

/**
* TODO: document this
*/
// ULPGc ecastro
function get_question_fraction_grade($question, $state) {
    global $QTYPES;

    $r = $QTYPES[$question->qtype]->get_fractional_grade($question, $state);
    return $r;
}


/// CATEGORY FUNCTIONS /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

/**
* returns the categories with their names ordered following parent-child relationships
* finally it tries to return pending categories (those being orphaned, whose parent is
* incorrect) to avoid missing any category from original array.
*/
function sort_categories_by_tree(&$categories, $id = 0, $level = 1) {
    $children = array();
    $keys = array_keys($categories);

    foreach ($keys as $key) {
        if (!isset($categories[$key]->processed) && $categories[$key]->parent == $id) {
            $children[$key] = $categories[$key];
            $categories[$key]->processed = true;
            $children = $children + sort_categories_by_tree($categories, $children[$key]->id, $level+1);
        }
    }
    //If level = 1, we have finished, try to look for non processed categories (bad parent) and sort them too
    if ($level == 1) {
        foreach ($keys as $key) {
            //If not processed and it's a good candidate to start (because its parent doesn't exist in the course)
            if (!isset($categories[$key]->processed) && !record_exists('question_categories', 'course', $categories[$key]->course, 'id', $categories[$key]->parent)) {
                $children[$key] = $categories[$key];
                $categories[$key]->processed = true;
                $children = $children + sort_categories_by_tree($categories, $children[$key]->id, $level+1);
            }
        }
    }
    return $children;
}

/**
* Private method, only for the use of add_indented_names().
*
* Recursively adds an indentedname field to each category, starting with the category
* with id $id, and dealing with that category and all its children, and
* return a new array, with those categories in the right order.
*
* @param array $categories an array of categories which has had childids
* fields added by flatten_category_tree(). Passed by reference for
* performance only. It is not modfied.
* @param int $id the category to start the indenting process from.
* @param int $depth the indent depth. Used in recursive calls.
* @return array a new array of categories, in the right order for the tree.
*/
function flatten_category_tree(&$categories, $id, $depth = 0) {
    
    // Indent the name of this category.
    $newcategories = array();
    $newcategories[$id] = $categories[$id];
    $newcategories[$id]->indentedname = str_repeat('&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;', $depth) . $categories[$id]->name;
    
    // Recursively indent the children.
    foreach ($categories[$id]->childids as $childid) {
        $newcategories = $newcategories + flatten_category_tree($categories, $childid, $depth + 1);
    }
    
    // Remove the childids array that were temporarily added.
    unset($newcategories[$id]->childids);
    
    return $newcategories;
}

/**
* Format categories into an indented list reflecting the tree structure.
*
* @param array $categories An array of category objects, for example from the.
* @return array The formatted list of categories.
*/
function add_indented_names($categories) {

    // Add an array to each category to hold the child category ids. This array will be removed
    // again by flatten_category_tree(). It should not be used outside these two functions.
    foreach (array_keys($categories) as $id) {
        $categories[$id]->childids = array();
    }

    // Build the tree structure, and record which categories are top-level.
    // We have to be careful, because the categories array may include published
    // categories from other courses, but not their parents.
    $toplevelcategoryids = array();
    foreach (array_keys($categories) as $id) {
        if (!empty($categories[$id]->parent) && array_key_exists($categories[$id]->parent, $categories)) {
            $categories[$categories[$id]->parent]->childids[] = $id;
        } else {
            $toplevelcategoryids[] = $id;
        }
    }

    // Flatten the tree to and add the indents.
    $newcategories = array();
    foreach ($toplevelcategoryids as $id) {
        $newcategories = $newcategories + flatten_category_tree($categories, $id);
    }

    return $newcategories;
}

/**
* Output a select menu of question categories.
*
* Categories from this course and (optionally) published categories from other courses
* are included. Optionally, only categories the current user may edit can be included.
*
* @param integer $courseid the id of the course to get the categories for.
* @param integer $published if true, include publised categories from other courses.
* @param integer $only_editable if true, exclude categories this user is not allowed to edit.
* @param integer $selected optionally, the id of a category to be selected by default in the dropdown.
*/
function question_category_select_menu($courseid, $published = false, $only_editable = false, $selected = "") {
    global $CFG;
    
    // get sql fragment for published
    $publishsql="";
    if ($published) {
        $publishsql = " OR publish = 1";
    }

