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Added workshop help files.

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1 parent f001154 commit 5d224d17b637059d72c57dfe732721dac6dbbab8 coolbit committed May 28, 2003
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>¼ÓÒ»¸öÆÀÂÛ</B></P>
+
+<P>Comments can be added to an assessment to:
+
+<OL>
+<LI>Add additional explaination or clarification to the assessment (by
+ the student who assessed the piece of work);
+<LI>Query the statements made in the assessment (by the student whose
+ piece of work is being assessed;
+<LI>Try to resolve difficulties which may have arisen during the discussion
+ on the assessment (by the teacher);
+</OL>
+<P>The aim of the comments is to try either reach agreement on the
+ current assessment or persuade the assessor to revise their assessment.
+ This discussion should be undertaken in a reasonable way.
+
+<P>If the work is reassessed then the old comments are discarded and
+ are no longer shown with the new assessment.
+
+</P>
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Agreement of Assessments</B></P>
+
+<P>A workshop assignment can have either of these characteristics:
+
+<OL>
+<LI>In the submission and assessment phase when the students see the
+ assessments made by other students there is no feedback
+ from the students who submitted the work to the students who made
+ the assessment. There may be feedback from the teacher if the teacher
+ choses to grade the student assessments and then the teacher's grades and
+ comments will be available to both the student whose work it is and
+ to the student who made the assessment. There will be, however,
+ be only one way feedback between peers on any one piece of work.
+
+<LI>In the submission and assessment phase the students see the
+ assessments made by other students and they are allowed to comment
+ on these assessments. They may agree or disagree with the (peer) assessment.
+ If they agree with the assessment then the assessment stands and is
+ used in the final calculations when determining the peer grade given to
+ the particular piece of work. If, however, they do not agree with an
+ assessment the student who made the assessment is given an
+ opportunity to revise it. The revise/disagree loop can continue until
+ either agreement is reached or the deadline is reached. An assessment
+ which is still in &quot;dispute&quot; when the deadline is reached
+ is not used in the final calculations. This gives two way feedback
+ between peers on each piece of work.
+</OL>
+<P>If the second method of working is chosen there is the option of switching off the display
+ of grades. That is, if this &quot;hide grades&quot; option is exercised, only the comments
+ in the assessment are shown to the student who work is being assessed.
+ The grades are shown only after agreement has been reached (on the
+ comments alone). Note that this option only effective when agreement on
+ assessments is required.
+
+</P>
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Anonymous Grading</B></P>
+
+<P>A peer graded assignment can be graded anonymously. In this
+ case the names (and any photos) of the students doing the grading
+ are not shown. Only the (file) names of the submissions are used to identify
+ the peices of work being graded.
+
+<P>When the peer graded assignment is not graded anonymously, the
+ pieces of work are shown with the names (and any photos) of the
+ students who submitted the work. This may lead to bias in the gradings.
+
+<P>Note that if the teacher's grades are shown to the students these are
+ never shown anonymously.
+</P>
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Peer Graded Assignment Type</B></P>
+
+<P>A peer graded assignment can have one of two types:
+
+<OL>
+<LI>Only feedback on the assessment elements and the general comment
+ is entered. The grading of assessment elements is not seen in the
+ grading pages. Assignments themselves are not given an overall grade.
+ However, the grading performance of the students is measured and
+ this, and only this measure contributes towards the final grades given
+ to the students.
+
+<LI>Here the teacher and peers are asked to provide both feedback and
+ grades. The assignments are given an overall quantative grade as well
+ as the qualative data. The final grade for a student will be calculated
+ from the (weighted) contributions of the teacher's grade, the mean
+ peers' grade and the student's grading performance.
+
+</OL>
+
+</P>
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>The Breakdown of the Final Grade</B></P>
+
+<P>The table on this screen shows your final grade and how it was calculated.
+ The final grade is made up from three possible components.
+
+<OL>
+<LI>The teacher's grade for your submitted work.
+<LI>The average of the peer grades for your submitted work.
+<LI>A grade for your performance in the peer grading phase. This
+ performance was based by (a) whether your grades were too high or too low
+ when compared with the average grade of the other students (this is called bias),
+ (b) whether your grades follow, again on average, the grades given by
+ the other students (this is called reliability)
+ and (c) on the quality of your comments on the other pieces of work you graded.
+ This was graded by the teacher. These three performance grades were weighted
+ by the factors 1:2:3 respectively to give an overall &quot;grading&quot;
+ grade. In other words the teacher's grading of the comments is given the
+ same weight as the Bias and Reliability factors combined.
+</OL>
+
+<P>These three components can be weighted as deemed appropriate for the
+ assignment. These weights are shown in the smaller table.
