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language strings and help files moved here from mod/quiz/lang/en

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gustav_delius
gustav_delius committed May 17, 2005
1 parent fd0fc54 commit 107c0c8406a81366524e190efe9e9d9e40d82998
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<p align="center"><b>Adaptive mode</b></p>

<p>If you choose Yes for this option then the student will be allowed multiple responses to a question even within the same attempt at the quiz. So for example if the student's response is marked as incorrect the student will be allowed to try again immediately. However a penalty will usually be subtracted from the students score for each wrong attempt (the amount of penalty is determined by the penalty factor, set by the next option).</p>

<p>This mode also allows adaptive questions that can change themselves in response to a student's answer. Here is how the IMS QTI specification defines adaptive questions (items):</p>

<blockquote>
An adaptive item is an item that adapts either its appearance, its scoring (Response Processing) or both in response to each of the candidate's attempts. For example, an adaptive item may start by prompting the candidate with a box for free-text entry but, on receiving an unsatisfactory answer, present a simple choice interaction instead and award fewer marks for subsequently identifying the correct response. Adaptivity allows authors to create items for use in formative situations which both help to guide candidates through a given task while also providing an outcome that takes into consideration their path
</blockquote>

<p>In adaptive mode an additional <?php print_string('mark', 'quiz') ?> button is shown for each question.
If the student presses this button then the response to that particular question is submitted to be scored and the mark achieved
is displayed to the student. If the question is an adaptive question then it is displayed in its new state that takes the
student's answer into account and will in many cases ask the student for another input. In the simplest adaptive questions
this new state may differ only in the feedback text and prompt the student to try again; in more
complicated question also the question text and even the interaction elements can change.
</p>
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<p align="center"><b>Analysis Options</b></p>

<p>The range of quiz attempts that are procesed and analyzed can be selected.
There are two parameters to specify which attempts are used: </p>

<p><b>Attempt selection:</b></p>
It may be convenient to analyze just one quiz attempt for each user.
This particular attempt may be the one with the highest overall score,
the first attempt or the last attempt of those performed. Or all attempts data may
be collected for a cummulative analysis.</p>

<p><b>Rejection of low scores:</b></p>
<p>Sometimes the users are just browsing the quiz, exploring it,
and not going through it for a grade. It is common that such 'trial' attempts
get very low scores. These byassing data can be excluden from analysis by
setting a low limit for the score of the attempts to analyze. This limit is
specified as a percentage (0-100) of the maximum grade achievable in the quiz.</p>
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<p align="center"><b>Item Anaysis</b></p>

<p>This table presents processed quiz data in a way suitable for anayzing and judging the
performance of each question for the function of assessment. The statistical parameters used are
calculated as explained by classical test theory (ref. 1)</p>

<p><b>Facility Index (% Correct)</b></p>
<p>This is a measure of how easy or difficult is a question for quiz-takers.
It is calculated as:
<br>
FI = (X<sub>average</sub>) / X<sub>max</sub>
<br>

where X<sub>average</sub> is the mean credit obtained by all users attempting the item, <br>
and X<sub>max</sub> is the maximum credit achievable for that item.<br>
If questions can be distributed dicotomically into correct / uncorrect categories,
this parameter coincides with the percentage of users that answer the question correctly. </p>

</p>
<p><b>Standard Deviation (SD)</b></p>
<p>This parameter measures the spread of answers in the response population. If all users
answers the same, then SD=0. SD is calculated as the statistical stadard deviation for the
sample of fractional scores (achieved/maximum) at each particular question.
</p>

<p><b>Discrimination Index (DI)</b></p>
<p>This provides a rough indicator of the performance of each item to separate proficient
<i>vs.</i> less-proficient users. This parameter is calculated by first dividing learners into thirds
based on the overall score in the quiz. Then the average score at the analyzed item is calculated for
the groups of top and bottom performers, and the average scored substracted. The matematical expression is:
<br/>
DI = (X<sub>top</sub> - X<sub>bottom</sub>)/ N
<br/>

where X<sub>top</sub> is the sum of the fractional credit (achieved/maximum) obtained at this item by the 1/3 of users having tha highest
grades in the whole quiz (i.e. number of correct responses in this group), <br/>
and X<sub>bottom</sub>) is the analog sum for users with the lower 1/3 grades for the whole quiz.</p>

<p>This parameter can take values between +1 and -1.
If the index goes below 0.0 it means that more of the weaker learners got the item right than the stronger learners.
Such items should be discarded as worthless. In fact, they reduce the accuracy of the overall score for the quiz. </p>

<p><b>Discrimination Coefficient (DC)</b></p>
<p>This is another measure of the separating power of the item to distinguish proficient from weak learners.<br/>
The discrimination coefficient is a correlation coefficient between scores at the item and at the whole quiz. Here it is calculated as:

<br/>
DC = Sum(xy)/ (N * s<sub>x</sub> * s<sub>y</sub>)
<br/>
where Sun(xy) is the sum of the products of deviations for item scores and overall quiz scores, <br>
N is the number of responses given to this question<br/>
s<sub>x</sub> is the standard deviation of fractional scores for this question and, <br/>
s<sub>y</sub> is the standard deviation of scores at the quiz as a whole.
</p>
<p>Again, this parameter can take values between +1 and -1. Positive values indicate items that
do discriminate proficient learners, whereas negative indices mark items that are answered best by
those with lowest grades. Items with negative DC are answered incorrectly by the seasoned learners
and thus they are actually a penalty against the most proficient learners. Those items should be avoided.<br/>
The advantage of Discrimination Coefficient vs. Discrimitation Index is that the former uses information
from the whole population of learners, not just the extreme upper and lower thirds. Thus, this parameter may be
more sensitive to detect item performance.</p>
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<p align="center"><b>Penalty factor</b></p>

<p>You can specify what fraction of the achieved score should be subtracted for each wrong response. This is only relevant if the quiz is run in adaptive mode so that the student is allowed to make repeated responses to the question. The penalty factor should be a number between 0 and 1. A penalty factor of 1 means that the student has to get the answer right in his first response to get any credit for it at all. A penalty factor of 0 means the student can try as often as he likes and still get the full marks.</p>
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<p align="center"><b>Apply penalty</b></p>

<p>If a quiz is run in adaptive mode then a student is allowed to try again after a wrong response. In this case you may want to impose a penalty for each wrong response to be subtracted from the final mark for the question. The amount of penalty is chosen individually for each question when setting up or editing the question.</p>

<p>This setting has no effect unless the quiz is run in adaptive mode.</p>
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<p align="center"><b>Questions per page</b></p>

<p>For longer quizzes it makes sense to stretch the quiz over several pages by limiting the number of questions per page. When adding questions to the quiz page breaks will automatically be inserted according to the setting you choose here. However you will also be able to move page breaks around by hand later on the editing page.
</p>
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<p align="center"><b>Remote Questions (RQP)</b></p>


<p>The Remote Question Protocol may be used to include questions in a quiz with all processing occurring on a remote server. Questions may be included in any format for which a server is available without any change to Moodle.</p>

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