    $categories = get_records_sql("
SELECT cat.*, c.shortname AS coursename
FROM {$CFG->prefix}question_categories cat, {$CFG->prefix}course c
WHERE c.id = cat.course AND (cat.course = $courseid $publishsql)
ORDER BY parent, sortorder, name ASC");

    $categories = add_indented_names($categories);

    echo "<select name=\"category\">\n";
    foreach ($categories as $category) {
        $cid = $category->id;
        $cname = question_category_coursename($category, $courseid);
        $seltxt = "";
        if ($cid==$selected) {
            $seltxt = "selected=\"selected\"";
        }
        if ((!$only_editable) || isteacheredit($category->course)) {
            echo " <option value=\"$cid\" $seltxt>$cname</option>\n";
}
}
echo "</select>\n";
}

/**
* If the category is not from this course, and it is a published category,
* then return the course category name with the course shortname appended in
* brackets. Otherwise, just return the category name.
*/
function question_category_coursename($category, $courseid = 0) {
$cname = (isset($category->indentedname)) ? $category->indentedname : $category->name;
if ($category->course != $courseid && $category->publish) {
if (!empty($category->coursename)) {
$coursename = $category->coursename;
} else {
$coursename = get_field('course', 'shortname', 'id', $category->course);
}
$cname .= " ($coursename)";
}
return $cname;
}

/**
* Returns a comma separated list of ids of the category and all subcategories
*/
function question_categorylist($categoryid) {
// returns a comma separated list of ids of the category and all subcategories
$categorylist = $categoryid;
if ($subcategories = get_records('question_categories', 'parent', $categoryid, 'sortorder ASC', 'id, id')) {
foreach ($subcategories as $subcategory) {
$categorylist .= ','. question_categorylist($subcategory->id);
}
}
return $categorylist;
}


//===========================
// Import/Export Functions
//===========================

/**
* Get list of available import or export formats
* @param string $type 'import' if import list, otherwise export list assumed
* @return array sorted list of import/export formats available
**/
function get_import_export_formats( $type ) {

global $CFG;
$fileformats = get_list_of_plugins("question/format");

$fileformatname=array();
require_once( "{$CFG->dirroot}/question/format.php" );
foreach ($fileformats as $key => $fileformat) {
$format_file = $CFG->dirroot . "/question/format/$fileformat/format.php";
if (file_exists( $format_file ) ) {
require_once( $format_file );
}
else {
continue;
}
$classname = "qformat_$fileformat";
$format_class = new $classname();
if ($type=='import') {
$provided = $format_class->provide_import();
}
else {
$provided = $format_class->provide_export();
}
if ($provided) {
$formatname = get_string($fileformat, 'quiz');
if ($formatname == "[[$fileformat]]") {
$formatname = $fileformat; // Just use the raw folder name
}
$fileformatnames[$fileformat] = $formatname;
}
}
natcasesort($fileformatnames);

return $fileformatnames;
}


/**
* Create default export filename
*
* @return string default export filename
* @param object $course
* @param object $category
*/
function default_export_filename($course,$category) {
//Take off some characters in the filename !!
$takeoff = array(" ", ":", "/", "\\", "|");
$export_word = str_replace($takeoff,"_",strtolower(get_string("exportfilename","quiz")));
//If non-translated, use "export"
if (substr($export_word,0,1) == "[") {
$export_word= "export";
}

//Calculate the date format string
$export_date_format = str_replace(" ","_",get_string("exportnameformat","quiz"));
//If non-translated, use "%Y%m%d-%H%M"
if (substr($export_date_format,0,1) == "[") {
$export_date_format = "%%Y%%m%%d-%%H%%M";
}

//Calculate the shortname
$export_shortname = clean_filename($course->shortname);
if (empty($export_shortname) or $export_shortname == '_' ) {
$export_shortname = $course->id;
}

//Calculate the category name
$export_categoryname = clean_filename($category->name);

//Calculate the final export filename
//The export word
$export_name = $export_word."-";
//The shortname
$export_name .= strtolower($export_shortname)."-";
//The category name
$export_name .= strtolower($export_categoryname)."-";
//The date format
$export_name .= userdate(time(),$export_date_format,99,false);
//The extension - no extension, supplied by format
// $export_name .= ".txt";

return $export_name;
}

?>
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