+</P>
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>The Calculation of the Final Grade</B></P>
+
+<P>The table on this screen shows how the the final grades for the students
+ are calculated. The final grades are a weighted sum of up to five components.
+
+<OL>
+<LI>The teacher's grade for their submitted work. This is optional and will be
+ used if the teacher actually assesses the student's work. If the student submits
+ more than one peice of work the &quot;best&quot; grade is used. Here, best
+ means the piece of work with the highest weighted combination of teacher's
+ grade and peer grade...
+<LI>The average of the peer grades for their submitted work. Again if the student
+ submits more than one peice of work the &quot;best&quot; grade is used. The
+ peer grade can optionally
+ include the teacher's grade. This grade would be included if the number of
+ peer gradings is very low or it is thought that the peer gradings are suspect
+ either because of bias (usually on the high side) or for not being reliable.
+ If included the teacher's grade is treated in the same way as a peer grade in
+ the calculation of the average.
+<LI>The student's bias in grading peer work. This is measure of whether the
+ student grades work either too high or too low. It is not an absolute measure
+ as it is based on the difference between the student's grade and the peer
+ averages for each of the submissions they assessed. In general this component
+ should NOT be given a high weighting.
+<LI>The student's reliability in grading peer work. This is a measure on how well
+ a students grades follow the peer average for the peices of work they
+ assessed. The measure discounts the student bias and averages the absolute
+ differences between their grades and the peer average grades. In theory if
+ the students gives high marks for good peices of work and low marks for poor
+ pieces of work their reliability will be high. If it is suspected that the students in
+ general are poor assessors then the teacher's grades should be included into
+ the ppeer averages, this should make the reliability values more meaningful.
+<LI>The average grade given by the teacher for the student's assessments.
+ This includes both the preliminary assessments made by the student on the
+ example pieces of work and any grading the teacher makes on the asessments
+ produced during the peer assessement phase of the assignment. In general this
+ component is probably more important than both the Bias and Reliability
+ components and thus, if available, should be weighted higher.
+</OL>
+
+<P>These five components can be weighted as deemed appropriate for the
+ assignment. For example the teacher's grade might be weighted strongly
+ if the peer grading part of the assignment is only considered a minor part
+ of the assignment as a whole. Alternatively, if the teacher only grades a few
+ of the submissions these grades can be ignored by giving them a zero weighting.
+ If the assignment is all about the students as judges and the providing of feedback
+ then first two components may be set to zero (or low) and the students'
+ grading abilities will determine the final grades.
+
+<P>Note that this screen is used iteratively and the final grades are not normally
+ made available to the students until the final phase of the assignment. Once the
+ the teacher is happy with the final grades and their weightings then they can
+ be made available to the students.
+</P>
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Editing a Comment</B></P>
+
+<P>As with other items there is a short period of time allowed when
+ the text of comments can be amended. The comment is not shown
+ on the assessment until this period has elapsed.
+</P>
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Assignment Elements</B></P>
+
+<P>For ease of grading, a Workshop Assignment should have a reasonable
+ number of &quot;Assessment Elements&quot;. Each element should cover
+ a particular aspect of the assignment. Typically an assignment will have
+ something between 5 to 15 elements for comments and grading, the
+ actual number depending on the size and complexity of the assignment. A peer
+ assignment with only one element is allowed and has a similar assessment
+ strategy to the standard Moodle Assignment.
+
+<P>The type of elements dependent of the assignment's grading strategy.
+
+<P><B>Not Graded.</B> The elements are descriptions of aspects of the assignment.
+ The assessor is asked to comment on each of these aspects. As with all the grading
+ strategies, there is also an area for general comments.
+
+
+<P><B>Accumulative Grading.</B> The elements have the following three features:
+<OL>
+<LI>The DESCRIPTION of the assessment element. This should clearly state what
+ aspect of the assignment is being assessed. If the assessment is qualatative
+ it is helpful to give details of what is considered excellent, average
+ and poor.
+
+<LI>The SCALE of the assessment element. There are a number of prefined
+ scales. These range from simple Yes/No scales, through multipoint scales to
+ a full percentage scale. Each element has its own scale which should be choosen
+ to fit the number of possible variations for that element. Note that the scale
+ does NOT determine the element's importance when calculating the overall
+ grade, a two point scale has the same &quot;influence&quot; as a 100 point
+ scale if the respective elements have the same weight...
+
+<LI>The WEIGHT of the assessment element. By default the elements are given the same
+ importance when calculating the overall grade of the assignment. This can be
+ changed by giving the more importance elements a weight greater than one, and
+ the less important elements a weight below one. Changing the weights does NOT
+ effect the maximum grade, that value is fixed by the Maximum Grade parameter
+ of the peer assignment. Weights can be assigned negative values, this is an
+ experimental feature.
+</OL>
+<P><B>Error Banded Grading.</B> The elements will normally describe certain items
+ or aspects which must be present in the assignment. The assessment is made on the
+ present or absence of these items or aspects. The teacher must all set of grade table which
+ give the suggested grades when all the items are present, when one is absent, when two are
+ absent, etc. If certain items are more important than others then those items can be given
+ a weighting greater than one. Minor items can be given a weighting less than one. The
+ overall &quot;error count&quot; is a weighted sum of the missing items. The assessor
+ can always make a minor adjustment to these suggested grades.
+
+<P><B>Criteria Grading.</B> The elements will give a set of &quot;level&quot; statements
+which can be used to rank the assignment. The statements may be cumulative or they may
+each be self contained. The assessor must decide which statement best fits each piece of
+work. The teacher must also relate each criterion statement with a suggested grade. These
+should normally be in order. The assessor can make a minor adjustment to these
+suggested grades.
+</P>
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>The Final Grades</B></P>
+
+<P>The table on this screen lists the final grades and their breakdown as shown to
+ the students. If there are missing values in the table then it is possible to &quot;go back&quot;
+ and add these. In fact, there are two adjustments which can be made to the Final Grades.
+
+<OL>
+<LI>If a teacher's grade needs to be added then the piece of work can be
+ graded by going
+ to the teacher's Management screen for assignment and clicking on the link &quot;Student
+ Submissions for Assessment&quot;. Any otherstanding submissions can be graded. Once this has
+ been done then move the assignment back to Phase 3 and re-calculate the Final grades. In a
+ similar way any assessments which have not been graded can be graded from the Management
+ screen.
+<LI>If it is desired to use a different weighting scheme then the assignment should be moved
+ back to Phase 3 and link &quot;Calculate Final Grades&quot; can be clicked and the new
+ weights entered. After the grades have been re-calcualted the assignment should be moved
+ to Phase 4 to make the new grades available.
+</OL>
+
+</P>
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>A Graded Peer Assignment</B></P>
+
+<P>This shows the grades and comments made on the submitted piece of
+ work. You can if you wish reply to this assessment and choose not to
+ accept it (at this stage). If that is the case, please enter your reply in the
+ box at the foot of the page giving the reason why you are not happy with
+ the assessment. Then click on the button at the foot of the page and
+ choose NO when asked whether you are happy with this assessment.
+
+<P>If, on the other hand. you are happy with the assessment simply
+ click on the button at the foot of the page and then click on YES when
+ asked whether you are happy with this assessment.
+
+</P>
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Grading of Peer Assignments</B></P>
+
+<P>For ease of grading a Peer Assignment is divided into a number of
+ assessment &quot;elements&quot;. Each element covers
+ a particular aspect of the assignment. Depending on the type of assessment,
+ for each element you should
+<OL>
+<LI>Enter a Grade by clicking in the appropriate button or selecting an appropriate
+ number from the drop down menu.
+
+<LI>Enter an explaination of why you gave that grade in the Feedback box. If
+ you feel that the reason is obvious then leave the box empty. Note, however,
+ that the teacher may look at your assessment and may well query a grade
+ if there is no explaination.
+</OL>
+
+<P>In other type of asessments, you are asked to determine if various items
+ are present or absent, in others you are asked to choose which statement best
+ fits the peice of work. In both of these assignments you can adjust the grade
+ somewhat as you see fit.
+
+<P>The last box on this form allows you to make a general comment on the
+ work. This should justify your assessment. It should be polite and as far as
+ possible constructive. Your assessment will be shown to the student who
+ produced the piece of work.
+
+<P>You have a limited period of time, typically half an hour, in which to
+ change your mind and alter your grades or comments. Once that period
+ is over the person whose work you are assessing is notified about the assessment.
+ At that stage you can view your assessment but you cannot change it.
+
+</P>
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+<P ALIGN=CENTER><B>Grading the Student Assessments</B></P>
+
+<P>This screen is used to enter the teacher's grade for the assessment made
+ by the student during the submission and assessment phase of the assignment. A relatively
+ simple grading is used, the score out of 20. The treacher can decide what is
+ being graded and the relative scores from the instructions given to the students
+ before the assignment started. For example, at a higher level the students may be
+ required to give critical comments, at an intermediate level the students may be
+ required to point out strengths and weaknesses, and at a lower level the students
+ may be simply pointing out errors and inaccuracies.
+
+<P>If available the Teacher's own assessment is shown before that of the
+ student so an easy comparison can be made. The teacher's own
+ comments can act as a kind of benchmark.
+
+<P>The grades of assessment is
+ saved by clicking on the apprpriate button at the foot of the page. There is a
+ chance to repeat the grading within the &quot;editing&quot; period. Once that
+ time has elapsed the grade is made available to the student.
+</P>
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